# 58 CHAPTER 2. COMPUTATIONAL METHODS

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1 58 CHAPTER 2. COMPUTATIONAL METHODS 23 Hom and Lim We will now develop more properties of the tensor product: its relationship to homomorphisms and to direct limits. The tensor product arose in our study of bilinear maps. Even more natural are linear maps. Given a commutative ring R and two R-modules M and N, we can think about the collection of all R-linear maps from M to N. Not only does this set form an abelian group (under pointwise addition of homomorphisms); it forms an R-module, with (rf)(y) = f(ry) = rf(y), r R, y M. The check that this is again an R-module homomorphism uses commutativity of R. We will write Hom R (M, N), or just Hom(M, N), for this R-module. Since Hom(M, N) is an R-module, we are entitled to think about what an R-module homomorphism into it is. Given f : L Hom(M, N) we can define a new function fˆ : L M N, fˆ(x, y) = (f(x))(y) N. You should check that this new function fˆ is R-bilinear! So we get a natural map Hom(L, Hom(M, N)) Hom(L M, N). Conversely, given a map fˆ : L M N and x L, we can define f(x) : M N by the same formula. These are inverse operations, so: Lemma The natural map Hom(L, Hom(M, N)) Hom(L M, N) is an isomorphism. One says that and Hom are adjoint, a word suggested by Sammy Eilenberg to Dan Kan, who first formulated this relationship between functors [7]. The second thing we will discuss is a generalization of one perspective on how the rational numbers are constructed from the integers by a limit process: there are compatible maps in the diagram Z 2 Z 3 Z 4 Z 5 1 1/2 1/3! 1/4! Q = Q = Q = Q = and Q is the universal, or initial, abelian group you can map to. We will formalize this process, using partially ordered sets as indexing sets. Recall from Lecture 3 that a partially ordered set, or poset, is a small category I such that #I(i, j) 1 and the only isomorphisms are the identity maps. We will be interested in a particular class of posets. Definition A poset (I, ) is directed if for every i, j I there exists k I such that i k and j k. Example This is a very common condition. A first example is the natural numbers N with as the order. Another example is the positive natural numbers, with i j if i j. This is because i, j (ij). A topological example: if X is a space, A a subspace, and I is the set of open subsets of X containing A, directed by saying that U V if U V. This is because an intersection of two opens is again open.

2 23. HOM AND LIM 59 Definition Let I be a directed set. An I-directed system in a category C is a functor I C. This means that for every i I we are given an object X i C, and for every i j we are given a map f i,j : X i X j, in such a way that f i,i = 1 Xi and if i j k then f i,k = f j,k f i,j : X i X k. f 01 f 12 Example If I = (N, ), then you get a linear system X 0 X1 X2. Example Suppose I = (N >0, ), i.e., the second example above. You can consider I Ab, say assigning to each i the integers Z, and f ij : Z j/i Z. These directed systems can be a little complicated. But there s a simple one, namely the constant one. Example Let I be any directed system. Any object A C determines an I-directed set, namely the constant functor c A : I C. Not every directed system is constant, but we can try to find a best approximating constant system. To compare systems, we need morphisms. I-directed systems in C are functors I C. They are related by natural transformations, and those are the morphisms in the category of I- directed systems. That is to say, a morphism is a choice of map g i : X i Y i, for each i I, such that X i X j commutes for all i j. Y i g i Y j g j Definition Let X : I C be a directed system. A direct limit is an object L and a map X c L that is initial among maps to constant systems. This means that given any other map to a constant system, say X c A, there is a unique map f : L A such that X c L c A c f commutes. This is a universal property. So two different direct limits are canonically isomorphic; but a directed system may fail to have a direct limit. For example, the linear directed systems we used to create the rational numbers exists in the category of finitely generated abelian groups; but Q is not finitely generated, and there s no finitely generated group that will serve as a direct limit of this system in the category of finitely generated abelian groups. Example Suppose we have an increasing sequence of subspaces, X 0 X 1 X. This gives us a directed system of spaces, directed by the poset (N, ). It s pretty clear that as a set the direct limit of this system is the union of the subspaces. Saying that X is the direct limit of this directed system of spaces is saying first that X is the union of the X i s, and second that the topology on X is determined by the topology on the subspaces; it s the weak topology, characterized by the property that a map f : X Y is continuous if and only if the restriction of f to each X n is continuous. This is saying that a subset of X is open if and only if its intersection with each X n is open in X. Our example is that a CW-complex is the direct limit of its skelata.

3 60 CHAPTER 2. COMPUTATIONAL METHODS Direct limits may be constructed from the material of coproducts and quotients. So suppose X : I C is a directed system. To construct the direct limit, begin by forming the coproduct over the elements of I, X i. i I There are maps in i : X i X i, but they are not yet compatible with the order relation in I. Form a quotient of the coproduct to enforce that compatibility: lim i I X i = ( ) X i / where is the equivalence relation generated by requiring that for any i I and any x X i, i I in i x in j f ij (x). The process of forming the coproduct and the quotient will depend upon the category you are working in, and may not be possible. In sets, coproduct is disjoint union and the quotient just forms equivalence classes. In abelian groups, the coproduct is the direct sum and to form the quotient you divide by the subgroup generated by differences. Direct limits and the tensor product are nicely related, and the way to see that is to use the adjunction with Hom that we started with today. Proposition Let I be a direct set, and let M : I Mod R be a I-directed system of R-modules. There is a natural isomorphism (lim M I i ) R N = lim(m I i R N). Proof. Let s verify that both sides satisfy the same universal property. A map from (lim M I i ) R N to an R-module L is the same thing as a linear map lim M I i Hom R (N, L). This is the same as a compatible family of maps M i Hom R (N, L), which in turn is the same as a compatible family of maps M i R N L, which is the same as a linear map lim (M I i R N) L. Here s a lemma that lets us identify when a map to a constant functor is a direct limit. Lemma Let X : I Ab (or Mod R ). A map f : X c L (given by f i : X i L for i I) is the direct limit if and only if: 1. For every x L, there exists an i and an x i X i such that f i (x i ) = x. 2. Let x i X i be such that f i (x i ) = 0 in L. Then there exists some j i such that f ij (x i ) = 0 in X j. Proof. Straightforward. Proposition The direct limit functor lim : Fun(I, Ab) Ab is exact. In other words, if I X p Y q Z is an exact sequence of I-directed systems (meaning that at every degree we get an exact sequence of abelian groups), then lim X lim Y lim Z is exact. I I I

4 24. UNIVERSAL COEFFICIENT THEOREM 61 Proof. First of all, qp : X Z is zero, which is to say that it factors through the constant zero object, so lim X lim Z is certainly the zero map. Let y lim Y, and suppose y maps to 0 in I I I lim I Z. By condition (1) of Lemma 23.11, there exists i such that y = f i(y i ) for some y i Y i. Then 0 = q(y) = f i q(y i ) because q is a map of direct systems. By condition (2), this means that there is j i such that f ij q(y i ) = 0 in Z j. So qf ij y i = 0, again because q is a map of direct systems. We have an element in Y j that maps to zero under q, so there is some x j X j such that p(x j ) = y j. Then f j (x j ) lim X maps to y. I The exactness of the direct limit has many useful consequences. For example: Corollary Let i C(i) be a directed system of chain complexes. Then there is a natural isomorphism lim H (C(i)) H (lim C(i)). i I i I Putting together things we have just said: Corollary H (X; Q) = H (X) Q. So we can redefine the Betti numbers of a space X as β n = dim Q H n (X; Q) and discuss the Euler characteristic entirely in terms of the rational vector spaces making up the rational homology of X. 24 Universal coefficient theorem Suppose that we are given H (X; Z). Can we compute H (X; Z/2Z)? This is non-obvious. Consider the map RP 2 S 2 that pinches RP 1 to a point. Now H 2 (RP 2 ; Z) = 0, so in H 2 this map is zero. But in Z/2Z-coefficients, in dimension 2, this map gives an isomorphism. This shows that there s no functorial determination of H (X; Z/2) in terms of H (X; Z); the effect of a map in integral homology does not determine its effect in mod 2 homology. So how do we go between different coefficients? Let R be a commutative ring and M an R-module, and suppose we have a chain complex C of R-modules. It could be the singular complex of a space, but it doesn t have to be. Let s compare H n (C ) M with H n (C M). (Here and below we ll just write for R.) The latter thing gives homology with coefficients in M. How can we compare these two? Let s investigate, and build up conditions on R and C as we go along.

5 Bibliography [1] M. G. Barratt and J. Milnor, An example of anomalous singular homology, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 13 (1962) [2] G. Bredon, Topology and Geometry, Springer-Verlag, [3] A. Dold, Lectures on Algebraic Topology, Springer-Verlag, [4] S. Eilenberg and J. C. Moore, Homology and fibrations, I: Coalgebras, cotensor product and its derived functors, Comment. Math. Helv. 40 (1965) [5] S. Eilenberg and N. Steenrod, Foundations of Algebraic Topology, Princeton University Press, [6] A. Hatcher, Algebraic Topology, Cambridge University Press, [7] D. Kan, Adjoint funtors, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 87 (1958) [8] J. Milnor, On axiomatic homology theory, Pacific J. Math 12 (1962) [9] J. C. Moore, On the homotopy groups of spaces with a single non-vanishing homology group, Ann. Math. 59 (1954) [10] C. T. C Wall, Finiteness conditions for CW complexes, Ann. Math. 81 (1965)

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