# REPRESENTATION THEORY WEEK 9

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1 REPRESENTATION THEORY WEEK 9 1. Jordan-Hölder theorem and indecomposable modules Let M be a module satisfying ascending and descending chain conditions (ACC and DCC). In other words every increasing sequence submodules M 1 M 2... and any decreasing sequence M 1 M 2... are finite. Then it is easy to see that there exists a finite sequence M = M 0 M 1 M k = 0 such that M i /M i+1 is a simple module. Such a sequence is called a Jordan-Hölder series. We say that two Jordan Hölder series M = M 0 M 1 M k = 0, M = N 0 N 1 N l = 0 are equivalent if k = l and for some permutation s M i /M i+1 = Ns(i) /N s(i)+1. Theorem 1.1. Any two Jordan-Hölder series are equivalent. Proof. We will prove that if the statement is true for any submodule of M then it is true for M. (If M is simple, the statement is trivial.) If M 1 = N 1, then the statement is obvious. Otherwise, M 1 + N 1 = M, hence M/M 1 = N1 /(M 1 N 1 ) and M/N 1 = M1 /(M 1 N 1 ). Consider the series M = M 0 M 1 M 1 N 1 K 1 K s = 0, M = N 0 N 1 N 1 M 1 K 1 K s = 0. They are obviously equivalent, and by induction assumption the first series is equivalent to M = M 0 M 1 M k = 0, and the second one is equivalent to M = N 0 N 1 N l = {0}. Hence they are equivalent. Thus, we can define a length l (M) of a module M satisfying ACC and DCC, and if M is a proper submodule of N, then l (M) < l (N). A module M is indecomposable if M = M 1 M 2 implies M 1 = 0 or M 2 = 0. Lemma 1.2. Let M and N be indecomposable, α Hom R (M, N), β Hom R (N, M) be such that β α is an isomorphism. Then α and β are isomorphisms. Proof. We claim that N = Imα Kerβ. Indeed, Im α Kerβ = 0 and for any x N one can write x = y + z, where y = α (β α) 1 β (x), z = x y. Then since N is indecomposable, Im α = N, Kerβ = 0 and N = M. Date: November 7,

2 2 REPRESENTATION THEORY WEEK 9 Lemma 1.3. Let M be indecomposable module of finite length and ϕ End R (M), then either ϕ is an isomorphism or ϕ is nilpotent. Proof. There is n > 0 such that Kerϕ n = Kerϕ n+1, Im ϕ n = Imϕ n+1. In this case Kerϕ n Im ϕ n = 0 and hence M = Kerϕ n Imϕ n. Either Kerϕ n = 0, Imϕ n = M or Kerϕ n = M. Hence the lemma. Lemma 1.4. Let M be as in Lemma 1.3 and ϕ, ϕ 1, ϕ 2 End R (M), ϕ = ϕ 1 + ϕ 2. If ϕ is an isomorphism then at least one of ϕ 1, ϕ 2 is also an isomorphism. Proof. Without loss of generality we may assume that ϕ = id. But in this case ϕ 1 and ϕ 2 commute. If both ϕ 1 and ϕ 2 are nilpotent, then ϕ 1 +ϕ 2 is nilpotent, but this is impossible as ϕ 1 + ϕ 2 = id. Corollary 1.5. Let M be as in Lemma 1.3. Let ϕ = ϕ ϕ k End R (M). If ϕ is an isomorphism then ϕ i is an isomorphism at least for one i. It is obvious that if M satisfies ACC and DCC then M has a decomposition where all M i are indecomposable. M = M 1 M k, Theorem 1.6. (Krull-Schmidt) Let M be a module of finite length and M = M 1 M k = N 1 N l for some indecomposable M i and N j. Then k = l and there exists a permutation s such that M i = Ns(j). Proof. Let p i : M 1 N i be the restriction to M 1 of the natural projection M N i, and q j : N j M 1 be the restriction to N j of the natural projection M M 1. Then obviously q 1 p q l p l = id, and by Corollary 1.5 there exists i such that q i p i is an isomorphism. Lemma 1.2 implies that M 1 = Ni. Now one can easily finish the proof by induction on k. 2. Some facts from homological algebra The complex is the graded abelian group C = i 0 C i. We will assume later that all C i are R-modules for some ring R. A differential is an R-morphism of degree 1 such that d 2 = 0. Usually we realize C by the picture d C 1 d C 0 0. We also consider d of degree 1, in this case the superindex C and 0 C 0 d C 1 d... All the proofs are similar for these two cases. Homology group is H i (C) = (Kerd C i )/dc i+1.

3 REPRESENTATION THEORY WEEK 9 3 Given two complexes (C, d) and (C, d ). A morphism f : C C preserving grading and satisfying f d = d f is called a morphism of complexes. A morphism of complexes induces the morphism f : H (C) H (C ). Theorem 2.1. (Long exact sequence). Let 0 C g C f C 0 be a short exact sequence, then the long exacts sequence δ H i (C) g H i (C ) f H i (C ) δ H i 1 (C) g... where δ = g 1 d f 1, is exact. Let f, g : C C be two morphisms of complexes. We say that f and g are homotopically equivalent if there exists h : C C (+1) (the morphism of degree 1) such that f g = h d + d h. Lemma 2.2. If f and g are homotopically equivalent then f = g. Proof. Let φ = f g, x C i and dx = 0. Then Hence f g = 0. φ(x) = h(dx) + d (hx) = d (hx) Imd. We say that complexes C and C are homotopically equivalent if there exist f : C C and g : C C such that f g is homotopically equivalent to id C and g f is homotopically equivalent to id C. Lemma 2.2 implies that homotopically equivalent complexes have isomorphic homology. The following Lemma is straightforward. Lemma 2.3. If C and C are homotopically equivalent then the complexes Hom R (C, B) and Hom R (C ) are also homotopically equivalent. Note that the differential in Hom R (C, B) has degree Projective modules An R-module P is projective if for any surjective morphism φ : M N and any ψ : P N there exists f : P M such that ψ = φ f. Example. A free module is projective. Indeed, let {e i } i I be the set of free generators of a free module F, i.e. F = i I Re i. Define f : F M by f (e i ) = φ 1 (ψ (e i )). Lemma 3.1. The following conditions on a module P are equivalent (1) P is projective; (2) There exists a free module F such that F = P P ; (3) Any exact sequence 0 N M P 0 splits.

4 4 REPRESENTATION THEORY WEEK 9 Proof. (1) (3) Consider the exact sequence 0 N ϕ M ψ P 0, then since ψ is surjective, there exists f : P M such that ψ f = id P. (3) (2) Every module is a quotient of a free module. Therefore we just have to apply (3) to the exact sequence 0 N F P 0 for a free module F. (2) (1) Let φ : M N be surjective and ψ : P N. Choose a free module F so that F = P P. Then extend ψ to F N in the obvious way and let f : F M be such that φ f = ψ. Then the last identity is true for the restriction of f to P. A projective resolution of M is a complex P of projective modules such that H i (P ) = 0 for i > 0 and H 0 (P ) = M. A projective resolution always exists since one can easily construct a resolution by free modules. Below we prove the uniqueness statement. Lemma 3.2. Let P and P be two projective resolutions of the same module M. Then there exists a morphism f : P P of complexes such that f : H 0 (P ) H 0 (P ) induces the identity id M. Any two such morphisms f and g are homotopically equivalent. Proof. Construct f inductively. Let p : P 0 M and p : P 0 M be the natural projections, define f : P 0 P 0 so that p f = p. Then f (Kerp) Kerp, Kerp = d(p 1 ), Kerp = d (P 1), hence f d(p 1 ) d (P 1), and one can construct f : P 1 P 1 such that f d = d f. Proceed in the same manner to construct f : P i P i. To check the second statement, let ϕ = f g. Then p ϕ = 0. Hence ϕ(p 0 ) Kerp = d (P 1). Therefore one can find h : P 0 P 1 such that d h = ϕ. Furthermore, hence d h d = ϕ d = d ϕ, (ϕ h d) (P 1 ) P 1 Kerd = d (P 2). Thus one can construct h : P 1 P 2 such that d h = ϕ h d. Then proceed inductively to define h : P i P i+1. Corollary 3.3. Every two projective resolutions of M are homotopically equivalent.

5 REPRESENTATION THEORY WEEK 9 5 Let M and N be two modules and P be a projective resolution of M. Consider the complex 0 Hom R (P 0, N) Hom R (P 1, N)..., where the differential is defined naturally. The cohomology of this complex is denoted by Ext R (M, N). Lemma 2.3 implies that Ext R (M, N) does not depend on a choice of projective resolution for M. Check that Ext 0 R (M, N) = Hom R (M, N). Example 1. Let R = C[x] be the polynomial ring. Any simple R-module is one-dimensional and isomorphic to C[x] /(x λ). Denote such module by C λ. A projective resolution of C λ is 0 C[x] d C[x] 0, where d(1) = x λ. Let us calculate Ext (C λ, C µ ). Note that Hom C[x] (C µ ) = C, hence we have the complex 0 C d C 0 where d = λ µ. Hence Ext (C λ, C µ ) = 0 if λ µ and Ext 0 (C λ, C λ ) = Ext 1 (C λ, C λ ) = C. Example 2. Let R = C[x] /(x 2 ). Then R has one up to isomorphism simple module, denote it by C 0. A projective resolution for C 0 is... d R d R 0, where d(1) = x and Ext i (C 0, C 0 ) = C for all i Representations of artinian rings An artinian ring is a unital ring satisfying the descending chain condition for left ideals. We will see that an artinian ring is a finite length module over itself. Therefore R is automatically noetherian. A typical example of an artinian ring is a finite-dimensional algebra over a field. Theorem 4.1. Let R be an artinian ring, I R be a left ideal. If I is not nilpotent, then I contains an idempotent. Proof. Let J be a minimal left ideal, such that J I and J is not nilpotent. Then J 2 = J. Let L be a minimal left ideal such that L J and JL 0. Then there is x L such that Jx 0. But then Jx = L by minimality of L. Thus, for some r R, rx = x, hence r 2 x = rx and (r 2 r)x = 0. Let N = {y J yx = 0}. Then N is a proper left ideal in J and therefore N is nilpotent. Thus, we obtain Let n = r 2 r, then r 2 r mod N. (r + n 2rn) 2 r 2 + 2rn 4r 2 n mod N 2, r 2 + 2rn 4r 2 n r + n 2rn mod N 2.

7 REPRESENTATION THEORY WEEK 9 7 Lemma 4.8. Let R be artinian, N = rad R and e be a primitive idempotent. Then Ne is a unique maximal submodule of Re. Proof. Since Re is indecomposable, every proper left ideal is nilpotent, (otherwise it has an idempotent and therefore splits as a direct summand in Re). But then this ideal is in N Re = Ne. A projective module P is a projective cover of M if there exists a surjection P M. Theorem 4.9. Let R be artinian. Every simple R-modules S has a unique (up to an isomorphism) indecomposable projective cover isomorphic to Re for some primitive idempotent e R. Every indecomposable projective module has a unique (up to an isomorphism )simple quotient. Proof. Every simple S is a quotient of R, and therefore it is a quotient of some indecomposable projective P = Re. Let φ : P S be the natural projection. For any indecomposable projective cover P 1 of S with surjective morphism φ 1 : P 1 S there exist f : P P 1 and g : P 1 P such that φ = φ 1 f and φ 1 = φ g. Therefore φ = φ g f. Since Kerφ is the unique maximal submodule, g f (P 1 ) = P. In particular g is surjective. Indecomposability of P 1 implies P = P 1. Thus, every simple module has a unique indecomposable projective cover. On the other hand, let P be an indecomposable projective module. Corollary 4.6 implies that P has a simple quotient S. Hence P is isomorphic to the indecomposable projective cover of S. Corollary Every indecomposable projective module over an artinian ring R is isomorphic to Re for some primitive idempotent e R. There is a bijection between the ismorphism classes of simple R-modules and isomorphism classes of projective indecomposable R-modules. Example. Let R = F 3 (S 3 ). Let r be a 3-cycle and s be a transposition. Then r 1, r 2 1, sr s and sr 2 s span a maximal nilpotent ideal. Hence R has two (up to an isomorphism) simple modules L 1 and L 2, where L 1 is a trivial representation of S 3 and L 2 is a sign representation. Choose primitive idempotents e 1 = s 1 and e 2 = s 1, then 1 = e 1 + e 2. Hence R has two indecomposable projective modules P 1 = Re 1 and P 2 = Re 2. Note that Re 1 = Ind S 3 S 2 (triv), Re 2 = Ind S 3 S 2 (sgn). Thus, P 1 is just 3-dimensional permutation representation of S 3, and P 2 is obtained from P 1 by tensoring with sgn. It is easy to see that P 1 has a trivial submodule as well as a trivial quotient, and sgn is isomorphic to the quotient of the maximal submodule of P 1 by the trivial submodule. One can easily get a similar description for P 2 Thus, one has the the following exact sequences 0 L 2 P 2 P 1 L 1 0, 0 L 1 P 1 P 2 L 2 0,

8 8 REPRESENTATION THEORY WEEK 9 therefore P 1 P 2 P 2 P 1 P 1 P 2 P 2 P 1 0 is a projective resolution for L 1, and P 2 P 1 P 1 P 2 P 2 P 1 P 1 P 2 0 is a projective resolution for L 2. Now one can calculate Ext between simple modules Ext k (L i, L i ) = 0 if k 1, 2 mod 4, Ext k (L i, L i ) = F 3 if k 0, 3 mod 4, and if i j, then Ext k (L i, L j ) = 0 if k 0, 3 mod 4, Ext k (L i, L j ) = F 3 if k 1, 2 mod 4.

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