# COMMUNICATIONS IN ALGEBRA, 15(3), (1987) A NOTE ON PRIME IDEALS WHICH TEST INJECTIVITY. John A. Beachy and William D.

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1 COMMUNICATIONS IN ALGEBRA, 15(3), (1987) A NOTE ON PRIME IDEALS WHICH TEST INJECTIVITY John A. Beachy and William D. Weakley Department of Mathematical Sciences Northern Illinois University DeKalb, Illinois It is well-known that over a commutative Noetherian ring R the set of all prime ideals of R is a test set for injectivity. That is, a module R X is injective if and only if for any prime ideal P R, any R-homomorphism f : P X can be extended to R. Vámos [4] has shown that a set of prime ideals of a commutative Noetherian ring R is a test set if and only if it contains each prime ideal P of R such that R P is not a field. We extend and clarify his results, showing that a set of prime ideals of a piecewise Noetherian ring is a test set if and only if it contains the set of all essential prime ideals of R. An example is given to show that in a piecewise Noetherian ring R there may exist an essential prime ideal P for which R P is a field. A commutative ring R with identity is called a piecewise Noetherian ring if it satisfies the following conditions: (i) the set of prime ideals of R satisfies the ascending chain condi 471

2 472 BEACHY AND WEAKLEY tion; (ii) for each prime ideal P of R, the set of P -primary ideals satisfies the ascending chain condition; (iii) each ideal of R has only finitely many prime ideals minimal over it. This property is inherited by any localization; furthermore, it implies that any maximal ideal is finitely generated [1, Proposition 2.2]. Conditions (i) and (iii) are well-known to be equivalent to the ascending chain condition on radical ideals. Recall that a ring which satisfies the latter condition is said to have Noetherian spectrum. LEMMA 1. If R is a piecewise Noetherian ring, then every nonzero R-module has an associated prime ideal. Proof. We say that a module R X has an associated prime ideal P if X contains a submodule isomorphic to R/P. To prove the lemma it suffices to show that every nonzero cyclic R-module has an associated prime ideal. Suppose that this condition does not hold. Let S be the set of all radical ideals I such that I = rad(a) for some ideal A such that R/A has no associated prime ideal. Thus S is nonempty, and so it contains a maximal element J, since by assumption R has Noetherian spectrum. We may assume without loss of generality that J is the nilradical N of R and that the module R R has no associated prime ideal. If S(N) denotes the complement of the union of the minimal prime ideals of R, then Proposition 1.3 of [1] shows that since R is piecewise Noetherian, the localization R S(N) is an Artinian

3 PRIME IDEALS WHICH TEST INJECTIVITY 473 ring. If the localization mapping from R to R S(N) is an embedding, then for any minimal nonzero ideal B of R S(N), it is clear that R B has an associated prime ideal. On the other hand, if the localization map is not an embedding, let x be a nonzero element of R which is torsion with respect to S(N). Then rad(ann(x)) N, and so by assumption Rx = R/ Ann(x) has an associated prime ideal. THEOREM 2. If R is a piecewise Noetherian ring, then the set of all essential prime ideals of R is a test set for injectivity. Proof. The proof follows that of Theorem 3 of [3]. Let R X be a module which is P -injective for all essential prime ideals P, and let f : I X be an R-homomorphism from an ideal I of R. There exists a maximal extension f : J X, and it can easily be checked that J is an essential ideal of R. If J is a proper ideal of R, then it follows from Lemma 1 that R/J has an associated prime ideal P. Then P is essential since P J, and the proof of Theorem 3 of [3] shows that f can be extended further since X is P -injective, a contradiction. We note that the proof of Theorem 2 requires only that the ring R has the property that for any proper essential ideal I of R, the module R/I has an associated prime ideal. LEMMA 3. Let I be an ideal of R, and let R X be an injective module.

4 474 BEACHY AND WEAKLEY (a) A submodule Y of X is I-injective if and only if for each x X, Ix Y implies there exists x x such that Ix = (0) and x x Y. (b) If P is a prime ideal and Y is any submodule of X, then Y = {x X cx Y for some c R\P } is I-injective for all ideals I P. (c) For any subset {a 1,..., a n } R such that a 1 is not a zero divisor modulo I, the module is I-injective. K = {(x 1,..., x n ) X n n i=1 a xx i = 0} Proof. (a) In the long exact homology sequence Hom(R/I, X) Hom(R/I, X/Y ) Ext(R/I, Y ) 0 we have Ext(R/I, Y ) = 0 if and only if Hom(R/I, X) Hom(R/I, X/Y ) is an epimorphism, and this translates immediately to the desired condition. x = 0. (b) In the given situation, condition (a) is satisfied by letting (c) To show that condition (a) is satisfied, let (x 1,..., x n ) be an element of the direct sum X n and suppose that I(x 1,..., x n ) K. Consider the submodule A of (R/I) n generated by a = (a 1,..., a n ). Define a homomorphism f : A X by f(ra) = r( n i=1 a ix i ). This is well-defined since if r(a 1,..., a n ) = 0, then r I since a 1 is not a zero-divisor modulo I, and thus by assumption f(ra) = r( n i=1 a ix i ) = 0.

5 PRIME IDEALS WHICH TEST INJECTIVITY 475 Since X is injective, there exists an extension f : (R/I) n X. Let y i = f (e i ), where e i is the element of (R/I) n with 1 in the i th entry and 0 elsewhere, and let x = (y 1,..., y n ). Now Ix = (0), since if r I, then ry i = f (re i ) = 0 for all i. x x K since n i=1 a iy i = f(a 1,..., a n ) = n i=1 a ix i. Furthermore, THEOREM 4. Let R be a piecewise Noetherian ring and let T be any test set of prime ideals of R. Then T contains every essential prime ideal of R. Proof. If P is an essential minimal prime ideal of R, consider P = {x E(R) cx P for some c R\P }, where E(R) denotes the injective envelope of the module R R. Then P is not injective since it is a proper essential submodule of E(R), but by Lemma 3 (b) it is Q-injective for every prime ideal Q P. It follows that P T. Next, assume that P is essential but not minimal. Then R P is not a field, and is piecewise Noetherian, so P R P is finitely generated by elements a 1,..., a n. Let X be the injective envelope over R P of the unique simple R P module S, and let Y = {(x 1,..., x n ) X n n i=1 a ix i = 0}. If Y = X n, then X is annihilated by the nonzero ideal P R P. This is a contradiction since X is a faithful R P -module. It follows that Y is not injective as an R-module, since it must

6 476 BEACHY AND WEAKLEY contain S n and is therefore an essential R-submodule of the R- injective module X n. As an R-module, Y is Q-injective for all prime ideals Q P, since it is a module over the localization R P, and Lemma 3 (b) may be applied. For any prime ideal Q P, some generator a i of P R P lies outside QR P. It follows from Lemma 3 (c) that Y is QR P -injective for all prime ideals Q P, and it is easy to check that this implies that Y is Q-injective for all prime ideals Q P. Again, it follows that P T. EXAMPLE 5. There exists a one-dimensional piecewise Noetherian ring R whose nilradical N is an essential minimal prime ideal such that R S(N) is a field. Proof. For each positive integer i, let p i denote the i th prime number. Let R 0 = Z[Y 1, Y 2,...], the ring of polynomials in countably many indeterminates with integer coefficients. Let I be the ideal of R 0 generated by {p i Y i, Y i+1 i R = R 0 /I. i > 0}. The desired example is For each i, let y i denote the image in R of Y i. The nilradical of R is N = (y 1, y 2,...), and it follows that R/N is Noetherian, since R/N = Z. It is then clear that R must have Noetherian spectrum, but R is not Noetherian since N is not nilpotent. By the definition of I, each element of N is torsion with respect to S(N), and thus R S(N) is a field.

7 PRIME IDEALS WHICH TEST INJECTIVITY 477 Furthermore, the ascending chain condition on N-primary ideals holds trivially. If P is a prime ideal of R which properly contains N, then the image of P in R/N is a nonzero prime ideal, and hence contains p k for some integer k. Then for i k, we have Ry i = (Rp k + Rp i )y i = Rp k y i, so y i Rp k. Thus the ideal (p k, y k ) of R contains N, and in fact P = (p k, y k ), so for any P -primary ideal Q of R, R P /QR P is Noetherian since the prime ideal of the ring is finitely generated. It follows that R satisfies the ascending chain condition on P -primary ideals, which shows that R is piecewise Noetherian. The set of finitely generated ideals of R cannot be a test set, and so, in particular, Spec(R)\{N} is not a test set. (To show this, if the finitely generated ideals were a test set, then any direct sum of injective modules would be injective, and R would be Noetherian by Theorem 20.1 of [2]. This also follows from Theorem 7 (a) of [4].) It follows from Theorem 2 that N is an essential prime ideal of R. REFERENCES [1] J.A. Beachy and W.D. Weakley, Piecewise Noetherian rings, Commun. Algebra 12, (1984). [2] C. Faith, Algebra. II. Ring Theory. Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften, No Springer Verlag, Berlin- New York, 1976.

8 478 BEACHY AND WEAKLEY [3] P.F. Smith, Injective modules and prime ideals, Commun. Algebra 9, (1981). [4] P. Vámos, Ideals and modules testing injectivity, Commun. Algebra 11, (1983). Received: April 1985

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