# Topics in Module Theory

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1 Chapter 7 Topics in Module Theory This chapter will be concerned with collecting a number of results and constructions concerning modules over (primarily) noncommutative rings that will be needed to study group representation theory in Chapter Simple and Semisimple Rings and Modules In this section we investigate the question of decomposing modules into simpler modules. (1.1) Definition. If R is a ring (not necessarily commutative) and M 0 is a nonzero R-module, then we say that M is a simple or irreducible R- module if 0 and M are the only submodules of M. (1.2) Proposition. If an R-module M is simple, then it is cyclic. Proof. Let x be a nonzero element of M and let N = x be the cyclic submodule generated by x. Since M is simple and N 0, it follows that M = N. (1.3) Proposition. If R is a ring, then a cyclic R-module M = m is simple if and only if Ann(m) is a maximal left ideal. Proof. By Proposition , M = R/ Ann(m), so the correspondence theorem (Theorem 3.2.7) shows that M has no submodules other than M and 0 if and only if R has no submodules (i.e., left ideals) containing Ann(m) other than R and Ann(m). But this is precisely the condition for Ann(m) to be a maximal left ideal. (1.4) Examples. (1) An abelian group A is a simple Z-module if and only if A is a cyclic group of prime order.

2 396 Chapter 7. Topics in Module Theory (2) The hypothesis in Proposition 1.3 that M be cyclic is necessary. The Z-module A = Z 2 2 has annihilator 2Z but the module A is not simple. (3) Consider the vector space F 2 (where F is any field) as an F [x]-module via the linear transformation T (u 1, u 2 ) = (u 2, 0). Then F 2 is a cyclic F [X]-module, but it is not a simple F [X]-module. Indeed, F 2 = F [X] (0, 1) but N = {(u, 0) : u F } is an F [X]-submodule of F 2. Thus the converse of Proposition 1.2 is not true. (4) Let V = R 2 and consider the linear transformation T : V V defined by T (u, v) = ( v, u). Then the R[X]-module V T is simple. To see this let w = (u 1, v 1 ) 0 V and let N be the R[X]-submodule of V T generated by w. Then w N and Xw = T (w) = ( v 1, u 1 ) N. Since any (x, y) V can be written as (x, y) = αw + βxw where α = (xu 1 + yv 1 )/(u v1) 2 and β = (yu 1 xv 1 )/(u v1), 2 it follows that N = V T and hence V T is simple. (5) Now let W = C 2 and consider the linear transformation T : W W defined by T (u, v) = ( v, u). Note that T is defined by the same formula used in Example 1.4 (4). However, in this case the C[X]-module W T is not simple. Indeed, the C-subspace C (i, 1) is a T -invariant subspace of W, and hence, it is a C[X]-submodule of W T different from W and from 0. The following lemma is very easy, but it turns out to be extremely useful: (1.5) Proposition. (Schur s lemma) (1) Let M be a simple R-module. Then the ring End R (M) is a division ring. (2) If M and N are simple R-modules, then Hom R (M, N) 0 if and only if M and N are isomorphic. Proof. (1) Let f 0 End R (M). Then Im(f) is a nonzero submodule of M and Ker(f) is a submodule of M different from M. Since M is simple, it follows that Im(f) = M and Ker(f) = 0, so f is an R-module isomorphism and hence is invertible as an element of the ring End R (M). (2) The same argument as in (1) shows that any nonzero homomorphism f : M N is an isomorphism. We have a second concept of decomposition of modules into simpler pieces, with simple modules again being the building blocks. (1.6) Definition. If R is a ring (not necessarily commutative), then an R- module M is said to be indecomposable if it has no proper nontrivial com-

3 7.1 Simple and Semisimple Rings and Modules 397 plemented submodule M 1, i.e., if M = M 1 M 2 implies that M 1 = 0 or M 1 = M. If M is a simple R-module, then M is also indecomposable, but the converse is false. For example, Z is an indecomposable Z-module, but Z is not a simple Z-module; note that Z contains the proper submodule 2Z. One of the major classes of modules we wish to study is the following: (1.7) Definition. An R-module M is said to be semisimple if it is a direct sum of simple R-modules. The idea of semisimple modules is to study modules by decomposing them into a direct sum of simple submodules. In our study of groups there was also another way to construct groups from simpler groups, namely, the extension of one group by another, of which a special case was the semidirect product. Recall from Definition that a group G is an extension of a group N by a group H if there is an exact sequence of groups 1 N G H 1. If this exact sequence is a split exact sequence, then G is a semidirect product of N and H. In the case of abelian groups, semidirect and direct products coincide, but extension of N by H is still a distinct concept. If G is an abelian group and N is a subgroup, then the exact sequence 0 N G H 0 is completely determined by the chain of subgroups 0 N G. By allowing longer chains of subgroups, we can consider a group as obtained by multiple extensions. We will consider this concept within the class of R-modules. (1.8) Definition. (1) If R is a ring (not necessarily commutative) and M is an R-module, then a chain of submodules of M is a sequence {M i } n i=0 of submodules of M such that (1.1) 0 = M 0 M 1 M 2 M n = M. The length of the chain is n. (2) We say that a chain {N j } m j=0 is a refinement of the chain {M i} n i=0 if each N j is equal to M i for some i. Refinement of chains defines a partial order on the set C of all chains of submodules of M. (3) A maximal element of C (if it exists) is called a composition series of M.

4 398 Chapter 7. Topics in Module Theory (1.9) Remarks. (1) Note that the chain (1.1) is a composition series if and only if each of the modules M i /M i 1 (1 i n) is a simple module. (2) Our primary interest will be in decomposing a module as a direct sum of simple modules. Note that if M = n i=1 M i where M i is a simple R-module, then M has a composition series 0 M 1 M 1 M 2 n M i = M. On the other hand, if M = i=1 M i, then M does not have a composition series. In a moment (Example 1.10 (2)) we shall see an example of a module that is not semisimple but does have a composition series. Thus, while these two properties semisimplicity and having a composition series are related, neither implies the other. However, our main interest in composition series is as a tool in deriving results about semisimple modules. i=1 (1.10) Examples. (1) Let D be a division ring and let M be a D-module with a basis {x 1,..., x m }. Let M 0 = 0 and for 1 i n let M i = x 1,..., x i. Then {M i } n i=0 is a chain of submodules of length n, and since M i /M i 1 = x 1,..., x i / x 1,..., x i 1 = Dx i = D, we conclude that this chain is a composition series because D is a simple D-module. (2) If p is a prime, the chain 0 pz p 2 Z p 2 is a composition series for the Z-module Z p 2. Note that Z p 2 is not semisimple as a Z-module since it has no proper complemented submodules. (3) The Z-module Z does not have a composition series. Indeed, if {I i } n i=0 is any chain of submodules of length n, then writing I 1 = a 1, we can properly refine the chain by putting the ideal 2a 1 between I 1 and I 0 = 0. (4) If R is a PID, then essentially the same argument as Example 1.10 (3) shows that R does not have a composition series as an R-module.

5 7.1 Simple and Semisimple Rings and Modules 399 (1.11) Definition. Let M be an R-module. If M has a composition series let l(m) denote the minimum length of a composition series for M. If M does not have a composition series, let l(m) =. l(m) is called the length of the R-module M. If l(m) <, we say that M has finite length. Note that isomorphic R-modules have the same length, since if f : M N is an R-module isomorphism, the image under f of a composition series for M is a composition series for N. (1.12) Lemma. Let M be an R-module of finite length and let N be a proper submodule (i.e., N M). Then l(n) < l(m). Proof. Let (1.2) 0 = M 0 M 1 M n = M be a composition series of M of length n = l(m) and let N i = N M i N. Let φ : N i M i /M i 1 be the inclusion map N i M i followed by the projection map M i M i /M i 1. Since Ker(φ) = N i 1, it follows from the first isomorphism theorem that N i /N i 1 is isomorphic to a submodule of M i /M i 1. But (1.2) is a composition series, so M i /M i 1 is a simple R- module. Hence N i = N i 1 or N i /N i 1 = M i /M i 1 for i = 1, 2,..., n. By deleting the repeated terms of the sequence {N i } n i=0 we obtain a composition series for the module N of length n = l(m). Suppose that this composition series for N has length n. Then we must have N i /N i 1 = M i /M i 1 for all i = 1, 2,..., n. Thus N 1 = M 1, N 2 = M 2,..., N n = M n, i.e., N = M. Since we have assumed that N is a proper submodule, we conclude that the chain {N i } n i=0 has repeated terms, and hence, after deleting repeated terms we find that N has a composition series of length < l(m), that is, l(n) < l(m). (1.13) Proposition. Let M be an R-module of finite length. Then every composition series of M has length n = l(m). Moreover, every chain of submodules can be refined to a composition series. Proof. We first show that any chain of submodules of M has length l(m). Let 0 = M 0 M 1 M k = M be a chain of submodules of M of length k. By Lemma 1.12, 0 = l(m 0 ) < l(m 1 ) < < l(m k ) = l(m). Thus, k l(m). Now consider a composition series of M of length k. By the definition of composition series, k l(m) and we just proved that k l(m). Thus, k = l(m). If a chain has length l(m), then it must be maximal and, hence, is a composition series. If the chain has length < l(m), then it is not a

6 400 Chapter 7. Topics in Module Theory composition series and hence it may be refined until its length is l(m), at which time it will be a composition series. According to Example 1.10 (1), if D is a division ring and M is a D-module, then a basis S = {x 1,..., x n } with n elements determines a composition series of M of length n. Since all composition series of M must have the same length, we conclude that any two finite bases of M must have the same length n. Moreover, if M had also an infinite basis T, then M would have a linearly independent set consisting of more than n elements. Call this set {y 1,..., y k } with k > n. Then 0 y 1 y 1, y 2 y 1,..., y k M is a chain of length > n, which contradicts Proposition Thus, every basis of M is finite and has n elements. We have arrived at the following result. (1.14) Proposition. Let D be a division ring and let M be a D-module with a finite basis. Then every basis of M is finite and all bases have the same number of elements. Proof. An (almost) equivalent way to state the same result is the following. It can be made equivalent by the convention that D refers to any infinite direct sum of copies of D, without regard to the cardinality of the index set. (1.15) Corollary. If D is a division ring and D m = D n then m = n. Proof. We conclude our treatment of composition series with the following result, which is frequently useful in constructing induction arguments. (1.16) Proposition. Let 0 K φ M ψ L 0 be a short exact sequence of R-modules. If K and L are of finite length then so is M, and l(m) = l(k) + l(l). Proof. Let be a composition series of K, and let 0 = K 0 K 1 K n = K 0 = L 0 L 1 L m = L

7 7.1 Simple and Semisimple Rings and Modules 401 be a composition series for L. For 0 i n, let M i = φ(k i ), and for n + 1 i n + m, let M i = ψ 1 (L i n ). Then {M i } n+m i=0 is a chain of submodules of M and { M i /M i 1 Ki /K = i 1 L i n /L i n 1 for 1 i n for n + 1 i n + m so that {M i } n+m i=0 is a composition series of M. Thus, l(m) = n + m. (1.17) Example. Let R be a PID and let M be a finitely generated torsion R-module. We may write M as a finite direct sum of primary cyclic torsion modules: M = k i=1 R/ p e i i. Then it is an easy exercise to check that M is of finite length and l(m) = k e i. i=1 We now return to our consideration of semisimple modules. For this purpose we introduce the following convenient notation. If M is an R-module and s is a positive integer, then sm will denote the direct sum M M (s summands). More generally, if Γ is any index set then ΓM will denote the R-module ΓM = γ Γ M γ where M γ = M for all γ Γ. Of course, if Γ = s < then ΓM = sm, and we will prefer the latter notation. This notation is convenient for describing semisimple modules as direct sums of simple R-modules. If M is a semisimple R-module, then (1.3) M = i I M i where M i is simple for each i I. If we collect all the simple modules in Equation (1.3) that are isomorphic, then we obtain (1.4) M = α A (Γ α M α ) where {M α } α A is a set of pairwise distinct (i.e., M α = Mβ if α β) simple modules. Equation (1.4) is said to be a simple factorization of the semisimple module M. Notice that this is analogous to the prime factorization of elements in a PID. This analogy is made even more compelling by the following uniqueness result for the simple factorization. (1.18) Theorem. Suppose that M and N are semisimple R-modules with simple factorizations

8 402 Chapter 7. Topics in Module Theory (1.5) and (1.6) M = α A (Γ α M α ) N = β B (Λ β N β ) where {M α } α A and {N β } β B are the distinct simple factors of M and N, respectively. If M is isomorphic to N, then there is a bijection ψ : A B such that M α = Nψ(α) for all α A. Moreover, Γ α < if and only if Λ ψ(α) < and in this case Γ α = Λ ψ(α). Proof. Let φ : M N be an isomorphism and let α A be given. We may write M = M α M with M = γ A\{α} (Γ γ M γ ) Γ αm α where Γ α is Γ α with one element deleted. Then by Proposition , (1.7) Hom R (M, N) = Hom R (M α, N) Hom R (M, N) ( ) = Λ β Hom R (M α, N β ) Hom R (M, N). β B By Schur s lemma, Hom R (M α, N β ) = 0 unless M α = Nβ. Therefore, in Equation (1.7) we will have Hom R (M α, N) = 0 or Hom R (M α, N) = Λ β Hom R (M α, N β ) for a unique β B. The first alternative cannot occur since the isomorphism φ : M N is identified with (φ ι 1, φ ι 2 ) where ι 1 : M α M is the canonical injection (and ι 2 : M M is the injection). If Hom R (M α, N) = 0 then φ ι 1 = 0, which means that φ Mα = 0. This is impossible since φ is injective. Thus the second case occurs and we define φ(α) = β where Hom R (M α, N β ) 0. Thus we have defined a function φ : A B, which is one-to-one by Schur s lemma. It remains to check that φ is surjective. But given β B, we may write N = N β N. Then Hom R (M, N) = Hom R (M, N β ) Hom R (M, N ) and Hom R (M, N β ) = ( ) Hom R (M α, N β ). α A Γ α Since φ is surjective, we must have Hom R (M, N β ) 0, and thus, Schur s lemma implies that Hom R (M, N β ) = Γ α Hom(M α, N β ) for a unique α A. Then ψ(α) = β, so ψ is surjective. According to Proposition and Schur s lemma, Hom R (M, N) = ( ) Hom R (Γ α M α, Λ β N β ) α A β B = α A Hom R (Γ α M α, Λ ψ(α) N ψ(α) ).

9 7.1 Simple and Semisimple Rings and Modules 403 Therefore, φ Hom R (M, N) is an isomorphism if and only if φ α = φ ΓαM α : Γ α M α Λ ψ(α) N ψ(α) is an isomorphism for all α A. But by the definition of ψ and Schur s lemma, M α is isomorphic to N ψ(α). Also, Γ α M α has length Γ α, and Λ ψ(α) N ψ(α) has length Λ ψ(α), and since isomorphic modules have the same length, Γ α) = Λ ψ(α), completing the proof. (1.19) Corollary. Let M be a semisimple R-module and suppose that M has two simple factorizations M = α A (Γ α M α ) = β B (Λ β N β ) with distinct simple factors {M α } α A and {N β } β B. Then there is a bijection ψ : A B such that M α = Nψ(α) for all α A. Moreover, Γ α < if and only if Λ ψ(α) < and in this case Γ α = Λ ψ(α). Proof. Take φ = 1 M in Theorem (1.20) Remarks. (1) While it is true in Corollary 1.19 that M α = Nψ(α) (isomorphism as R-modules), it is not necessarily true that M α = N ψ(α). For example, let R = F be a field and let M be a vector space over F of dimension s. Then for any choice of basis {m 1,..., m s } of M, we obtain a direct sum decomposition M = Rm 1 Rm s. (2) In Theorem 1.18 we have been content to distinguish between finite and infinite index sets Γ α, but we are not distinguishing between infinite sets of different cardinality. Using the theory of cardinal arithmetic, one can refine Theorem 1.18 to conclude that Γ α = Λ ψ(α) for all α A, where S denotes the cardinality of the set S. We will now present some alternative characterizations of semisimple modules. The following notation, which will be used only in this section, will be convenient for this purpose. Let {M i } i I be a set of submodules of a module M. Then let M I = i I M i be the sum of the submodules {M i } i I. (1.21) Lemma. Let M be an R-module that is a sum of simple submodules {M i } i I, and let N be an arbitrary submodule of M. Then there is a subset J I such that

10 404 Chapter 7. Topics in Module Theory M ( = N M i ). i J Proof. The proof is an application of Zorn s lemma. Let } S = {P I : M P = M i and M P N = 0. i P Partially order S by inclusion and let C = {P α } α A be an arbitrary chain in S. If P = α A P α, we claim that P S. Suppose that P / S. Since it is clear that M P N = 0, we must have that M P = i P M i. Then Theorem shows that there is some p 0 P, such that M p0 M P 0, where P = P \ {p 0 }. Suppose that 0 x M p0 M P. Then we may write (1.8) x = x p1 + + x pk where x pi 0 M pi for {p 1,..., p k } P. Since C is a chain, there is an index α A such that {p 0, p 1,..., p k } P α. Equation (1.8) shows that M Pα = i Pα M i, which contradicts the fact that P α S. Therefore, we must have P S, and Zorn s lemma applies to conclude that S has a maximal element J. Claim. M = N + M J = N ( i J M i). If this were not true, then there would be an index i 0 I such that M i0 N + M J. This implies that M i0 N and M i0 M J. Since M i0 N and M i0 M J are proper submodules of M i0, it follows that M i0 N = 0 and M i0 M J = 0 because M i0 is a simple R-module. Therefore, {i 0 } J S, contradicting the maximality of J. Hence, the claim is proved. (1.22) Corollary. If an R-module M is a sum of simple submodules, then M is semisimple. Proof. Take N = 0 in Theorem (1.23) Theorem. If M is an R-module, then the following are equivalent: (1) M is a semisimple module. (2) Every submodule of M is complemented. (3) Every submodule of M is a sum of simple R-modules. Proof. (1) (2) follows from Lemma 1.21, and (3) (1) is immediate from Corollary It remains to prove (2) (3). Let M 1 be a submodule of M. First we observe that every submodule of M 1 is complemented in M 1. To see this, suppose that N is any submodule of M 1. Then N is complemented in M, so there is a submodule N of M such

11 7.1 Simple and Semisimple Rings and Modules 405 that N N = M. But then N + (N M 1 ) = M 1 so that N (N M 1 ) = M 1, and hence N is complemented in M 1. Next we claim that every nonzero submodule M 2 of M contains a nonzero simple submodule. Let m M 2, m 0. Then Rm M 2 and, furthermore, R/ Ann(m) = Rm where Ann(m) = {a R : am = 0} is a left ideal of R. A simple Zorn s lemma argument (see the proof of Theorem ) shows that there is a maximal left ideal I of R containing Ann(m). Then Im is a maximal submodule of Rm by the correspondence theorem. By the previous paragraph, Im is a complemented submodule of Rm, so there is a submodule N of Rm with N Im = Rm, and since Im is a maximal submodule of Rm, it follows that the submodule N is simple. Therefore, we have produced a simple submodule of M 2. Now consider an arbitrary submodule N of M, and let N 1 N be the sum of all the simple submodules of N. We claim that N 1 = N. N 1 is complemented in N, so we may write N = N 1 N 2. If N 2 0 then N 2 has a nonzero simple submodule N, and since N N, it follows that N N 1. But N 1 N 2 = 0. This contradiction shows that N 2 = 0, i.e., N = N 1, and the proof is complete. (1.24) Corollary. Sums, submodules, and quotient modules of semisimple modules are semisimple. Proof. Sums: This follows immediately from Corollary Submodules: Any submodule of a semisimple module satisfies condition (3) of Theorem Quotient modules: If M is a semisimple module, N M is a submodule, and Q = M/N, then N has a complement N in M, i.e., M = N N. But then Q = N, so Q is isomorphic to a submodule of M, and hence, is semisimple. (1.25) Corollary. Let M be a semisimple R-module and let N M be a submodule. Then N is irreducible (simple) if and only if N is indecomposable. Proof. Since every irreducible module is indecomposable, we need to show that if N is not irreducible, then N is not indecomposable. Let N 1 be a nontrivial proper submodule of N. Then N is semisimple by Corollary 1.24, so N 1 has a complement by Theorem 1.23, and N is not indecomposable. (1.26) Remark. The fact that every submodule of a semisimple R-module M is complemented is equivalent (by Theorem 3.3.9) to the statment that whenever M is a semisimple R-module, every short exact sequence of R-modules splits. 0 N M K 0

12 406 Chapter 7. Topics in Module Theory (1.27) Definition. A ring R is called semisimple if R is semisimple as a left R-module. Remark. The proper terminology should be left semisimple, with an analogous definition of right semisimple, but we shall see below that the two notions coincide. (1.28) Theorem. The following are equivalent for a ring R: (1) R is a semisimple ring. (2) Every R-module is semisimple. (3) Every R-module is projective. Proof. (1) (2). Let M be an R-module. By Proposition , M has a free presentation 0 K F M 0 so that M is a quotient of the free R-module F. Since F is a direct sum of copies of R and R is assumed to be semisimple, it follows that F is semisimple, and hence M is also (Corollary 1.24). (2) (3). Assume that every R-module is semisimple, and let P be an arbitrary R-module. Suppose that (1.9) 0 K M P 0 is a short exact sequence. Since M is R-module, our assumption is that it is semisimple and then Remark 1.26 implies that sequence (1.9) is split exact. Since (1.9) is an arbitrary short exact sequence with P on the right, it follows from Theorem that P is projective. (3) (1). Let M be an arbitrary submodule of R (i.e., an arbitrary left ideal). Then we have a short exact sequence 0 M R R/M 0. Since all R-modules are assumed projective, we have that R/M is projective, and hence (by Theorem 3.5.1) this sequence splits. Therefore, R = M N for some submodule N R, which is isomorphic (as an R-module) to R/M. Then by Theorem 1.23, R is semisimple. (1.29) Corollary. Let R be a semisimple ring and let M be an R-module. Then M is irreducible (simple) if and only if M is indecomposable. Proof. (1.30) Theorem. Let R be a semisimple ring. Then every simple R-module is isomorphic to a submodule of R. Proof. Let N be a simple R-module, and let R = i I M i be a simple factorization of the semisimple R-module R. We must show that at least

13 7.1 Simple and Semisimple Rings and Modules 407 one of the simple R-modules M i is isomorphic to N. If this is not the case, then Hom R (R, N) ( ) = Hom R M i, N = Hom R (M i, N) = 0 i I where the last equality is because Hom R (M i, N) = 0 if M i is not isomorphic to N (Schur s lemma). But Hom R (R, N) = N 0, and this contradiction shows that we must have N isomorphic to one of the simple submodules M i of R. (1.31) Corollary. Let R be a semisimple ring. (1) There are only finitely many isomorphism classes of simple R-modules. (2) If {M α } α A is the set of isomorphism classes of simple R-modules and R = α A i I ( Γα M α ), then each Γ α is finite. Proof. Since R is semisimple, we may write R = β B N β where each N β is simple. We will show that B is finite, and then both finiteness statements in the corollary are immediate from Theorem Consider the identity element 1 R. By the definition of direct sum, we have 1 = r β n β β B for some elements r β R, n β N β, with all but finitely many r β equal to zero. Of course, each N β is a left R-submodule of R, i.e., a left ideal. Now suppose that B is infinite. Then there is a β 0 B for which r β0 = 0. Let n be any nonzero element of N β0. Then ( ) n = n 1 = n r β n β = (nr β )n β, β B β B\{β 0 } so n N β. β B\{β 0 } Thus, ( ) n N β0 N β = {0}, β B\{β 0}

14 408 Chapter 7. Topics in Module Theory by the definition of direct sum again, which is a contradiction. Hence, B is finite. We now come to the basic structure theorem for semisimple rings. (1.32) Theorem. (Wedderburn) Let R be a semisimple ring. Then there is a finite collection of integers n 1,..., n k, and division rings D 1,..., D k such that R = k i=1 Proof. By Corollary 1.31, we may write R = End Di (D n i i ). k n i M i i=1 where {M i } k i=1 are the distinct simple R-modules and n 1,..., n k are positive integers. Then R = End R (R) ( k = Hom R n i M i, = = i=1 k ) n i M i i=1 k Hom R (n i M i, n i M i ) i=1 k End R (n i M i ), i=1 by Schur s lemma. Also, by Schur s lemma, End R (M i ) is a division algebra, which we denote by D i, for each i = 1,..., k. Then it is easy to check (compare the proof of Theorem 1.18) that End R (n i M i ) = End Di (D n i i ), completing the proof. Remark. Note that by Corollary 4.3.9, End D (D n ) is isomorphic to M n (D op ). Thus, Wedderburn s theorem is often stated as, Every semisimple ring is isomorphic to a finite direct sum of matrix rings over division rings. (1.33) Lemma. Let D be a division ring and n a positive integer. Then R = End D (D n ) is semisimple as a left R-module and also as a right R- module. Furthermore, R is semisimple as a left D-module and as a right D-module.

15 7.1 Simple and Semisimple Rings and Modules 409 Proof. Write D n = D 1 D 2 D n where D i = D. Let { M i = f End D (D n ) : Ker(f) D k }, k i and let N j = {f End D (D n ) : Im(f) D j }, P ij = M i N j. Note that P ij = D. Then as a left R-module, and End D (D n ) = M 1 M n End D (D n ) = N 1 N n as a right R-module. We leave it to the reader to check that each M i (resp., N j ) is a simple left (resp., right) R-module. Also, End D (D n ) = Pij as a left (resp., right) D-module, and each P ij is certainly simple (on either side). (1.34) Corollary. A ring R is semisimple as a left R-module if and only if it is semisimple as a right R-module. Proof. This follows immediately from Theorem 1.32 and Lemma Observe that R is a simple left R-module (resp., right R-module) if and only if R has no nontrivial proper left (resp., right) ideals, which is the case if and only if R is a division algebra. Thus, to define simplicity of R in this way would bring nothing new. Instead we make the following definition: (1.35) Definition. A ring R with identity is simple if it has no nontrivial proper (two-sided) ideals. Remark. In the language of the next section, this definition becomes A ring R with identity is simple if it is simple as an (R, R)-bimodule. (1.36) Corollary. Let D be a division ring and n a positive integer. Then End D (D n ) is a simple ring that is semisimple as a left End D (D n )-module. Conversely, if R is a simple ring that is semisimple as a left R-module, or, equivalently, as a right R-module, then R = End D (D n )

16 410 Chapter 7. Topics in Module Theory for some division ring D and positive integer n. Proof. We leave it to the reader to check that End D (D n ) is simple (compare Theorem and Corollary ), and then the first part of the corollary follows from Lemma Conversely, if R is semisimple we have the decomposition given by Wedderburn s theorem (Theorem 1.32), and then the condition of simplicity forces k = 1. Our main interest in semisimple rings and modules is in connection with our investigation of group representation theory, but it is also of interest to reconsider modules over a PID from this point of view. Thus let R be a PID. We wish to give a criterion for R-modules to be semisimple. The following easy lemma is left as an exercise. (1.37) Lemma. Let R be an integral domain. Then R is a semisimple ring if and only if R is a field. If R is a field, R is simple. Proof. Exercise. From this lemma and Theorem 1.28, we see that if R is a field, then every R-module (i.e., vector space) is semisimple and there is nothing more to say. For the remainder of this section, we will assume that R is a PID that is not a field. Let M be a finitely generated R-module. Then by Corollary 3.6.9, we have that M = F M τ, where F is free (of finite rank) and M τ is the torsion submodule of M. If F 0 then Lemma 1.37 shows that M is not semisimple. It remains to consider the case where M = M τ, i.e., where M is a finitely generated torsion module. Recall from Theorem that each such M is a direct sum of primary cyclic R-modules. (1.38) Proposition. Let M be a primary cyclic R-module (where R is a PID is not a field) and assume that Ann(M) = p e where p R is a prime. If e = 1 then M is simple. If e > 1, then M is not semisimple. Proof. First suppose that e = 1, so that M = R/ p. Then M is a simple R-module because p is a prime ideal in the PID R, and hence, it is a maximal ideal. Next suppose that e > 1. Then 0 = p e 1 M M, and p e 1 M is a proper submodule of M, which is not complemented; hence, M is not semisimple by Theorem (1.39) Theorem. Let M be a finitely generated torsion R-module (where R is a PID that is not a field). Then M is semisimple if and only if me(m)

17 7.1 Simple and Semisimple Rings and Modules 411 (see Definition 3.7.8) is a product of distinct prime factors. M is a simple R-module if and only if where p R is a prime. me(m) = co(m) = p Proof. First suppose that M is cyclic, and me(m) = p e pe k k. Then the primary decomposition of M is given by M = (R/ p e1 1 ) (R/ pe k k ), and M is semisimple if and only if each of the summands is semisimple, which by Proposition 1.38, is true if and only if e 1 = e 2 = = e k = 1. Now let M be general. Then by Theorem 3.7.1, there is a cyclic decomposition M = Rw 1 Rw n such that Ann(w i ) = s i and s i s i+1 for 1 i n 1. Then M is semisimple if and only if each of the cyclic submodules Rw i is semisimple, which occurs (by the previous paragraph) if and only if s i is a product of distinct prime factors. Since s i s i+1, this occurs if and only if s n = me(m) is a product of distinct prime factors. The second assertion is then easy to verify. (1.40) Remark. In the two special cases of finite abelian groups and linear transformations that we considered in some detail in Chapters 3 and 4, Theorem 1.39 takes the following form: (1) A finite abelian group is semisimple if and only if it is the direct product of cyclic groups of prime order, and it is simple if and only if it is cyclic of prime order. (2) Let V be a finite-dimensional vector space over a field F and let T : V V be a linear transformation. Then V T is a semisimple F [X]- module if and only if the minimal polynomial m T (X) of T is a product of distinct irreducible factors and is simple if and only if its characteristic polynomial c T (X) is equal to its minimal polynomial m T (X), this polynomial being irreducible (see Lemma ) If F is algebraically closed (so that the only irreducible polynomials are linear ones) then V T is semisimple if and only if T is diagonalizable and simple if and only if V is one-dimensional (see Corollary ).

18 412 Chapter 7. Topics in Module Theory 7.2 Multilinear Algebra We have three goals in this section: to introduce the notion of a bimodule, to further our investigation of Hom, and to introduce and investigate tensor products. The level of generality of the material presented in this section is dictated by the applications to the theory of group representations. For this reason, most of the results will be concerned with modules over rings that are not commutative; frequently there will be more than one module structure on the same abelian group, and many of the results are concerned with the interaction of these various module structures. We start with the concept of bimodule. (2.1) Definition. Let R and S be rings. An abelian group M is an (R, S)- bimodule if M is both a left R-module and a right S-module, and the compatibility condition (2.1) r(ms) = (rm)s is satisfied for every r R, m M, and s S. (2.2) Examples. (1) Every left R-module is an (R, Z)-bimodule, and every right S-module is a (Z, S)-bimodule. (2) If R is a commutative ring, then every left or right R-module is an (R, R)-bimodule in a natural way. Indeed, if M is a left R-module, then according to Remark (1), M is also a right R-module by means of the operation mr = rm. Then Equation (2.1) is r(ms) = r(sm) = (rs)m = (sr)m = s(rm) = (rm)s. (3) If T is a ring and R and S are subrings of T (possibly with R = S = T ), then T is an (R, S)-bimodule. Note that Equation (2.1) is simply the associative law in T. (4) If M and N are left R-modules, then the abelian group Hom R (M, N) has the structure of an (End R (N), End R (M))-bimodule, as follows. If f Hom R (M, N), φ End R (M), and ψ End R (N), then define fφ = f φ and ψf = ψ f. These definitions provide a left End R (N)- module and a right End R (M)-module structure on Hom R (M, N), and Equation (2.1) follows from the associativity of composition of functions. (5) Recall that a ring T is an R-algebra, if T is an R-module and the R- module structure on T and the ring structure of T are compatible, i.e., r(t 1 t 2 ) = (rt 1 )t 2 = t 1 (rt 2 ) for all r R and t 1, t 2 T. If T happens to be an (R, S)-bimodule, such that r(t 1 t 2 ) = (rt 1 )t 2 = t 1 (rt 2 ) and (t 1 t 2 )s = t 1 (t 2 s) = (t 1 s)t 2 for all r R, s S, and t 1, t 2 T, then we

19 7.2 Multilinear Algebra 413 say that T is an (R, S)-bialgebra. For example, if R and S are subrings of a commutative ring T, then T is an (R, S)-bialgebra. Suppose that M is an (R, S)-bimodule and N M is a subgroup of the additive abelian group of M. Then N is said to be an (R, S)-bisubmodule of M if N is both a left R-submodule and a right S-submodule of M. If M 1 and M 2 are (R, S)-bimodules, then a function f : M 1 M 2 is an (R, S)-bimodule homomorphism if it is both a left R-module homomorphism and a right S-module homomorphism. The set of (R, S)-bimodule homomorphisms will be denoted Hom (R,S) (M 1, M 2 ). Since bimodule homomorphisms can be added, this has the structure of an abelian group, but, a priori, nothing more. If f : M 1 M 2 is an (R, S)-bimodule homomorphism, then it is a simple exercise to check that Ker(f) M 1 and Im(f) M 2 are (R, S)-bisubmodules. Furthermore, if N M is an (R, S)-bisubmodule, then the quotient abelian group is easily seen to have the structure of an (R, S)-bimodule. We leave it as an exercise for the reader to formulate and verify the noether isomorphism theorems (see Theorems to 3.2.6) in the context of (R, S)- bimodules. It is worth pointing out that if M is an (R, S)-bimodule, then there are three distinct concepts of submodule of M, namely, R-submodule, S-submodule, and (R, S)-bisubmodule. Thus, if X M, then one has three concepts of submodule of M generated by the set X. To appreciate the difference, suppose that X = {x} consists of a single element x M. Then the R-submodule generated by X is the set (2.2) Rx = {rx : r R}, the S-submodule generated by X is the set (2.3) xs = {xs : s S}, while the (R, S)-bisubmodule generated by X is the set (2.4) RxS = { (2.3) Examples. n r i xs i : n N and r i R, s i S for 1 i n}. i=1 (1) If R is a ring, then a left R-submodule of R is a left ideal, a right R-submodule is a right ideal, and an (R, R)-bisubmodule of R is a (two-sided) ideal. (2) As a specific example, let R = M 2 (Q) and let x = [ ]. Then the left R-submodule of R generated by {x} is Rx = { [ ] a 0 b 0 } : a, b Q,

20 414 Chapter 7. Topics in Module Theory the right R-submodule of R generated by {x} is { [ ] } a b xr = : a, b Q, 0 0 while the (R, R)-bisubmodule of R generated by {x} is R itself (see Theorem ). When considering bimodules, there are (at least) three distinct types of homomorphisms that can be considered. In order to keep them straight, we will adopt the following notational conventions. If M and N are left R-modules (in particular, both could be (R, S)-bimodules, or one could be an (R, S)-bimodule and the other a (R, T )-bimodule), then Hom R (M, N) will denote the set of (left) R-module homomorphisms from M to N. If M and N are right S-modules, then Hom S (M, N) will denote the set of all (right) S-module homomorphisms. If M and N are (R, S)-bimodules, then Hom (R,S) (M, N) will denote the set of all (R, S)-bimodule homomorphisms from M to N. With no additional hypotheses, the only algebraic structure that can be placed upon these sets of homomorphisms is that of abelian groups, i.e., addition of homomorphisms is a homomorphism in each situation described. The first thing to be considered is what additional structure is available. (2.4) Proposition. Suppose that M is an (R, S)-bimodule and N is an (R, T )-bimodule. Then Hom R (M, N) can be given the structure of an (S, T )-bimodule. Proof. We must define compatible left S-module and right T -module structures on Hom R (M, N). Thus, let f Hom R (M, N), s S, and t T. Define sf and ft as follows: (2.5) and (2.6) sf(m) = f(ms) for all m M ft(m) = f(m)t for all m M. We must show that Equation (2.5) defines a left S-module structure on Hom R (M, N) and that Equation (2.6) defines a right T -module structure on Hom R (M, N), and we must verify the compatibility condition s(ft) = (sf)t. We first verify that sft is an R-module homomorphism. To see this, suppose that r 1, r 2 R, m 1, m 2 M and note that sft(r 1 m 1 + r 2 m 2 ) = f((r 1 m 1 + r 2 m 2 )s)t = f((r 1 m 1 )s + (r 2 m 2 )s)t = f(r 1 (m 1 s) + r 2 (m 2 s))t = (r 1 f(m 1 s) + r 2 f(m 2 s)) t

21 7.2 Multilinear Algebra 415 = (r 1 f(m 1 s))t + (r 2 f(m 2 s))t = r 1 (f(m 1 s)t) + r 2 (f(m 2 s)t) = r 1 (sft)(m 1 ) + r 2 (sft)(m 2 ), where the third equality follows from the (R, S)-bimodule structure on M, while the next to last equality is a consequence of the (R, T )-bimodule structure on N. Thus, sft is an R-module homomorphism for all s S, t T, and f Hom R (M, N). Now observe that, if s 1, s 2 S and m M, then (s 1 (s 2 f)) (m) = (s 2 f)(ms 1 ) = f((ms 1 )s 2 ) = f(m(s 1 s 2 )) = ((s 1 s 2 )f) (m) so that Hom R (M, N) satisfies axiom (c l ) of Definition The other axioms are automatic, so Hom R (M, N) is a left S-module. Similarly, if t 1, t 2 T and m M, then ((ft 1 )t 2 ) (m) = ((ft 1 )(m)) t 2 = (f(m)t 1 ) t 2 = f(m)(t 1 t 2 ) = (f(t 1 t 2 )) (m). Thus, Hom R (M, N) is a right T -module by Definition (2). We have only checked axiom (c r ), the others being automatic. It remains to check the compatibility of the left S-module and right T -module structures. But, if s S, t T, f Hom R (M, N), and m M, then ((sf)t) (m) = (sf)(m)t = f(ms)t = (ft)(ms) = s(ft)(m). Thus, (sf)t = s(ft) and Hom R (M, N) is an (S, T )-bimodule, which completes the proof of the proposition. Proved in exactly the same way is the following result concerning the bimodule structure on the set of right R-module homomorphisms. (2.5) Proposition. Suppose that M is an (S, R)-bimodule and N is a (T, R)- bimodule. Then Hom R (M, N) has the structure of a (T, S)-bimodule, via the module operations (tf)(m) = t(f(m)) and (fs)(m) = f(sm) where s S, t T, f Hom R (M, N), and m M. Proof. Exercise.

22 416 Chapter 7. Topics in Module Theory Some familiar results are corollaries of these propositions. (Also see Example (10).) (2.6) Corollary. (1) If M is a left R-module, then M = Hom R (M, R) is a right R-module. (2) If M and N are (R, R)-bimodules, then Hom R (M, N) is an (R, R)- bimodule, and End R (M) is an (R, R)-bialgebra. In particular, this is the case when the ring R is commutative. Proof. Exercise. Remark. If M and N are both (R, S)-bimodules, then the set of bimodule homomorphisms Hom (R,S) (M, N) has only the structure of an abelian group. Theorem generalizes to the following result in the context of bimodules. The proof is identical, and hence it will be omitted. (2.7) Theorem. Let φ (2.7) 0 M 1 M ψ M 2 be a sequence of (R, S)-bimodules and (R, S)-bimodule homomorphisms. Then the sequence (2.7) is exact if and only if the sequence (2.8) 0 Hom R (N, M 1 ) φ Hom R (N, M) ψ Hom R (N, M 2 ) is an exact sequence of (T, S)-bimodules for all (R, T )-bimodules N. If φ (2.9) M 1 M ψ M 2 0 is a sequence of (R, S)-bimodules and (R, S)-bimodule homomorphisms, then the sequence (2.9) is exact if and only if the sequence (2.10) 0 Hom R (M 2, N) ψ Hom R (M, N) φ Hom R (M 1, N) is an exact sequence of (S, T )-bimodules for all (R, T )-bimodules N. Proof. Similarly, the proof of the following result is identical to the proof of Theorem (2.8) Theorem. Let N be a fixed (R, T )-bimodule. If φ (2.11) 0 M 1 M ψ M 2 0

23 is a split short exact sequence of (R, S)-bimodules, then 7.2 Multilinear Algebra 417 (2.12) 0 Hom R (N, M 1 ) φ Hom R (N, M) ψ Hom R (N, M 2 ) 0 is a split short exact sequence of (T, S)-bimodules, and (2.13) 0 Hom R (M 2, N) ψ Hom R (M, N) φ Hom R (M 1, N) 0 is a split short exact sequence of (S, T )-bimodules. Proof. This concludes our brief introduction to bimodules and module structures on spaces of homomorphisms; we turn our attention now to the concept of tensor product of modules. As we shall see, Hom and tensor products are closely related, but unfortunately, there is no particularly easy definition of tensor products. On the positive side, the use of the tensor product in practice does not usually require an application of the definition, but rather fundamental properties (easier than the definition) are used. Let M be an (R, S)-bimodule and let N be an (S, T )-bimodule. Let F be the free abelian group on the index set M N (Remark 3.4.5). Recall that this means that F = (m,n) M N Z (m,n) where Z (m,n) = Z for all (m, n) M N, and that a basis of F is given by S = {e (m,n) } (m,n) M N where e (m,n) = (δ mk δ nl ) (k,l) M N, that is, e (m,n) = 1 in the component of F corresponding to the element (m, n) M N and e (m,n) = 0 in all other components. As is conventional, we will identify the basis element e (m,n) with the element (m, n) M N. Thus a typical element of F is a linear combination c (m,n) (m, n) (m,n) M N where c (m,n) Z and all but finitely many of the integers c (m,n) are 0. Note that F can be given the structure of an (R, T )-bimodule via the multiplication ( k ) k (2.14) r c i (m i, n i ) t = c i (rm i, n i t) i=1 where r R, t T, and c 1,..., c k Z. Let K F be the subgroup of F generated by the subset H 1 H 2 H 3 where the three subsets H 1, H 2, and H 3 are defined by H 1 = {(m 1 + m 2, n) (m 1, n) (m 2, n) : m 1, m 2 M, n N} H 2 = {(m, n 1 + n 2 ) (m, n 1 ) (m, n 2 ) : m M, n 1, n 2 N} i=1 H 3 = {(ms, n) (m, sn) : m M, n N, s S}.

24 418 Chapter 7. Topics in Module Theory Note that K is an (R, T )-submodule of F using the bimodule structure given by Equation (2.14). With these preliminaries out of the way, we can define the tensor product of M and N. (2.9) Definition. With the notation introduced above, the tensor product of the (R, S)-bimodule M and the (S, T )-bimodule N, denoted M S N, is the quotient (R, T )-bimodule M S N = F/K. If π : F F/K is the canonical projection map, then we let m S n = π((m, n)) for each (m, n) M N F. When S is clear from the context we will frequently write m n in place of m S n. Note that the set (2.15) {m S n : (m, n) M N} generates M S N as an (R, T )-bimodule, but it is important to recognize that M S N is not (in general) equal to the set in (2.15). Also important to recognize is the fact that m S n = (m, n) + K is an equivalence class, so that m n = m n does not necessarily imply that m = m and n = n. As motivation for this rather complicated definition, we have the following proposition. The proof is left as an exercise. (2.10) Proposition. Let M be an (R, S)-bimodule, N an (S, T )-bimodule, and let m, m i M, n, n i N, and s S. Then the following identities hold in M S N. (2.16) (2.17) (2.18) (m 1 + m 2 ) n = m 1 n + m 2 n m (n 1 + n 2 ) = m n 1 + m n 2 ms n = m sn. Proof. Exercise. Indeed, the tensor product M S N is obtained from the cartesian product M N by forcing the relations (2.16) (2.18), but no others, to hold. This idea is formalized in Theorem 2.12, the statement of which requires the following definition. (2.11) Definition. Let M be an (R, S)-bimodule, N an (S, T )-bimodule, and let M N be the cartesian product of M and N as sets. Let Q be any (R, T )-bimodule. A map g : M N Q is said to be S-middle linear if it satisfies the following properties (where r R, s S, t T, m, m i M and n, n i N):

25 (1) g(rm, nt) = rg(m, n)t, (2) g(m 1 + m 2, n) = g(m 1, n) + g(m 2, n), (3) g(m, n 1 + n 2 ) = g(m, n 1 ) + g(m, n 2 ), and (4) g(ms, n) = g(m, sn). 7.2 Multilinear Algebra 419 Note that conditions (1), (2), and (3) simply state that for each m M the function g m : N Q defined by g m (n) = g(m, n) is in Hom T (N, Q) and for each n N the function g n : M Q defined by g n (m) = g(m, n) is in Hom R (M, Q). Condition (4) is compatibility with the S-module structures on M and N. If π : F M S N = F/K is the canonical projection map and ι : M N F is the inclusion map that sends (m, n) to the basis element (m, n) F, then we obtain a map θ : M N M N. According to Proposition 2.10, the function θ is S-middle linear. The content of the following theorem is that every S-middle linear map factors through θ. This can, in fact, be taken as the fundamental defining property of the tensor product. (2.12) Theorem. Let M be an (R, S)-bimodule, N an (S, T )-bimodule, Q an (R, T )-bimodule, and g : M N Q an S-middle linear map. Then there exists a unique (R, T )-bimodule homomorphism g : M S N Q with g = g θ. Furthermore, this property characterizes M S N up to isomorphism. Proof. If F denotes the free Z-module on the index set M N, which is used to define the tensor product M S N, then Equation (2.14) gives an (R, T )- bimodule structure on F. Since F is a free Z-module with basis M N and g : M N Q is a function, Proposition shows that there is a unique Z-module homomorphism g : F Q such that g ι = g where ι : M N F is the inclusion map. The definition of the (R, T )-bimodule structure on F and the fact that g is S-middle linear implies that g is in fact an (R, T )-bimodule homomorphism. Let K = Ker(g ), so the first isomorphism theorem provides an injective (R, T )-bimodule homomorphism g : F/K Q such that g = π g where π : F F/K is the canonical projection map. Recall that K F is the subgroup of F generated by the sets H 1, H 2, and H 3 defined prior to Definition 2.9. Since g is an S-middle linear map, it follows that K Ker(g ) = K, so there is a map π 2 : F/K F/K such that π 2 π = π. Thus, g : M N Q can be factored as follows: (2.19) M N ι F π F/K π2 F/K g Q. Recalling that F/K = M S N, we define g = g π 2. Since θ = π ι, Equation (2.19) shows that g = g θ. It remains to consider uniqueness of g. But M S N is generated by the set {m S n = θ(m, n) : m M, n N}, and any function g such

26 420 Chapter 7. Topics in Module Theory that g θ = g satisfies g(m n) = g(θ(m, n)) = g(m, n), so g is uniquely specified on a generating set and, hence, is uniquely determined. Now suppose that we have (R, T )-bimodules P i and S-middle linear maps θ i : M N P i such that, for any (R, T )-bimodule Q and any S-middle linear map g : M N Q, there exist unique (R, T )-bimodule homomorphisms g i : P i Q with g = g i θ i for i = 1, 2. We will show that P 1 and P 2 are isomorphic, and indeed that there is a unique (R, T )- bimodule isomorphism φ : P 1 P 2 with the property that θ 2 = φ θ 1. Let Q = P 2 and g = θ 2. Then by the above property of P 1 there is a unique (R, T )-bimodule homomorphism φ : P 1 P 2 with θ 2 = φ θ 1. We need only show that φ is an isomorphism. To this end, let Q = P 1 and g = θ 1 to obtain ψ : P 2 P 1 with θ 1 = ψ θ 2. Then θ 1 = ψ θ 2 = ψ (φ θ 1 ) = (ψ φ) θ 1. Now apply the above property of P 1 again with Q = P 1 and g = θ 1. Then there is a unique g with g = g θ 1, i.e., a unique g with θ 1 = g θ 1. Obviously, g = 1 P1 satisfies this condition but so does g = ψ φ, so we conclude that ψ φ = 1 P1. Similarly, φ ψ = 1 P2, so ψ = φ 1, and we are done. (2.13) Remarks. (1) If M is a right R-module and N is a left R-module, then M R N is an abelian group. (2) If M and N are both (R, R)-bimodules, then M R N is an (R, R)- bimodule. A particular (important) case of this occurs when R is a commutative ring. In this case every left R-module is automatically a right R-module, and vice-versa. Thus, over a commutative ring R, it is meaningful to speak of the tensor product of R-modules, without explicit attention to the subtleties of bimodule structures. (3) Suppose that M is a left R-module and S is a ring that contains R as a subring. Then we can form the tensor product S R M which has the structure of an (S, Z)-bimodule, i.e, S R M is a left S-module. This construction is called change of rings and it is useful when one would like to be able to multiply elements of M by scalars from a bigger ring. For example, if V is any vector space over R, then C R V is a vector space over the complex numbers. This construction has been implicitly used in the proof of Theorem (4) If R is a commutative ring, M a free R-module, and φ a bilinear form on M, then φ : M M R is certainly middle linear, and so φ induces an R-module homomorphism φ : M R M R.

27 (2.14) Corollary. 7.2 Multilinear Algebra 421 (1) Let M and M be (R, S)-bimodules, let N and N be (S, T )-bimodules, and suppose that f : M M and g : N N are bimodule homomorphisms. Then there is a unique (R, T )-bimodule homomorphism (2.20) f g = f S g : M S N M S N satisfying (f g)(m n) = f(m) g(n) for all m M, n N. (2) If M is another (R, S)-bimodule, N is an (S, T )-bimodule, and f : M M, g : N N are bimodule homomorphisms, then letting f g : M N M N and f g : M N M N be defined as in part (1), we have (f g )(f g) = (f f) (g g) : M N M N. Proof. (1) Let F be the free abelian group on M N used in the definition of M S N, and let h : F M S N be the unique Z-module homomorphism such that h(m, n) = f(m) S g(n). Since f and g are bimodule homomorphisms, it is easy to check that h is an S-middle linear map, so by Theorem 2.12, there is a unique bimodule homomorphism h : M N M N such that h = h θ where θ : M N M N is the canonical map. Let f g = h. Then (f g)(m n) = h(m n) = h θ(m, n) = h(m, n) = f(m) g(n) as claimed. (2) is a routine calculation, which is left as an exercise. We will now consider some of the standard canonical isomorphisms relating various tensor product modules. The verifications are, for the most part, straightforward applications of Theorem A few representative calculations will be presented; the others are left as exercises. (2.15) Proposition. Let M be an (R, S)-bimodule. Then there are (R, S)- bimodule isomorphisms R R M = M and M S S = M. Proof. We check the first isomorphism; the second is similar. Let f : R M M be defined by f(r, m) = rm. It is easy to check that f is an R-middle linear map, and thus Theorem 2.12 gives an (R, S)-bimodule homomorphism f : R R M M such that f(r m) = rm. Define g : M R R M by g(m) = 1 m. Then g is an (R, S)-bimodule homomorphism, and it is immediate that f and g are inverses of each other.

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