# Tensor Product of modules. MA499 Project II

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1 Tensor Product of modules A Project Report Submitted for the Course MA499 Project II by Subhash Atal (Roll No ) to the DEPARTMENT OF MATHEMATICS INDIAN INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY GUWAHATI GUWAHATI , INDIA November 2014

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3 CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the work contained in this project report entitled Tensor Product of modules submitted by Subhash Atal (Roll No.: ) to Department of Mathematics, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati towards the requirement of the course MA499 Project II has been carried out by him/her under my supervision. Guwahati April 2015 (Dr. Shyamashree Upadhyay) Project Supervisor ii

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5 ABSTRACT In mathematics, we often come across finite dimensional vector spaces and finitely generated abelian groups. These are natural examples of finitely generated modules. The main aim of the project is to understand the structure of finitely generated modules and to prove a basic lemma about them called the Nakayama lemma. iv

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7 Contents 1 Defining Tensor Products Modules and module homomorphisms Submodules and quotient modules Operation on submodules Direct sum and product Finitely generated modules Free modules Structure of finitely generated modules The Nakayama lemma Bibliography 17 vi

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9 Chapter 1 Defining Tensor Products One of the things which distinguishes the modern approach to Commutative Algebra is the greater emphasis on modules, rather than just on ideals. An ideal a and its quotient ring A/a are both examples of modules. The collection of all modules over a given ring contains the collection of all ideals of that ring as a subset. The concept of modules is in fact a generalization of the concept of ideals. In this chapter, we give the definition and elementary properties of modules. Throughout this report,let A denote a commutative ring with unity Modules and module homomorphisms Definition An A-module is an abelian group M (written additively) on which A acts linearly: more precisely, an A-module is a pair (M, µ), where M is an abelian group and µ is a mapping from A M into M such that for all a, b A and for all x, y M, the following axioms are satisfied: µ(a, x + y) = µ(a, x) + µ(a, y) 1

10 µ(a + b, x) = µ(a, x) + µ(b, x) µ(ab, x) = µ(a, bx) µ(1, x) = x Equivalently, M is an abelian group together with a ring homomorphism A E(M), where E(M) denotes the ring of all endomorphisms of the abelian group M, the ring homomorphism A E(M) being given by a µ(a,.). x y The notation ax is more generally used for µ(a, x). x y 2, e x, x Examples: 1) An ideal a of A is an A-module. In particular, y A itself is an A-module. 2) If A is a field k, then A-module= k-vector space. 3) If A = Z, then Z-module=abelian group (define nx to be x + + x). 4) If A = k[x] where k is a field, then an A-module M is a k-vector space together with a linear transformation. [Since M is an A-module, there exists a ring homomorphism A E(M). The image of the element X( A) in E(M) under this ring homomorphism is a linear transformation from M to itself. This is the required linear transformation.] Definition Let M, N be A-modules. A mapping f : M N is called an A-module homomorphism if f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) f(ax) = a.f(x) for all a A and all x, y M. Thus f is a homomorphism of abelian groups which commutes with the action of each a A. If A is a field, then a A-module homomorphism is the 2

11 same thing as a linear transformation of vector spaces. The composition of A-module homomorphisms is again an A-module homomorphism. The set of all A-module homomorphisms from M to N can be turned into an A-module as follows: For any two A-module homomorphisms f and g (from M to N), we define f + g and af by the rules (f + g)(x) = f(x) + g(x) (af)(x) = a.f(x) for all x M. It is trivial to check that all the axioms for an A-module are satisfied. This A-module is denoted by Hom A (M, N) (or just Hom(M, N) if there is no ambiguity about the ring A). Homomorphisms u : M M and v : N N induce mappings ū : Hom(M, N) Hom(M, N) and v : Hom(M, N) Hom(M, N ) defined as follows: ū(f) = f u and v(f) = v f. These mappings are A-module homomorphisms. For any A-module M, there is a natural isomorphism Hom(A, M) = M: any A-module homomorphism f : A M is uniquely determined by f(1), which can be any element of M. 3

12 1.2 Submodules and quotient modules Definition A submodule M of an A-module M is a subgroup of M which is closed under multiplication by elements of A. Definition Let M be an A-module and M be a submodule of M. The abelian group M/M then inherits an A-module structure from M, defined by a(x + M ) = ax + M The A-module M/M is called the quotient of M by M. The natural map π from M onto M/M given by x x + M is an A- module homomorphism. There is a one-to-one order-preserving correspondence between submodules of M/M and submodules of M which contain M, given by U π 1 (U) for any submodule U of M/M. Definition If f : M N is an A-module homomorphism, the kernel of f is the set Ker(f) = {x M : f(x) = 0} and is a submodule of M. Definition If f : M N is an A-module homomorphism, the image of f is the set Im(f) = {f(x) : x M} = f(m) and is a submodule of N. Definition If f : M N is an A-module homomorphism, the cokernel of f is Coker(f) = N/Im(f) 4

13 which is a quotient module of N. Let M, N be two A-modules and f : M N be an A-module homomorphism. If M is a submodule of M such that M Ker(f), then f gives rise to a A-module homomorphism f : M/M N, defined as follows: f(x + M ) := f(x) This map f is well-defined because if x + M = y + M, then x y M and M Ker(f), hence f(x y) = 0, that is f(x) = f(y), which in turn implies that f(x + M ) = f(y + M ). The kernel of f is Ker(f)/M and this map f is onto Im(f). The homomorphism f is said to be induced by f. In particular, taking M = Ker(f), we have an isomorphism of A-modules M/Ker(f) = Im(f). (1.1) The above equation is also known as the first isomorphism theorem. 1.3 Operation on submodules Definition Let M be an A-module and let {M i } i I be a family of submodules of M. Their sum Σ i I M i is the set of all finite sums Σ i I x i, where x i M i for all i I and almost all the x i (that is, all but a finite number) are zero. It is easy to check that Σ i I M i is the smallest submodule of M which contains all the M i. The intersection i I M i is again a submodule of M. Theorem (i) If L M N are A-modules, then (L/N)/(M/N) = L/M. 5

14 (ii) If M 1, M 2 are submodules of M, then (M 1 + M 2 )/M 1 = M2 /(M 1 M 2 ). Proof. (i) Define θ : L/N L/M by θ(x + N) = x + M. Then θ is a welldefined A-module homomorphism of L/N onto L/M and its kernel is M/N. Hence the proof follows from the first isomorphism theorem (equation 1.1). (ii) Consider the inclusion homomorphism ι : M 2 M 1 + M 2 given by m 2 m 2. Also consider the homomorphism π : M 1 + M 2 (M 1 + M 2 )/M 1 given by x x + M 1. The composition π ι : M 2 (M 1 + M 2 )/M 1 is a module homomorphism. It is surjective, since π is surjective. And the kernel of π ι is M 1 M 2. Hence the proof follows from the first isomorphism theorem (equation 1.1). Definition Let M be an A-module and let a be an ideal of A. The product am is the set of all finite sums Σa i x i with a i a and x i M. It can be easily checked that am is a submodule of M. Definition Let M be an A-module and let N, P be submodules of M. We define (N : P ) to be the set of all a A such that ap N. It can be easily checked that (N : P ) is an ideal of A. Definition Let M be an A-module. (0 : M) is the set of all a A such that am = 0, this ideal is called the annihilator of M and is denoted by Ann(M). Definition An A-module M is called faithful if Ann(M) = 0. If a is an ideal of A such that a Ann(M), then we may regard M as an A/a-module, as follows: 6

15 For any x + a A/a and m M, define (x + a)m := xm. Observe here that if x + a = y + a, then x y a Ann(M). Hence for any m M, (x y)m = 0, that is, xm = ym. If Ann(M) = a, then M is faithful as an A/a-module. 1.4 Direct sum and product Definition Let {M i } i I be a family of A-modules. Their direct sum i I M i is the set of all tuples (x i ) i I such that x i M i for all i I and all but finitely many x i are 0. This set i I M i has a natural structure of an A-module given by: (x i ) i I + (y i ) i I = (x i + y i ) i I a(x i ) i I = (ax i ) i I for all a A and for all (x i ) i I, (y i ) i I i I M i. Definition Let {M i } i I be a family of A-modules. Their direct product Π i I M i is the set of all tuples (x i ) i I such that x i M i for all i I. This set Π i I M i has a natural structure of an A-module given by: (x i ) i I + (y i ) i I = (x i + y i ) i I a(x i ) i I = (ax i ) i I for all a A and for all (x i ) i I, (y i ) i I Π i I M i. Observe that the difference between the above two definitions is that in the definition of the direct product, we have dropped the condition that all 7

16 but finitely many x i are 0. Direct sum and direct product are therefore the same if the index set I is finite, but not otherwise, in general. Theorem Let A be a ring. Then A is isomorphic to a direct sum of finitely many ideals of A if and only if A is isomorphic to a direct product of finitely many rings. Proof. Suppose A = Π n i=1a i where A i are rings. For each i {1,..., n}, define a i := {(0,..., 0, a i, 0,..., 0) Π n i=1a i a i A i }. Then each a i is an ideal of A. The ring A = Π n i=1a i can be considered as an A-module. Since each a i is an ideal of A, therefore each a i is an A-module, hence the direct sum a 1 a n has also the structure of an A-module. Consider the map φ : Π n i=1a i a 1 a n given by φ(a 1,..., a n ) := ((a 1, 0,..., 0),..., (0,..., 0, a i, 0,..., 0),..., (0,..., 0, a n )). It is easy to verify that φ is an isomorphism of A-modules. Conversely, suppose A = I 1 I n where I 1,..., I n are ideals of A. For each i {1,..., n}, define b i := j i I j. For each i {1,..., n}, Consider the map f i : A = I 1 I n I i given by f i (x 1,..., x n ) := x i. Clearly each f i is an onto A-module homomorphism, whose kernel is b i. Therefore, by the first isomorphism theorem (equation 1.1), we have A/b i = Ii. Since A is a ring, therefore each A/b i is a ring, call it C i. Now since A = I 1 I n and C i = Ii for each i {1,..., n}, we have A = C 1 C n. But for finite indexing sets, direct sums and direct products are the same. Therefore we have C 1 C n = Π n i=1c i and hence A = Π n i=1c i. 8

17 Chapter 2 Finitely generated modules In this chapter, we will study the structure of finitely generated modules and prove a basic lemma about them called the Nakayama lemma. 2.1 Free modules Definition A free A-module is an A-module which is isomorphic to an A-module of the form i I M i, where each M i = A (as an A-module). Such a module is denoted by A (I). Definition Let n be a fixed non-negative integer. A free A-module of rank n is an A-module that is isomorphic to A A (n summands), which is denoted by A n. The integer n is called the rank of the free module A n. (Conventionally, A 0 is the zero module.) Definition An ideal I in a commutative ring R is called a principal ideal if there exists some a R such that I = {ra r R}. Definition An integral domain R is called a principal ideal domain if every ideal in R is a principal ideal. 9

18 Theorem Let A be a principal ideal domain and M be a free module of rank n over A. Let N be a submodule of M. Then N is also free of rank n. Proof. The proof is by induction on n. If n = 1, we have M = A as an A-module and N is isomorphic to an ideal I of A. Since A is a principal ideal domain, therefore I = {ax a A} for some x A. If x = 0, then I = 0 and hence I is free of rank 0 1. If x 0, then I = A (the map φ : A I given by a ax being an isomorphism), and hence I is free of rank 1. This proves the base case of induction. Assume now that the theorem is true for n 1 and consider a submodule N of M. Let x 1,..., x n be a basis of M. Let J := {a n A a 1 x a n x n N, a i A}. Since N is a submodule of M, therefore J is an ideal of A. Since A is a principal ideal domain, J = {ad a A} for some d A. If d = 0, then N < x 1,..., x n 1 >, the free submodule generated by x 1,..., x n 1 and by induction, N is free of rank n 1. If d 0, choose an element y N such that y = b 1 x 1 + b 2 x b n 1 x n 1 + dx n. We claim that N = N < x 1,..., x n 1 > Ay. Let x N so that x = c 1 x c n x n. Then c n = λd for some λ A. Then x λy = x N < x 1,..., x n 1 >. So x = x +λy. To prove the uniqueness, let z N < x 1,..., x n 1 > Ay so that z = a 1 x a n 1 x n 1 = µ(b 1 x b n 1 x n 1 + dx n ) for some µ A. Since x 1,..., x n are linearly independent, the coefficient of x n, that is, µd = 0. This implies µ = 0, that is, z = 0. Hence N = N < x 1,..., x n 1 > Ay. By induction, N < x 1,..., x n 1 > is free of rank n 1 so that N is free of rank n. 10

19 2.2 Structure of finitely generated modules Definition Let M be an A-module and let x M. The set of all multiples ax(a A) is a submodule of M, denoted by Ax or < x >. This submodule of M is called the cyclic submodule of M generated by x. Definition Let M be an A-module and let x i M for all i I, where I is some indexing set. If M = Σ i I Ax i, then the set {x i i I} is called a set of generators of M. This means that every element of M ca be expressed (not necessarily uniquely) as a finite linear combination of the x i with coefficients in A. Definition An A-module M is said to be finitely generated if it has a finite set of generators. Examples: 1) Any finite dimensional vector space over a field k is a finitely generated k-module. 2) Any finitely generated abelian group is a finitely generated Z-module. In particular, finite abelian groups are finitely generated Z-modules. 3) The module of polynomials in one variable x over the ring A of degree at most n is a finitely generated A-module. This module is generated by 1, x, x 2,..., x n. Theorem M is a finitely generated A-module if and only if M is isomorphic to a quotient of A n for some integer n > 0. Proof. Suppose M is a finitely generated A-module. Let x 1,..., x n be generators of M. Define φ : A n M as φ(a 1,..., a n ) := a 1 x a n x n. 11

20 Clearly then φ is an A-module homomorphism onto M. Hence by the first isomorphism theorem (equation 1.1), we have M = A n /Ker(φ). That is, M is isomorphic to a quotient of A n. Conversely, suppose M = A n /B for some integer n > 0 and for some submodule B of A n. Then we have a natural A-module homomorphism π of A n onto A n /B = M, given by π(a 1,..., a n ) (a 1,..., a n ) + B. Let e i := (0,..., 0, 1, 0,..., 0) (the 1 being at the i-th place). Then the e i (1 i n) generate A n. Hence π(e i )(1 i n) generate M over A. That is, M is a finitely generated A-module. Theorem Let A be a principal ideal domain and M be a finitelygenerated A-module. Then any submodule of M is also a finitely generated module over A. Proof. Let N be a submodule of M. Since M is a finitely generated A- module, we have from theorem that M is isomorphic to a quotient of A n for some integer n > 0, say, M = A n /K. Hence N = F /K where F is a submodule of the free module A n. By theorem 2.1.5, we have that F is also free over A of rank n. Hence N is a quotient of a free A-module by K. Therefore, applying theorem again, we get that N is finitely generated. Theorem Let M be a finitely generated A-module, let a be an ideal of A, and let φ be an A-module endomorphism of M such that φ(m) am. Then φ satisfies an equation of the form φ n + a 1 φ n a n = 0 where the a i are in a. 12

21 Proof. Let x 1,..., x n be a set of generators of M. Then since φ(m) am, we have φ(x i ) am for each i {1,..., n}. Hence for each i {,..., n}, we have φ(x i ) = Σ n j=1a ij x j for some a ij a. That is, we have the following system of equations: Σ n j=1(δ ij φ a ij )x j = 0 i {1,..., n} where δ ij is the kronecker delta. Let D denote the n n matrix whose (i, j)- th entry is δ ij φ a ij. Then the above system of equations is the same as the x 1 0 x matrix equation DX = 0, where X = 2 0 and 0 =. By multiply-.. 0 ing on the left of the equation DX = 0 by the adjoint of the matrix D, we get det(d)ix = 0. This implies that the linear operator det(d)i annihilates each x i. But the x i generate M, hence det(d)i is the zero endomorphism of M. That is, det(d) = 0. Expanding out the determinant of the matrix D, we have an equation of the required form. Corollary Let M be a finitely generated A-module and let a be an ideal of A such that am = M. Then there exists x 1(mod a) such that xm = 0. Proof. Take φ =identity and x = 1 + a a n in theorem x n 2.3 The Nakayama lemma In this section, we will prove the famous Nakayama lemma. But for its proof, we need some preliminaries on ideals, which we provide first. 13

22 Definition An ideal m in A is called maximal if m A and if there is no ideal a of A such that m a A (strict inclusions). Theorem Let x A and Ax := {ax a A}. Then Ax is an ideal in A and Ax = A if and only if x is a unit in A. Proof. It is easy to verify that Ax is an ideal in A. If x is a unit in A, then there exists u A such that ux = 1. So 1 Ax. Now Ax is an ideal in A and 1 Ax together imply that A Ax. Hence Ax = A. Conversely, suppose Ax = A for some x A. Then since 1 A, we have 1 Ax. This implies that 1 equals vx for some v A, which in turn implies that x is a unit in A. Theorem Let m be a maximal ideal of A and x m. Then x is not a unit in A. Proof. Suppose not, that is, suppose x is a unit in A. Then there exists y A such that xy = 1. Now x m and m is an ideal of A. Therefore, xy m, which implies that 1 m. But the facts that 1 m and m is an ideal in A, together imply that m = A, which is absurd. Hence a contradiction. The proof of theorem below requires the use of a well known lemma in set theory called Zorn s lemma, which we need to state first. But for stating Zorn s lemma, we need some definitions, which we provide first: Definition Let S be a non-empty set. A binary relation on S is called a partial order if is reflexive, antisymmetric and transitive. The set S together with a partial order is called a partially ordered set. Definition Let S, be a partially ordered set. A subset T of S is called a chain of S if for any two elements a, b T, we have either a b or b a. 14

23 Definition Let S, be a partially ordered set and Σ be a subset of S. An element x S is called an upper bound for Σ if a x for all a Σ. Definition Let S, be a partially ordered set. An element a S is called a maximal element of S if there is no element b S such that a b. We are now ready to state the Zorn s lemma. Zorn s lemma: Let S be a non-empty partially ordered set. If every chain T of S has an upper bound in S, then S has at least one maximal element. Theorem Every non-unit of A is contained in some maximal ideal of A. Proof. Let x be an non-unit in A. Then consider the ideal Ax in A. By theorem 2.3.2, we have Ax A. Let Σ x be the set of all ideals a in A such that a A and Ax a. Then Σ x is a partially ordered set with respect to the partial order. The collection Σ x is also non-empty because Ax Σ x. The proof will be over if we can show that there exists a maximal ideal of A containing the ideal Ax. In other words, we need to show that the set Σ x has a maximal element. For showing this, we will apply Zorn s lemma. To apply Zorn s lemma, we must show that every chain in Σ x has an upper bound in Σ x. Let {a α } α I be an arbitrary chain in Σ x (where I is an indexing set). Let b := α I a α. Since {a α } α I is a chain, it follows that b is an ideal in A. Also 1 / b since 1 / a α for all α [This is because if 1 a α for some α, then since a α is an ideal of A, we will have a α = A, which is a contradiction.]. Moreover, Ax b since Ax a α for all α I. Hence b Σ x, and b is an upper bound of the chain {a α } α I. Therefore, by Zorn s lemma, Σ x has a maximal element. 15

24 Definition The Jacobson radical R of A is defined to be the intersection of all the maximal ideals of A. Theorem Let R be the Jacobson radical of A. Then x R if and only if 1 xy is a unit in A for all y A. Proof. Suppose 1 xy is not a unit in A for some y A. Then by theorem 2.3.8, we have that 1 xy belongs to some maximal ideal m of A. But x R m, hence xy m. Therefore 1 = (1 xy) + xy m, which implies that m = A. But this is absurd since any maximal ideal is A. Conversely, suppose x / R. Then x / m for some maximal ideal m. Then m and x together generate the ideal m + Ax which contains m properly. Hence by maximality of m, we must have that m + Ax = A. So we have 1 = u + yx for some u m and some y A. Hence 1 yx = 1 xy = u m and is therefore not a unit (by theorem 2.3.3). Theorem (Nakayama lemma) Let M be a finitely generated A- module and a be an ideal of A contained in the Jacobson radical R of A. Then am = M implies M = 0. Proof. By corollary 2.2.7, we have that xm = 0 for some x 1(mod R). So x 1 R and hence 1 x = (x 1) R. Now by , 1 (1 x)y is a unit in A for all y A. In particular, for y = 1, we have that 1 (1 x)1 = x is a unit in A. Since x is a unit in A, therefore x 1 exists in A. Hence xm = 0 implies that x 1 xm = 0, that is, M = 0. 16

25 Bibliography [1] M.F. Atiyah and I.G. Macdonald. Introduction to commutative algebra. pages Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, [2] N.S. Gopalakrishnan. University algebra. pages New Age International (P) Limited,

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