# MATH 205B NOTES 2010 COMMUTATIVE ALGEBRA 53

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1 MATH 205B NOTES 2010 COMMUTATIVE ALGEBRA Completion The real numbers are the completion of the rational numbers with respect to the usual absolute value norm. This means that any Cauchy sequence of rational numbers converses to a real number. These are sequences (a n ) so that a n a m 0 as min(n, m). More precisely: Given any open neighborhood U of 0 in R, there is an integer N so that a n a m U for all n, m N. In commutative algebra we are interested in completion with respect to valuations and ideals. Two main examples are (1) K[[x]] the ring of formal power series in x a i x i = a 0 + a 1 x + a 2 x 2 + i=0 with coefficients a i K (2) Z p the ring of p-adic integers. a i p i = a 0 + a 1 p + a 2 p 2 + i=0 with a i {0, 1, 2,,p 1} The first example is the completion of K[x] since each element of K[[x]] is a limit of a sequence of elements of K[x]. Similarly p-adic numbers are limits of integers. So Z p is a completion of Z. Both of these are examples of a-adic completions a-adic topology. Definition A topological additive group is a group G with a topology so that addition and negation are continuous mappings (a, b) a + b : a a : G G G G G This is equivalent to the condition that subtraction (a, b) a b : G G G is continuous. A subset V of G is open if and only, for all a U there is an open neighborhood U of 0 so that a + U V. Therefore, the topology on

2 54 MATH 205B NOTES 2010 COMMUTATIVE ALGEBRA G is uniquely determined by the open neighborhoods of 0. In fact we only to specify the basic open neighborhoods of 0. Recall that a basis for a topology on a set X consists of a collections of subsets called basic open sets which have the property that (1) Every point x X lies in at least one basic open set. These are called the basic open neighborhoods of x. [The basic open sets cover X.] (2) For any two basic open neighborhoods U, V of x there is a third basic open neighborhood W so that x W U V. [Equivalently, U V is a union of basic open sets.] We will take the basic open neighborhoods of 0 in G to be given by a descending sequence of subgroups H 1 H 2 H 3 Then the basic neighborhoods of any g G are given by g +H n.every open subgroup H n is also a closed set in G. Why is that? Also, G is Hausdorff if and only if H n =0 n (Hausdorff means distinct elements of G lie in disjoint open sets.) Definition If a is an ideal in a ring A then the a-adic topology on A is the topology given by the ideals a n. Thus the basic open neighborhoods of x A are x + a n. For any ideal a, the a-adic topology makes A into a topological ring. We usually assume that a n =0 so that A is a Hausdorff topological ring. There are two ways to define A, the a-adic completion of A. One is to let A be the ring of all equivalence classes of Cauchy sequences of elements of A. The other more convenient way is to take an inverse limit: A := lim A/a n inverse limit. We consider only linear inverse systems. These are sequences of groups and group homomorphisms θn+1 G n θ n Gn 1 θ n 1 θ 2 G2 G1 For example, a descending sequence of subgroups H n of G gives such a sequence with G n = G/H n. This linear system is called surjective if every homomorphism is surjective.

3 MATH 205B NOTES 2010 COMMUTATIVE ALGEBRA 55 Definition The (inverse) limit lim G n of a linear system of groups G n is the subgroup of the direct product G n consisting of sequences (g 1,g 2, ) with g n G n so that θ n (g n )=g n 1 for all n 2. Let p n : lim G n G n be the projection to the n-th coordinate. Then θ n p n = p n 1 and lim G n is clearly universal with this property: Proposition 10.4 (universal property of inverse limit). The inverse limit satisfies the following universal property. Given any group H and homomorphisms f n : H G n so that θ n f n = f n 1, there is a unique homomorphism f : H lim G n so that p n f = f n for all n. Proposition 10.5 (left exactness of inverse limit). Suppose that (G n,θ n ) is a linear system of additive groups and H n is a subgroup of G n for each n so that θ n (H n ) H n 1. Then (G n /H n ) is also a linear system of groups and we get the following exact sequence. 0 lim H n lim G n lim G n /H n Proof. Inverse limit is left exact since it is a right adjoint functor. Given any group H, let C(H) be the constant system: H H H H where all maps are the identity. Then the universal property of inverse limit can be rephrased as: Hom D (C(H), (G n )) = Hom(H, lim G n ) where D is the category of linear diagrams (G n ) and compatible families of maps H n G n. However, in our special case: a-adic completion M = lim M/a n M is an exact functor because of two theorems. The first is the vanishing of lim 1 for surjective systems. The second is the Artin-Rees Lemma. The theorem is the following. Theorem Completion at any ideal is an exact functor under certain finiteness conditions. In other words, an exact sequence 0 M M M 0 induces an exact sequence if certain conditions are satisfied. 0 M M M 0

4 56 MATH 205B NOTES 2010 COMMUTATIVE ALGEBRA Definition Given a linear system (A n,θ n ), let A = A n and let d A : A A be the homomorphism given by d A (a n )=(a n θ n+1 (a n+1 )) So, lim A n =kerd A. Define lim 1 A n to be the cokernel of d A. Lemma If (A n ) is a surjective system then lim 1 A n =0. Theorem Given a short exact sequence of linear systems 0 (A n ) (B n ) (C n ) 0, we get a 6-term exact sequence 0 lim A n lim B n lim C n lim 1 A n lim 1 B n lim 1 C n 0 In particular, if (A n ) is a surjective system, we get a short exact sequence 0 lim A n lim B n lim C n 0 Proof. This follows from the snake lemma applied to the following diagram 0 A B C 0 d A d B d C 0 A B C examples. Return to the two main examples K[[x]] and Z p to show these are a-adic completions. Use this to find an example of an inverse system with nontrivial lim 1 : 0 Z p n+1 Z Z/p n+1 Z 0 p = 0 Z pn Z Z/p n Z 0 This gives the short exact sequence 0 Z Z p lim 1 ( p Z p ) 0 where lim 1 Z is lim 1 of the sequence of groups: p Z p Z p Z p Z

5 MATH 205B NOTES 2010 COMMUTATIVE ALGEBRA Artin-Rees. Given an A-module M and an ideal a in A, recall that the a-adic completion of M is defined to be the completion of M with respect to the submodules a n M: M := lim M/a n M The two main theorems about completion assume that A is Noetherian. Theorem If A is Noetherian, completion at any ideal is an exact functor on finitely generated A-modules. In other words, an exact sequence 0 M M M 0 induces an exact sequence 0 M M M 0 if M,M,M are finitely generated A-modules. Theorem If A is Noetherian and M is a finitely generated A-module then M = A A M. Corollary If A is Noetherian then A is a flat extension of A. It might seem that we have already shown the first theorem since we know that completion with respect to descending sequences of submodules is exact since the lim 1 terms are all zero. The only thing we need to show is that the induced sequences of submodules is eventually exact. This is the Artin-Rees Lemma graded rings and modules. Given any system of ideals in a ring or (more generally) submodules M n M, we can form two graded rings and modules. Definition A graded ring is a ring A expressed as a direct sum A = A 0 A 1 A 2 so that A n A m A n+m In particular, A 0 is a ring and each A n is a module over A 0.Agraded module over a graded ring is a module M together with a direct sum decomposition M = M 0 M 1 M 2 so that A n M m M n+m One example is given by the following definition. Definition Given by an A-module M, a descending sequence of submodules: M = M 0 M 1 M 2

6 58 MATH 205B NOTES 2010 COMMUTATIVE ALGEBRA is called an a-filtration of M if a n M m M n+m for all n 1,m 0. Clearly, this condition holds for all n 1 iff it holds for n = 1. We say that the filtration is stable if equality holds in this condition for all sufficiently large m and all n 1. Definition Given an ideal a A and an a-filtration of an A-module M, let A,M be given by A := A a a 2 M := M 0 M 1 M 2 The associated graded ring Gr(A) and associated graded module Gr(M) are defined by Gr(A) =A/a a/a 2 a 2 /a 3 Gr(M) =M 0 /M 1 M 1 /M 2 Exercise Take A = Z and a =(p). Show that Z = Z[x] and Gr(Z) = Z/(p)[x] as rings. Show that M is generated by M 0 iff M n = a n M 0 for all n. Lemma If A is Noetherian then so is A = A a a 2. Proof. If x 1,,x n are generators for the ideal a then A is a quotient of the ring A[x 1,,x n ] which is Noetherian by the Hilbert basis theorem and any quotient of a Noetherian ring is Noetherian. Lemma Suppose that A is Noetherian, M is finitely generated and (M n ) is an a-filtration of M. Then (M n ) is stable iff M is a finitely generated A -module. Proof. ( ) Stability after stage n implies that M is generated by M 0 M 1 M n and each M n is f.g being a submodule of the f.g. A-module M. ( ) Conversely, if M is finitely generated with generators in, say, M 0 M 1 M n then M m = a m M 0 + a m 1 M a m n M n = a m n M n = am m 1 for all m>nand (M n ) is stable. Lemma (Artin-Rees). If A is Noetherian and M is finitely generated, then for any submodule N M, the filtration (N a n M) of N is stable. Proof. Let N = N a n M. Then (a n M) stable M f.g. N f.g. (since A is Noetherian) (N a n M) is stable.

7 MATH 205B NOTES 2010 COMMUTATIVE ALGEBRA 59 Proof of Theorem We can write our exact sequence as We have an a-filtration given by: 0 N M M/N 0 0 N a n M a n M N + an M N = a n (M/N) 0 By Artin-Rees the filtration of N is stable and therefore gives the same completion for N as does (a n N). So, by exactness of inverse limit on surjective systems, we get 0 N M M/N equivalent filtrations. There is still one step missing in the proof. Lemma Any two stable a-filtrations of an A-module M give the same topology on M and therefore give isomorphic completions M, Proof. It is easy to see that two systems of basic open neighborhoods U α,v β of 0 in M give the same topology if and only ( α)( β)v β U α and ( β)( α)u α V β. If (M n ) is stable then a n M m = M n+m for all m m 0. So M n+m = a n M m a n M and by definition of an a-filtration we have a n M M n This implies that the sequence of submodules M n gives the a-adic topology on M. If we use the Cauchy sequence definition of completion we see that the two completions of M are the same. The reason is that the set of Cauchy sequences is determined by the topology of M. It remains to show that the two different descriptions of the completion of M are equivalent. (1) M is the module of equivalence classes of Cauchy sequences of elements of M. (2) M is the inverse limit of M/a n M. This is easy: when we take a family of compatible elements of M/a n M and lift them to M we get a Cauchy sequence and conversely. We still need to show Theorem 10.11: M = A A M.

8 60 MATH 205B NOTES 2010 COMMUTATIVE ALGEBRA flatness of A. Since tensor product is right exact, we have the following diagram with exact rows. a n A M α A A M β A/a n A M 0 a n M M M/a n M 0 The map α is onto, the map β is an isomorphism and this implies that γ is also an isomorphism. The sequence of compatible isomorphisms A/a n A M M/a n M induces a sequence of adjoint maps: M Hom(A/a n,m/a n M) which induces a map M Hom( A, M) whose adjoint is a natural map: A A M M Proposition If M is a finitely generated A-module then this adjoint map is an epimorphism. If A is also Noetherian then this map is also an isomorphism. Proof. Let F M be an epimorphism from a f.g. free module F onto M with kernel N. Then we have the following commuting diagram where the top row is exact. A A N α A A F β γ A A M 0 N F M 0 Here β is an isomorphism since completion commutes with finite direct sum. This forces γ to be an epimorphism. If A is Noetherian then the lower sequence is also exact and α is an epimorphism forcing γ to be an isomorphism. Since a-adic completion is an exact functor on f.g. modules over a Noetherian ring, we get the following corollary. Corollary If A is Noetherian then A is a flat A-module. We say that A is a flat extension of A. γ 0 0

9 MATH 205B NOTES 2010 COMMUTATIVE ALGEBRA properties of A. The main theorem of the rest of this section is the following. Theorem A is Noetherian then A is Noetherian. The proof is very convoluted and proves many important properties of completions along the way completeness of A. The first property that we need is the completeness of A which uses the theorem from last time: M = A A M assuming that A is Noetherian and M is finitely generated. The case we need is M = a. Then a = A A a The first property that we want to prove is that A is complete in the a-adic topology. Proposition Suppose that A is Noetherian and a = (1)then (1) a Jrad( A) (2) a n = a n (3) A/a n = A/a n for all n 1 (4) a n /a n+1 = a n /a n+1 for all n 0 (5) Gr(A) = Gr( A) (6) A is complete in the a-adic topology. ( A = A) Proof. Clearly (3) (4) (5) and (3) (6) since (3) tells us that the inverse system defining A is the same as the one defining A. To prove (3) I first proved a more general statement: (3 ) M/M n = M/ Mn Pf: Consider the following short exact sequence. 0 M n /M m M/M m M/M n 0 where n is fixed and m is going to. This is a short exact sequence of surjective inverse systems where the last system is constant (does not change with m). So, it gives a short exact sequence of inverse limits: For the case at hand this shows: 0 M n M M/M m 0 A/ a n = A/a n which becomes the same as (3) if we know that a n = a n. Therefore, (2) (3).

10 62 MATH 205B NOTES 2010 COMMUTATIVE ALGEBRA Statement (2) is the place where we need A to be Noetherian. Then a = A A a = a e This is the extended ideal. One of the easy basic properties of extended ideals which holds in complete generality is the statement (a e ) n =(a n ) e which proves (2). Finally, we need to know that (6) (1). Take any a a. Then (1 a) 1 =1+a + a 2 + a 3 + is a converging series. This is a Cauchy sequence in a complete ring and therefore converges. One can also see this by obverving that this represents a compatible system of elements in the inverse system: A = lim A/a n : A/a 3 A/a 2 A/a 1+a + a 2 + a 3 1+a + a 2 1+a This shows that 1+a U( A) and this implies that a Jrad( A). Corollary If a = m is a maximal ideal in a Noetherian ring A then A is a local ring with unique maximal ideal m. Proof. A/a = A/m is a field. Therefore, m is a maximal ideal in A. But m Jrad( A). So, m is the unique maximal ideal Krull s theorem. Krull found a formula for the kernel of the completion map M M: Theorem If A is Noetherian and M is f.g. then ker(m M)= a n M = {x M (1 + a)x =0for some a a} Proof. ( ) LetE = a n M. Then ae = E. Since E M, E is finitely generated. Therefore, by the determinant trick (Cor. 2.4), there exists an a a so that (1 + a)e =0. ( ) Conversely, suppose that (1 a)x = 0 for some a a. Then x = ax = a 2 x = a 3 x = is an element of E. Corollary If a Jrad(A) then M M (and M is Hausdorff).

11 MATH 205B NOTES 2010 COMMUTATIVE ALGEBRA 63 In particular, A is Hausdorff since complete implies a Jrad( A). Proof. If a Jrad(A) then 1 + a U(A). So, (1 + a)x = 0 implies x =0. Corollary If A is a Noetherian domain then A A. Corollary The ring A = C (R) of C real valued functions on R is not Noetherian. Proof. Let a = {f A f(0) = 0}. Then I claim that a n is the set of all functions f so that f(0) = f (0) = f (0) = = f (n 1) (0), i.e., the value of f and its first n 1 derivatives is zero at x = 0. To show this let g(x) = 1 0 f (xt) dt Then g is a smooth function with g(0) = f (0) and f(x) f(0) = xg(x). The Leibnitz rule shows that any element of a n satisfies the condition that the first n 1 derivatives is zero. Conversely, if the first n 1 derivatives of f at 0 is zero then the first n 2 derivatives of g at 0 is zero. So, g a n 1 which implies that f = xg a n. The intersection a n = {f f(0) = 0 = f (0) = f (0) = }=0 is nonzero since there are functions which are nonzero in a neighborhood of x all of whose derivatives vanish at 0. But (1 + a)f = 0 implies that (1 + a(x))f(x) = 0forx in a neighborhood of 0. This contradicts Krull s criterion. So the ring cannot be Noetherian properties of Gr(A). Proposition Suppose that A is Noetherian. (1) Gr(A) is Noetherian. (2) If M is a f.g. A-module and (M n ) is a stable a-filtration of M then Gr(M) is a f.g. Gr(A)-module. Proof. (1) Since A is Noetherian, a is finitely generated. So a/a 2 = (x 1,x 2,,x n ). Then a/a 2 =(x 1, x 2,, x n ) where x i is the image of x i. But then Gr(A) =(A/a)[x 1, x 2,, x n ] is Noetherian since it is the quotient of a Noetherian ring. (2) (M n ) is stable iff m 0 so that a n M m0 = M n+m0 for all n 0. But this implies that a n /a n+1 M m0 /M m0 +1 = M n+m0 /M n+m0 +1

12 64 MATH 205B NOTES 2010 COMMUTATIVE ALGEBRA which implies that Gr(M) is generated by m m 0 M m /M m+1 and each M m /M m+1 is finitely generated being a subquotient of M. Next we have what I called Lemma 4 in the lecture: Proposition Suppose that φ : N M is a homomophism so that φ(n n ) M n and let Gr(φ) :Gr(N) Gr(M) be the induced homomorphism of Gr(A)-modules and let φ : N M be the induced homomorphism of A-modules. Then (1) Gr(φ) mono implies φ mono. (2) Gr(φ) onto implies φ onto. Proof. (1) Consider the following diagram where the rows are exact. Given that Gr(φ) is a monomorphism, then α is a monomorphism. Suppose by induction that γ is a mono. Then the snake lemma gives us that β is mono. So γ is mono for all n. So, we get a monomorphism in the inverse limit: N M. 0 N n /N n+1 α N/N n+1 β N/N n 0 M n /M n+1 M/M n+1 M/M n 0 (2) Suppose that Gr(φ) is onto. Then α is onto. Suppose by induction that γ is onto. Then β is onto. So, γ is onto for all n. The snake lemma also says that ker β goes onto ker γ. Therefore, the kernels form a surjective system with lim 1 = 0. So, the induced map on inverse limits N M is onto proof that A is Noetherian. Here is the outline of the proof: A Noetherian Gr(A) Noetherian A Noetherian Gr( A) Noetherian We just proved that Gr(A) is Noetherian and we know Gr(A) =Gr( A). So, it remains to prove the bottom implication. But we showed that A is complete. So, it suffices to prove the following. Lemma If A is complete in the a-adic topology and Gr(A) is Noetherian then A is Noetherian. Clearly, this lemma is all we need to finish the proof that A is Noetherian. But, Lemma follows immediately from the next lemma applied to M = A. γ 0

13 MATH 205B NOTES 2010 COMMUTATIVE ALGEBRA 65 Lemma Suppose A is complete and M is Hausdorff ( M n = 0). Suppose Gr(M) is a Noetherian Gr(A)-modules (i.e., every submodule is finitely generated). Then M is Noetherian. To prove this we need another lemma: Lemma Suppose that A is complete and M is Hausdorff. Suppose also that Gr(M) is a f.g. Gr(A)-module. Then M is a f.g. A- module. Suppose first that this is true. Then we use it to prove Lemma Proof of Lemma Suppose that N M. Then define an a- filtration of N by N n = N M n This is the kernel of the map N M/M n so we get an exact sequence: 0 N/N n M/M n M 0 N + M n Compare this with: M 0 N/N n+1 M/M n+1 0 N + M n+1 We get vertical maps which are all onto. Therefore, we get a short exact sequence of kernels: 0 N n /N n+1 M n /M n+1 X 0 In other words, Gr(N) Gr(M). If Gr(M) is Noetherian then Gr(N) is f.g. Since N n N M n =0,N is also Hausdorff. So, N is f.g. by Lemma Since this holds for all N M, this shows that M is Noetherian. So, it remains to prove Lemma Proof of We are given that Gr(M) is a f.g. Gr(A)-module. Choose a finite set of homogeneous generators x i M n(i) /M n(i)+1. Mutiplication by x i induces mappings: a n /a n+1 M n+n(i) /M n+n(i)+1 which gives a homomorphism Gr(A) Gr(M) of degree n(i). If we shift Gr(A) we can make this map have degree 0. Let ΣM be the shifted filtration of M given by ΣM n = M n 1 Then multiplication by x i gives a degree 0 homomorphism Gr(Σ n(i) ) Gr(M)

14 66 MATH 205B NOTES 2010 COMMUTATIVE ALGEBRA We add these together using the notation F i =Σ n(i) A: xi : Gr(F i ) Gr(M) To say that the x i generate Gr(M) asagr(a) module is the same as saying that this map is onto. By Proposition this implies that the induced map on completions is surjective: F i M But F i = A = A since A is complete. This gives A M. So, M is f.g.. Since M is Hausdorff we have a monomorphism g : M M. Now consider the following diagram: A = A n f b φ M M g Since φ is an epimorphism and g is a monomorphism we conclude that f is an epimorphism. Therefore, M is finitely generated as claimed.

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