Searching for Other Worlds: The Methods

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1 Searching for Other Worlds: The Methods John Bally 1 1 Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences University of Colorado, Boulder

2 The Search Extra-Solar Planets Hard: Earth (10 billion) x fainter than Sun! Stellar Reflex Motion: - Periodic Doppler variation - Periodic Position change Transits (planet blocks light) Gravitational Lensing Direct detection in images

3 Direct imaging of exo-planets is Hard: Sun Earth

4 > 200 planets: Most located inside Earth s orbit Earth Goeff Marcy Paul Butler radial velocity method

5 > 200 planets: Gas Giants like Jupiter

6 Orbit eccentricity

7 The Metallicity Effect:

8 The Search Extra-Solar Planets Hard: Earth (10 billion) x fainter than Sun! Stellar Reflex Motion: - Periodic Doppler variation - Periodic Position change Transits (planet blocks light) Gravitational Lensing Direct detection in images

9 Quantitative estimate of reflex motion: M * m p D * D p CM D * M * = D p m p D p ~ r orbit D * = (m p /M * ) r orbit V * = (m p /M * ) V orbit

10 Reflex Motion: Planet To Earth Center of Mass Parent Star

11 Quantitative estimate of reflex motion: M Earth = 6 x g M Jupiter = 1.7 x g M Sun = 2 x g D Earth = 1.5 x cm (1AU) D Jupiter = 7.8 x cm D * = (m p /M * ) r orbit 1AU 4.5 x 10 7 cm 1AU 1.3 x cm 5.2 AU 6.6 x cm

12 Quantitative estimate of reflex motion: Orbital speed of planet: V p = (GM * / D p ) 1/2 Orbital speed of star: V * = V p (D * / D p ) D V p * V D * p V * 1AU 8.9 cm/s 1AU 25.4 m/s 5.2 AU 11.1 m/s

13 The Doppler Effect: / = / = V * / c (v << c) = Frequency = Wavelength = c (speed of light) V * / 1AU 8.9 cm/s 3 x AU 25.4 m/s 8 x AU 11.1 m/s 4 x 10-8

14 The Sun s Wobble

15

16 The first exo-planets: Use radio timing of Pulse-arival Brightness - Doppler Time (days)

17

18 +50 Velocity variation of 51 Peg (Doppler shift) Radial velocity (m/s) Goeff Marcy, Paul Butler Time (days)

19 Gas-Giants Close-In: Hot Jupiters Oribital Periods: 1 day => 1 year D ~ 0.05 AU to > 1 AU T ~ 1400 K to < 300 K Giants => Composed of H, He (like Jupiter) Evaporation of outer H in atmosphere Earth-like planets, moons?

20 Transits:

21 Transits: Time (days) Transit decreases light of star

22

23 First planet Discovered Using the Transit method

24

25 Transit of HD209458b (HST)

26 UV absorption: Escaping H and Na Detected towards HD Recently, C and O Have been detected - escaping atmosphere!

27

28

29 Gravitational Lensing: A cluster of galaxies `lensing more distant objects A star & its planets magnifying a more distant star

30

31 Gravitational Lensing: Magnification by star Magnification by planet Brightness Gravitational Lensing: Star and planet magnifies background starlight Time (days) -20

32 Gravitational Lensing: OGLE 2003-BLG0253 Brightness

33 Brightness Gravitational Lensing:

34 Radio emission: Jupiters Brightness Time (days) +20

35 Exo-planet detection methods

36 Methods for direct detection and characterization of exo-planets : Direct imaging with a coronagraph: UV, visual, near IR Mask light of star control scattered light, diffraction Large filled-aperture telescope Interferometry IR, radio Link several telescope pre-detection/post-detection

37 Ground vs. Space: Ground: meter vis/nir - Extreme adaptive optics to correct turbulent images - radio interferometry (VLA, evla, SKA) Space: - 10 m + UV,VIS, NIR - Interferometers

38 Future Projects for finding Planets: Kepler: transits (2008+) Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA): mm interferometer: direct detection of young gas giants Next Generation Space Telescope James Webb Space Telescope (JWST): - direct imaging of forming gas giants? Space Interferometry Mission (SIM): - Astrometry ( defered ) Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF): ( defered ) - Coronagraph - IR interferometer - Star Shade (Web Cash et al.) Terrestrial Planet Imager (TPI): (?)

39 ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter Array)

40 - Large next-generation space telescopes (near-infrared & visual wavelength) block parent star's light Next Generation Space Telescope& test

41 Finding planets around other stars: (2010+) -Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) measure stellar `wobble - Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) Direct detection of Earth-sized planets - Infrared `interferometer or - visual `coronagraph Darwin interferometer

42 Diffraction pattern of a circular aperture

43 Shaped telescopes: 0.3 < < 3 μm Circular aperture diffracts light in all directions. - Light is scattered perpendicular to edges. Shaped aperture: Edges have limited orientations - Scatter light only into selected (unwanted) directions

44 Diffraction patterns of shaped apertures

45 Earth as seen from 10 pc with various interferometers

46 Biosignatures: Spectra of various planets IR (Stratosphere) vs. visible (Ground)

47

48 The End

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