# Homework 2 - Math 603 Fall 05 Solutions

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1 Homework 2 - Math 603 Fall 05 Solutions 1. (a): In the notation of Atiyah-Macdonald, Prop. 5.17, we have B n j=1 Av j. Since A is Noetherian, this implies that B is f.g. as an A-module. (b): By Noether normalization we find a finite integral extension A B, where A = k[x 1,...,X n ]. Set K = Frac(A). We claim that L/K is a finite separable extension. Indeed, K A B is a localization of the domain B, hence is a domain, and L K A B. Since moreover K A B is f.g. hence integral over K (since B is f.g. over A), we see by Lemma that K A B is a field. Since L is the smallest field containing B, we have L = K A B, hence L/K is a finite extension. It is obviously separable since char(k) = 0 by hypothesis. Note that B is the integral closure of A in L. Thus, we can apply part (a) to see that B is f.g. as an A-module. But then it is obviously f.g. as a B-module. It follows from this that B is f.g. as a k-algebra, since B is. (c): Let Ã denote the integral closure of A in K; so Ã is a normal domain. Note that B is the integral closure of Ã in L So by (a), B is a f.g. Ã-module. By (b), Ã is a f.g. A-module. It follows that B is a f.g. A-module. It is then automatically f.g. as a k-algebra, since A is. 2. First, we prove Ω A /k = Ω A/k A A (the latter is clearly also Ω A/k k k ). If M A -mod, then we can regard it as an A-module via the canonical map A A. We claim that there is an isomorphism Der k (A,M ) = Der k (A,M ). Indeed, this is given by the map D D, where by definition D (a α ) := α D(a). This shows that there are canonical isomorphisms, functorial in M, Hom A (Ω A/k A A,M ) = Hom A (Ω A/k,M ) = Der k (A,M ) = Der k (A,M ) = Hom A (Ω A /k,m ). It follows (using e.g. Yoneda s lemma), that there is a natural isomorphism of the representing objects, Ω A/k A A = Ω A /k. Next, we prove Ω AS/k = Ω A/k A A S. We proved in class that A S /A is 0-étale, and that hence Ω AS/A = 0 (since in particular A S /A is 0-unramified). Thus the first fundamental exact sequence for k A A S is split exact and has Ω AS/A = 0, and this yields Ω A/k A A S = Ω AS/k, as desired. 3. (NOTE: the problem is supposed to ask for a NON-ZERO prime ideal.) In a suitable coordinate system, we can suppose the m i s correspond to points in the plane (x i,y i ) k 2, with all the x i s distinct. Then by Lagrange interpolation (hint given in class), there is a polynomial f k[x] such that f(x i ) = y i for all i. Now consider g(x,y ) = Y f(x) k[x,y ]. Note that g is non-zero, and is 1

2 2 irreducible (if g factors, then considerations of Y -degrees show it must factor as g = (a(x)y + b(x)) c(x), and then we would have a(x)c(x) = 1, i.e. c(x) is a unit). Thus p := (g) is a non-zero prime ideal contained in each m i. Indeed, g(x i,y i ) = 0 for all i by construction. 4. Atiyah-Macdonald, Chapter 11, #2. Suppose dim(a) = d, and let x 1,...,x d denote the system of parameters we re given. By definition, (x 1,...,x d ) = I, for some m-primary ideal I. We are assuming A is complete. What does this mean, i.e. for which topology, I-adic or m-adic? Answer: there is actually no difference between these two topologies, since there exists n > 0 with m n I m, (and hence m rn I r m r, for all r 0). See [AM], Cor However, it is convenient here to think of A as being identical to Â = lim A/In. Now by [AM] (11.21), the x i are algebraically independent, and hence t i x i gives an injective map k[t 1,...,t d ] A. Since A is complete for the I-adic topology, this extends to give ψ : k[[t 1,...,t d ]] A, which remains injective (by e.g. [AM] Prop. 10.2). We want to use [AM] Prop to show that ψ makes A a f.g. module over k[[t 1,...,t d ]]. Note that in 10.24, the base ring A is k[[t 1,...,t d ]] and the module M is the ring A. Note also that the only hypothesis that is not obvious is G(A) is f.g. over G(k[[t 1,...,t d ]]). Now, the latter graded ring is just the polynomial algebra k[t 1,...,t d ] itself. Also, G(A) = n=0i n /I n+1 is clearly f.g. over the graded ring A/I[x 1,...,x d ], so it is enough to show that A/I is f.g. as a k-module. But since m n I m, it is enough to show that A/m n is f.g. as a k-module. But this is clear since A/m n is finite-dimensional as a k-vector space: A/m n is filtered by finitely many subquotients m k /m k+1, and each of these has finite k-dimension, since m k is f.g as A-module. 5. Atiyah-Macdonald, Chapter 11, #3. We are being asked to prove the equality dim(a m ) = tr.deg k A, where m is a maximal ideal of A, a f.g domain over a field k (not necessarily algebraically closed). Note that we already did this in the notes: it s Theorem 7.3.1! There, we needed no hypothesis on k whatsoever. 6. Atiyah-Macdonald, Chapter 11, #4. Notation: let A = k[x 1,X 2,...,] and A k = k[x 1,...,X mk ], for k 1. It is clear that each p i is prime and that the set S = A ( i p i ) is a multiplicative set. Note that prime ideals of S 1 A are precisely those of the form S 1 p, where p A is a prime ideal contained in i p i. We need to verify the various other claims, made in the hint by Atiyah-Macdonald. The two hypotheses of Atiyah-Macdonald, Chap. 7, Ex. 9 are satisfied here. The key point is the following lemma. Lemma If S 1 p is a non-zero prime ideal in S 1 A and p A k 0, then p p j, for some j k. Proof. Choose 0 x p A k. Note that p A k is contained the finite union of prime ideals i k p i A k (since if i > k, then p i A k = 0). Thus by Atiyah-Macdonald, Prop. 1.11, p A k p j A k, for some j k.

3 3 Now for every k k, we have 0 x p A k, which by the same argument is contained in some p j A k. In fact j k, since 0 x p j A k. Thus, letting k go to infinity, we see that p j k p j. Now again by Atiyah-Macdonald, Prop. 1.11, p p j, for some j k. It follows that if S 1 p is maximal, then p = p j for some j. Further, each S 1 p j is maximal. Thus, Corollary The maximal ideals of S 1 A are precisely the S 1 p j. Now we can verify the hypotheses of Atiyah-Macdonald, Ex. 9 of Chap. 7. The ring S 1 A S 1 p i is a localization of the ring k(x j ) j / [mi+1,...,m i+1][x mi+1,...,x mi+1 ], hence is Noetherian. (In fact, one can prove that the above ring is isomorphic to S 1 A S 1 p i, which is also A pi. This also shows, shortening the argument given below, that ht(s 1 p i ) = m i+1 m i.) Secondly, suppose 0 x/s, and let S 1 p i be a maximal ideal containing x/s. This is the same as saying 0 x p i. But x involves only finitely many variables, and remains the same if all sufficiently high variables are specialized to zero. Hence a non-zero x can only be contained in finitely many ideals p i Thus, x/s is contained in only finitely many maximal ideals of S 1 A. We conclude that S 1 A is Noetherian, by the quoted exercise in Atiyah-Macdonald. Next, verify that ht(s 1 p i ) = m i+1 m i. This will show that dim(s 1 A) =. There is something to show here, because A is not a polynomial algebra in finitely many variables. It is clear that ht(s 1 p i ) = ht(p i ), since every prime ideal contained in p i is contained in i p i. It is also clear that ht(p i ) m i+1 m i and further that ht(p i A k ) = m i+1 m i for all large k (since A k is just a polynomial algebra in finitely many variables). Suppose q 0 q d = p i is a chain of prime ideals in A. Then intersecting it with A k for large k (and noting that the inclusions remain strict) shows that the chain has length ht(p i A k ), which is m i+1 m i. We are now done. 7. Atiyah-Macdonald, Chapter 10, #11. Show that there is a non-noetherian local ring (A,m), and an ideal a A such that the a-adic completion Â is Noetherian. Show we can even arrange things such that Â is f.g. as an A-module. Solution: Let A be the ring of germs of C functions at x = 0, and let a denote the ideal generated by the germ of the function x. Let Â denote the a-adic completion of A. Claim 1: Â can be identified with the ring of formal power series R[[x]], hence is Noetherian. Consider the map φ : A R[[x]] given by sending a germ f to its Taylor expansion f := n=0 f (n) (0) n! x n. Leibniz rule (1) (fg) (n) (0) = n k=0 ( ) n f (k) (0)g (n k) (0) k

4 4 easily implies that fg = f ĝ, and so the map f f is an R-algebra homomorphism. The theorem of Borel quoted in the hint given by Atiyah-Macdonald shows that φ : f f is surjective. Let I = ker(φ). Clearly I consists of the germs f such that f (n) (0) = 0 for all n 0. We claim that (2) I = k=0x k A. Indeed, by (1) it is clear that f x k A implies that f (n) (0) = 0 for all n < k. Hence I k x k A. Conversely, if f I, it is not too hard using Taylor s remainder theorem to show that the germ f k defined by { f(x)x k, if x 0 f k (x) = 0, if x = 0 is C. But then f = x k f k. Since this holds for all k, we have I k x k A. Note that I is therefore also the kernel of the natural map A Â. Next we want to show that the homomorphism φ : A R[[x]] factors through the canonical map A Â, giving us a surjective map φ : Â R[[x]]. It is enough to show that f f induces a compatible family of homomorphisms (3) φ k : A/(x k ) R[[x]]/(x k ). We need to show that x k f x k R[[x]]. This follows easily from (1). We claim that every φ k is an isomorphism. Borel s theorem implies that every φ k is surjective. To prove injectivity, suppose f A maps into x k R[[x]]. Then by Borel s theorem there is a g A such that f = x k ĝ. But then since x k g = x k ĝ = x k ĝ, we have f x k g I x k A (as explained in (2)). Thus f x k A, proving the injectivity of every φ k. Now taking inverse limits, we see that lim φ k induces the map φ : Â R[[x]], which is therefore an isomorphism. Thus Â is Noetherian. Claim 2: The ring Â is a quotient of A, so is f.g. as an A-module. We have established the commutative diagram A φ R[[x]] = Â. Since φ is surjective (Borel s theorem), we see that A Â is surjective too. Claim 3: The ring A is not Noetherian. Note that A is a domain. If it were Notherian, then since a = (x) A, Krull s theorem would imply that I = k x k A = (0). But it is well-known that I 0: there exist non-zero germs f such that f (n) (0) = 0 for all n 0. The simplest example is probably the germ { e 1/x2, if x 0 f(x) = 0 if x = 0.

5 5 8. Exercise from the notes. From the first example in the notes right f f before Exercise it is clear that Sing(V (f)) = V (f, X 1,..., X n ). Thus, by definition (of the LHS), we have dim(sing(v (f)) = dim(k[x 1,...,X n ]/(f, f X i ) 1 i n ). It remains to prove that the RHS is zero iff the ring A = k[x]/i (where I = (f, f X i )) is finite-dimensional as a k-vector space. But this follows immediately from the notes Exercise Indeed, if dim k A <, then A is clearly Artin, and so dim(a) = 0. Conversely, if dim(a) = 0, then A is Artin and hence is a finite product of local Artin rings A i ([AM], Thm. 8.7). Each A i is f.g. as a k-algebra (since A is), and then by Exercise 4.2.2, each A i is finite-dimensional. Thus A is finite-dimensional too. 9. Exercise from the notes. Suppose P = (x 1,x 2,...,x n,z) is a point on the variety V (Z 2 f), where f = (X 1 a 1 )(X 2 a 2 ). It is easy to see that the Jacobian J(P) is the row vector J(P) = ( x 2 + a 2, x 1 + a 1,0,...,0,2z). Clearly this vector is zero iff x 1 = a 1, x 2 = a 2, and z = 0 (recall we are assuming char(k) 2 here). Thus, Sing(V (Z 2 f)) is precisely the set of points of the form (a 1,a 2,x 3,...,x n,0), where x i k range freely. Thus the singular locus is identified with affine space A n 2, hence dim(sing) = n 2. On the other hand, since V (Z 2 f) is a hypersurface in n+1-space, its dimension is n+1 1 = n. Thus, codim(y,sing(y )) = 2. (NOTE: for a general normal variety, we have codim(y, Sing(Y )) 2; this example shows that that inequality cannot be improved.)

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