13 - EXTRASOLAR PLANETS

Save this PDF as:
Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "13 - EXTRASOLAR PLANETS"

Transcription

1 NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS 13 - EXTRASOLAR PLANETS Dr. Karen Kolehmainen Department of Physics, CSUSB

2 EXTRASOLAR PLANETS? DO PLANETS ORBIT AROUND OTHER STARS? WE WOULD EXPECT SO, BASED ON OUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE FORMATION OF OUR SOLAR SYSTEM. LUMPS OF MATERIAL IN THE SOLAR NEBULA FORMED PLANETS. THE FORMATION OF PLANETS SEEMS LIKE A NATURAL CONSEQUENCE OF STAR FORMATION. WHAT DO OBSERVATIONS TELL US? NOTE: WE DO NOT HAVE THE ABILITY TO SEND SPACECRAFT OVER INTERSTELLAR DISTANCES (i.e., TO OTHER SOLAR SYSTEMS) TO LOOK FOR PLANETS.

3 PROTOPLANETARY DISKS WE HAVE OBSERVED FLAT DISKS OF GAS AND DUST ORBITING MANY YOUNG STARS. RECENT OBSERVATIONS HAVE FOUND THAT MOST YOUNG SUN-TYPE STARS HAVE THESE. MASS OF DISK IS A FEW PERCENT OF THE MASS OF THE STAR. (IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM, MASS OF ALL PLANETS COMBINED IS 0.2% OF SUN'S MASS.) THESE APPEAR TO BE SOLAR SYSTEMS IN PROCESS OF FORMATION. FLAT SHAPE EXPECTED MASS IS SUFFICIENT

4

5

6 METHODS FOR DETECTING EXTRASOLAR PLANETS DIRECT OBSERVATION TRANSITS GRAVITATIONAL LENSING ASTROMETRY DOPPLER EFFECT (MOST SUCCESSFUL)

7 DIRECT OBSERVATION (USING EITHER VISIBLE LIGHT OR INFRARED RADIATION) PROBLEMS: PLANET IS MUCH FAINTER THAN THE STAR IT ORBITS EXAMPLE: USING VISIBLE LIGHT, THE SUN IS 1 BILLION TIMES BRIGHTER THAN JUPITER, SEEN FROM THE SAME DISTANCE. USING INFRARED, THE SUN IS ONLY 100,000 TIMES BRIGHTER THAN JUPITER. RESOLUTION - ABILITY TO SEE SEPARATELY TWO OBJECTS THAT ARE CLOSE TOGETHER WITH MOST CURRENT GENERATION TELESCOPES, THE IMAGE OF A PLANET WOULD APPEAR BLENDED TOGETHER WITH THE IMAGE OF THE STAR IT ORBITS. FAINTNESS AND RESOLUTION COMBINED MAKE THE PROBLEM EVEN WORSE.

8 DIRECT OBSERVATION CURRENT TECHNOLOGY IS AT THE BORDERLINE OF BEING ABLE TO DETECT EXTRASOLAR PLANETS VIA DIRECT IMAGING. EASIEST TO DETECT IF: PLANET IS LARGER PLANET IS FARTHER FROM STAR A FEW LARGE PLANETS DISCOVERED THIS WAY SO FAR, BUT MAY BE MORE IMPORTANT IN THE FUTURE. EARTH-SIZED PLANETS MAY BECOME VISIBLE DURING NEXT FEW DECADES.

9 DIRECT OBSERVATION FUTURE IMAGING TECHNOLOGY (WITHIN THE NEXT FEW YEARS TO DECADES): - TELESCOPES IN EARTH ORBIT - WILL USE INTERFEROMETRY (COMBINATION OF IMAGES FROM SEVERAL TELESCOPES TO IMPROVE RESOLUTION) - MAY BE ABLE TO DETECT CHANGES IN BRIGHTNESS DUE TO CLOUD COVER OR SEASONAL CHANGES - SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS WILL BE ABLE TO DETECT COMPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERE

10 TRANSITS A PLANET PASSES IN BETWEEN US AND THE STAR IT ORBITS. IN OUR OWN SOLAR SYSTEM, WE CAN OBSERVE MERCURY AND VENUS DO THIS (APPEARS AS LITTLE BLACK DOT AGAINST DISK OF SUN). HOWEVER, OTHER STARS ARE TOO FAR AWAY TO SEE DISK, SEE ONLY POINT OF LIGHT. THE PLANET PARTIALLY BLOCKS LIGHT FROM THE STAR, CAUSING A TEMPORARY DECREASE IN THE STAR S BRIGHTNESS. BRIGHTNESS DIPS REPEATEDLY, ONCE PER ORBIT OF THE PLANET.

11 TRANSITS THIS WORKS ONLY IF ORBIT IS SEEN EDGE-ON (SMALL FRACTION OF SOLAR SYSTEMS). EASIEST TO DETECT IF PLANET IS LARGER FEW EXTRASOLAR PLANETS HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED THIS WAY, BUT IT WAS USED TO VERIFY THE EXISTENCE OF SEVERAL PLANETS THAT HAD BEEN ALREADY DISCOVERED VIA THE DOPPLER EFFECT.

12 GRAVITATIONAL LENSING LIGHT FROM A DISTANT OBJECT PASSES BY SOME NEARER OBJECT (AN EXTRASOLAR PLANET IN OUR CASE) ON ITS WAY TO US. GRAVITATIONAL EFFECTS OF NEARER OBJECT BEND THE PATH OF THE LIGHT. AS A RESULT, THE DISTANT OBJECT APPEARS SHIFTED IN POSITION OR IN MULTIPLE IMAGES. PROBLEM: PLANETS AREN T MASSIVE ENOUGH TO CAUSE SIGNIFICANT BENDING. A FEW EXTRASOLAR PLANETS HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED THIS WAY, BUT THIS TECHNIQUE MAY WORK BETTER IN THE FUTURE. THIS WORKS BETTER WHEN A MORE MASSIVE OBJECT (E.G., A STAR OR GALAXY) IS BENDING THE LIGHT. THIS HAS BEEN OBSERVED.

13 ORBITS AN UNDERSTANDING OF THIS IS NEEDED TO DISCUSS THE TWO REMAINING TECHNIQUES ASTROMETRY AND THE DOPPLER EFFECT. OBJECT A AND OBJECT B (COULD BE TWO STARS, OR A STAR AND A PLANET) ORBIT AROUND THEIR COMMON CENTER OF MASS (CM). IF OBJECT A AND OBJECT B HAVE THE SAME MASS, THEN CM IS HALFWAY IN BETWEEN: A X CM B

14 ORBITS IF OBJECT A IS HEAVIER THAN OBJECT B, THEN CM IS CLOSER TO OBJECT A: A X CM B IF A IS MUCH HEAVIER THAN B, THEN OBJECT A WIGGLES A LITTLE AS OBJECT B ORBITS IT. THIS IS THE CASE IF OBJECT A IS A STAR AND OBJECT B IS A PLANET.

15 ASTROMETRY LOOK FOR WIGGLES IN A STAR S PROPER MOTION DUE TO ITS ORBITAL MOTION AROUND CENTER OF MASS OF STAR-PLANET SYSTEM PROPER MOTION: PATH OF STAR ACROSS SKY (RELATIVE TO OTHER STARS) DUE TO ACTUAL MOTION THROUGH SPACE (MUST OBSERVE FOR MANY YEARS TO SEE ANY SUCH MOTION) WORKS ONLY IF ORBIT SEEN NEARLY FACE-ON EASIER TO DETECT IF: PLANET IS MORE MASSIVE PLANET IS FARTHER FROM STAR ONLY A FEW EXTRASOLAR PLANETS DISCOVERED THIS WAY SO FAR, BUT IT MAY BE MORE SUCCESSFUL IN THE FUTURE

16 DOPPLER EFFECT A SHIFT IN THE WAVELENGTH OF A WAVE DUE TO RELATIVE MOTION OF THE SOURCE AND THE OBSERVER IF THE SOURCE AND OBSERVER ARE MOVING TOWARDS EACH OTHER, THE WAVELENGTH IS SHORTENED. IF THE SOURCE AND OBSERVER ARE MOVING AWAY FROM EACH OTHER, THE WAVELENGTH IS LENGTHENED. THE FASTER THE RELATIVE MOTION, THE MORE THE WAVELENGTH CHANGES. SEE DEMONSTRATION (JAVA APPLET) AT:

17 DOPPLER EFFECT FOR SOUND WAVES, A CHANGE IN WAVELENGTH IS A CHANGE IN PITCH. THE SOUND IS HIGHER PITCHED IF THE SOURCE AND OBSERVER ARE MOVING TOWARDS EACH OTHER. THE SOUND IS LOWER PITCHED IF THE SOURCE AND OBSERVER ARE MOVING AWAY FROM EACH OTHER. EXAMPLE: SIREN ON A MOVING CAR

18 DOPPLER EFFECT FOR LIGHT WAVES, A CHANGE IN WAVELENGTH IS A CHANGE IN COLOR. THE LIGHT IS BLUER IF THE SOURCE AND OBSERVER ARE MOVING TOWARDS EACH OTHER (BLUESHIFT). THE LIGHT IS REDDER IF THE SOURCE AND OBSERVER ARE MOVING AWAY FROM EACH OTHER (REDSHIFT). EXAMPLE: LIGHT COMING FROM DISTANT GALAXIES IS REDSHIFTED DUE TO THE EXPANSION OF THE UNIVERSE.

19 STELLAR DOPPLER SHIFT DETECTION Star Moves Toward Observer Unseen Planet Moves Away From Observer LIGHT FROM STAR IS BLUE SHIFTED

20 STELLAR DOPPLER SHIFT DETECTION Unseen Planet Moves Towards Observer Star Moves Away From Observer LIGHT FROM STAR IS RED SHIFTED

21 DOPPLER EFFECT DETECTION OF PLANETS PLANET AND STAR ORBIT AROUND THEIR COMMON CENTER OF MASS SINCE THE STAR IS MUCH HEAVIER, IT MOVES IN A SMALLER CIRCLE (OR ELLIPSE) PLANET IS UNSEEN, BUT LIGHT FROM STAR IS ALTERNATELY BLUESHIFTED AND REDSHIFTED DUE TO WIGGLE OF STAR CYCLE REPEATS OVER AND OVER AGAIN

22 DOPPLER EFFECT DETECTION OF PLANETS WORKS ONLY IF ORBIT IS SEEN NEARLY EDGE-ON EASIEST TO DETECT IF PLANET IS MORE MASSIVE PLANET CLOSER TO STAR OVER 100 PLANETS DISCOVERED SINCE 1995 VIA THIS TECHNIQUE OVER 90% OF EXTRASOLAR PLANETS DISCOVERED THIS WAY

23 METHODS FOR DETECTING EXTRASOLAR PLANETS (PLANETS ORBITING OTHER STARS) DIRECT OBSERVATION TRANSITS GRAVITATIONAL LENSING ASTROMETRY DOPPLER EFFECT (MOST SUCCESSFUL)

24 WHAT CAN WE DETERMINE? ORBITAL PERIOD (TIME NEEDED FOR ONE ORBIT) AVERAGE DISTANCE OF PLANET FROM STAR ECCENTRICITY (SHAPE) OF ORBIT LOWER LIMIT ON PLANET S MASS

25 RESULTS OVER 200 EXTRASOLAR PLANETS HAVE BEEN DISCOVERED SINCE 1995, MOST USING THE DOPPLER EFFECT TECHNIQUE. SEVERAL STARS HAVE BEEN FOUND TO HAVE TWO OR MORE PLANETS. MOST PLANET MASSES ARE IN JUPITER RANGE. (MANY ARE EVEN HEAVIER.) THE LIGHTEST PLANET FOUND SO FAR IS 5.5 EARTH MASSES. MOST PLANETS ARE VERY CLOSE TO STAR. HALF OF ALL DISCOVERED PLANETS ARE CLOSER IN THAN 0.5 AU MANY ARE CLOSER TO THEIR STARS THAN MERCURY IS TO OUR SUN MOST ORBITS ARE VERY ECCENTRIC (HIGHLY ELLIPTICAL - FAR FROM CIRCULAR).

26 DISTRIBUTION OF PLANETS MERCURY VENUS 0.5 A.U. EARTH 1.0 A.U. 2.3 A.U. 2.5 A.U. 2.5 A.U. MARS 1.0 A.U. 3.3 A.U. 2.0 A.U.

27 THE PROBLEM IN UNDERSTANDING THIS OUR MODELS OF SOLAR SYSTEM FORMATION PREDICT SMALL ROCKY PLANETS CLOSE TO STAR AND MASSIVE GAS GIANTS FARTHER AWAY (>5 AU), AS IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM BUT MOST OBSERVED SOLAR SYSTEMS HAVE MASSIVE PLANETS (PROBABLY GAS GIANTS) CLOSE TO STAR

28 EXPLANATION?? OBSERVED MASSIVE PLANETS WERE FORMED FARTHER OUT FROM STAR (>5 AU), WHERE GAS GIANTS ARE EXPECTED TO FORM AFTER FORMATION, THE PLANETS MIGRATED TO NEW ORBITS DUE TO GRAVITATIONAL INTERACTIONS WITH OTHER PLANETS MATERIAL IN THE SOLAR DISK (NEAR THE END OF SOLAR SYSTEM FORMATION) OTHER STARS PASSING NEARBY

29 MIGRATING PLANETS COMPUTER MODELING INDICATES PLANETS ARE MORE LIKELY TO MIGRATE INWARD THAN OUTWARD NEW ORBIT IS USUALLY HIGHLY ECCENTRIC WHEN A LARGE PLANET MIGRATES, SMALLER PLANETS ARE PROBABLY THROWN INTO THE STAR OR OUT OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM BY GRAVITY OF MIGRATING MASSIVE PLANET HENCE THERE ARE PROBABLY NO SUITABLE PLANETS IN THE SYSTEM

30 ARE MIGRATING PLANETS COMMON? IF THEY ARE THE NORM, PLANETS THAT ARE SUITABLE FOR LIFE MAY BE RARE. BUT KEEP IN MIND THAT MASSIVE PLANETS CLOSE TO THEIR STARS ARE EASIEST TO DETECT (LARGEST DOPPLER EFFECT). THEREFORE OBSERVATIONAL BIAS IS PRESENT. OUR SAMPLE OF KNOWN EXTRASOLAR PLANETS IS NOT REPRESENTATIVE OR TYPICAL. OUR CURRENT TECHNOLOGY CANNOT DETECT EARTH-LIKE PLANETS.

31 WE ARE JUST BEGINNING TO BE ABLE TO DETECT JUPITER-LIKE PLANETS (AT JUPITER'S DISTANCE FROM THE STAR). THERE ARE REPORTS OF A FEW SUCH PLANETS. SOLAR SYSTEMS CONTAINING JUPITER-LIKE PLANETS FARTHER OUT ARE MORE LIKELY TO HAVE EARTH-TYPE PLANETS CLOSER IN TO THE STAR. WE HAVE FOUND EXTRASOLAR PLANETS ORBITING ABOUT 10% OF STARS EXAMINED. MAYBE THE OTHER 90% OF STARS (OR MANY OF THEM, AT LEAST) MAY HAVE PLANETARY SYSTEMS MORE LIKE OURS, WHICH WE CANNOT YET DETECT. IMPROVED TECHNOLOGY WILL ANSWER THIS, PROBABLY WITHIN THE NEXT DECADE. NASA IS PLANNING A TERRESTRIAL PLANET FINDER.

32 STELLAR/PLANETARY HIERARCHY STARS 0.08 TO 20 SOLAR MASSES BROWN DWARFS TO 0.08 SOLAR MASSES JUPITER MASSES MASSES IN BETWEEN THOSE OF PLANETS AND STARS GAS GIANT PLANETS 0.04(?) - 13 JUPITER MASSES ROCKY (TERRESTRIAL) PLANETS < 0.04 JUPITER MASSES OR < 13 EARTH MASSES (?) (1 EARTH MASS ~ JUPITER MASSES)

NSCI EXTRASOLAR PLANETS (CONTINUED) AND THE DRAKE EQUATION. Dr. Karen Kolehmainen Department of Physics, CSUSB

NSCI EXTRASOLAR PLANETS (CONTINUED) AND THE DRAKE EQUATION. Dr. Karen Kolehmainen Department of Physics, CSUSB NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS 14 - EXTRASOLAR PLANETS (CONTINUED) AND THE DRAKE EQUATION Dr. Karen Kolehmainen Department of Physics, CSUSB http://physics.csusb.edu/~karen/ METHODS FOR DETECTING EXTRASOLAR

More information

Other Planetary Systems (Chapter 13) Extrasolar Planets. Is our solar system the only collection of planets in the universe?

Other Planetary Systems (Chapter 13) Extrasolar Planets. Is our solar system the only collection of planets in the universe? Other Planetary Systems (Chapter 13) Extrasolar Planets Is our solar system the only collection of planets in the universe? Based on Chapter 13 No subsequent chapters depend on the material in this lecture

More information

Detecting Extra Solar Planets

Detecting Extra Solar Planets Detecting Extra Solar Planets The Extrasolar Planet Count Currently, 288 stars have been discovered to have planets. Some of these have more than one, so a total of 380 planets have been discovered as

More information

Planet Detection. AST 105 Intro Astronomy The Solar System

Planet Detection. AST 105 Intro Astronomy The Solar System Review AST 105 Intro Astronomy The Solar System MIDTERM III this THURSDAY 04/8 covering LECT. 17 through We ve talked about the Terrestrial Planets and the Jovian Planets - What about planets around other

More information

Earth in the Universe Unit Notes

Earth in the Universe Unit Notes Earth in the Universe Unit Notes The Universe - everything everywhere, 15-20 billion years old Inside the universe there are billions of Galaxies Inside each Galaxy there are billions of Solar Systems

More information

10/16/ Detecting Planets Around Other Stars. Chapter 10: Other Planetary Systems The New Science of Distant Worlds

10/16/ Detecting Planets Around Other Stars. Chapter 10: Other Planetary Systems The New Science of Distant Worlds 10/16/17 Lecture Outline 10.1 Detecting Planets Around Other Stars Chapter 10: Other Planetary Systems The New Science of Distant Worlds Our goals for learning: How do we detect planets around other stars?

More information

NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS

NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS 2 BASIC ASTRONOMY, AND STARS AND THEIR EVOLUTION Dr. Karen Kolehmainen Department of Physics CSUSB COURSE WEBPAGE: http://physics.csusb.edu/~karen MOTIONS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM

More information

2010 Pearson Education, Inc.

2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Thought Question Suppose you found a star with the same mass as the Sun moving back and forth with a period of 16 months. What could you conclude? A. It has a planet orbiting at less than 1 AU. B. It has

More information

18 An Eclipsing Extrasolar Planet

18 An Eclipsing Extrasolar Planet Name: Date: 18 An Eclipsing Extrasolar Planet 18.1 Introduction One of the more recent new fields in astronomy is the search for (and discovery of) planets orbiting around stars other than our Sun, or

More information

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems. Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars? Size Difference. Brightness Difference

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems. Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars? Size Difference. Brightness Difference Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars? Size Difference Planets are small compared to interstellar distances 10 billion to 1 scale Sun is size of

More information

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems. The New Science of Distant Worlds

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems. The New Science of Distant Worlds Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems The New Science of Distant Worlds 13.1 Detecting Extrasolar Planets Our goals for learning Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars? How do we detect

More information

Planets are plentiful

Planets are plentiful Extra-Solar Planets Planets are plentiful The first planet orbiting another Sun-like star was discovered in 1995. We now know of 209 (Feb 07). Including several stars with more than one planet - true planetary

More information

Planets & Life. Planets & Life PHYS 214. Please start all class related s with 214: 214: Dept of Physics (308A)

Planets & Life. Planets & Life PHYS 214. Please start all class related  s with 214: 214: Dept of Physics (308A) Planets & Life Planets & Life PHYS 214 Dr Rob Thacker Dept of Physics (308A) thacker@astro.queensu.ca Please start all class related emails with 214: 214: Today s s lecture Assignment 1 marked will hand

More information

Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Examination 3 Review Problems

Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Examination 3 Review Problems Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Examination 3 Review Problems Multiple Choice Questions: The first eight questions are multiple choice. Except where explicitly noted, only one answer is correct for each

More information

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems. Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars? Brightness Difference

Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems. Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars? Brightness Difference Chapter 13 Other Planetary Systems The New Science of Distant Worlds 13.1 Detecting Extrasolar Planets Our goals for learning:! Why is it so difficult to detect planets around other stars?! How do we detect

More information

Searching for Other Worlds

Searching for Other Worlds Searching for Other Worlds Lecture 32 1 In-Class Question What is the Greenhouse effect? a) Optical light from the Sun is reflected into space while infrared light passes through the atmosphere and heats

More information

The Problem. Until 1995, we only knew of one Solar System - our own

The Problem. Until 1995, we only knew of one Solar System - our own Extrasolar Planets Until 1995, we only knew of one Solar System - our own The Problem We had suspected for hundreds of years, and had confirmed as long ago as the 1800s that the stars were extremely distant

More information

Lecture 12: Extrasolar planets. Astronomy 111 Monday October 9, 2017

Lecture 12: Extrasolar planets. Astronomy 111 Monday October 9, 2017 Lecture 12: Extrasolar planets Astronomy 111 Monday October 9, 2017 Reminders Star party Thursday night! Homework #6 due Monday The search for extrasolar planets The nature of life on earth and the quest

More information

21/11/ /11/2017 Space Physics AQA Physics topic 8

21/11/ /11/2017 Space Physics AQA Physics topic 8 Space Physics AQA Physics topic 8 8.1 Solar System, Orbits and Satellites The eight planets of our Solar System Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune As well as the eight planets, the

More information

Can We See Them?! Planet Detection! Planet is Much Fainter than Star!

Can We See Them?! Planet Detection! Planet is Much Fainter than Star! Can We See Them?! Planet Detection! Estimating f p! Not easily! Best cases were reported in late 2008! Will see these later! Problem is separating planet light from star light! Star is 10 9 times brighter

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 15. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 15. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 15 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 15 The Formation of Planetary Systems Units of Chapter 15 15.1 Modeling Planet Formation 15.2 Terrestrial and Jovian Planets

More information

The Main Point(s) Lecture #36: Planets Around Other Stars. Extrasolar Planets! Reading: Chapter 13. Theory Observations

The Main Point(s) Lecture #36: Planets Around Other Stars. Extrasolar Planets! Reading: Chapter 13. Theory Observations Lecture #36: Planets Around Other Stars Extrasolar Planets! Theory Observations Detection methods Results to date... Implications for "Habitable Zones" Reading: Chapter 13 Astro 102/104 1 The Main Point(s)

More information

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation

Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Base your answers to questions 1 and 2 on the passage below and on your knowledge of Earth Science. Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation In the 1920s, Edwin Hubble's discovery of a pattern in the red

More information

Habitability Outside the Solar System. A discussion of Bennett & Shostak Chapter 11 HNRS 228 Dr. H. Geller

Habitability Outside the Solar System. A discussion of Bennett & Shostak Chapter 11 HNRS 228 Dr. H. Geller Habitability Outside the Solar System A discussion of Bennett & Shostak Chapter 11 HNRS 228 Dr. H. Geller 1 Chapter Overview Distant Suns (11.1) Life cycle of stars and their habitability zones Extrasolar

More information

Extrasolar planets. Lecture 23, 4/22/14

Extrasolar planets. Lecture 23, 4/22/14 Extrasolar planets Lecture 23, 4/22/14 Extrasolar planets Extrasolar planets: planets around other stars Also called exoplanets 1783 exoplanets discovered as of 4/21/14 Orbitting 1105 different stars Number

More information

Chapter 15: The Origin of the Solar System

Chapter 15: The Origin of the Solar System Chapter 15: The Origin of the Solar System The Solar Nebula Hypothesis Basis of modern theory of planet formation: Planets form at the same time from the same cloud as the star. Planet formation sites

More information

ASTRONOMY 1 FINAL EXAM 1 Name

ASTRONOMY 1 FINAL EXAM 1 Name ASTRONOMY 1 FINAL EXAM 1 Name Multiple Choice (2 pts each) 1. Sullivan Star is an F spectral class star that is part of a binary star system. It has a MS lifetime of 5 billion years. Its life will eventually

More information

Doppler Technique Measuring a star's Doppler shift can tell us its motion toward and away from us.

Doppler Technique Measuring a star's Doppler shift can tell us its motion toward and away from us. Doppler Technique Measuring a star's Doppler shift can tell us its motion toward and away from us. Current techniques can measure motions as small as 1 m/s (walking speed!). Sun motion due to: Jupiter:

More information

GALAXIES AND STARS. 2. Which star has a higher luminosity and a lower temperature than the Sun? A Rigel B Barnard s Star C Alpha Centauri D Aldebaran

GALAXIES AND STARS. 2. Which star has a higher luminosity and a lower temperature than the Sun? A Rigel B Barnard s Star C Alpha Centauri D Aldebaran GALAXIES AND STARS 1. Compared with our Sun, the star Betelgeuse is A smaller, hotter, and less luminous B smaller, cooler, and more luminous C larger, hotter, and less luminous D larger, cooler, and more

More information

Lecture #15: Plan. Telescopes (cont d) Effects of Earth s Atmosphere Extrasolar planets = Exoplanets

Lecture #15: Plan. Telescopes (cont d) Effects of Earth s Atmosphere Extrasolar planets = Exoplanets Lecture #15: Plan Telescopes (cont d) Effects of Earth s Atmosphere Extrasolar planets = Exoplanets Resolving Power (review) The bigger the size of the telescope, the better it is at discerning fine details

More information

What is it like? When did it form? How did it form. The Solar System. Fall, 2005 Astronomy 110 1

What is it like? When did it form? How did it form. The Solar System. Fall, 2005 Astronomy 110 1 What is it like? When did it form? How did it form The Solar System Fall, 2005 Astronomy 110 1 Fall, 2005 Astronomy 110 2 The planets all orbit the sun in the same direction. The Sun spins in the same

More information

Planet Detection. Estimating f p

Planet Detection. Estimating f p Planet Detection Estimating f p Can We See Them? Not yet, but there are plans 3 recent claims, but planets very far from star, so some doubts Problem is separating planet light from star light Star is

More information

Chapter 13 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 13 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds 13.1 Detecting Planets Around Other Stars Our goals for learning: Why is it so challenging

More information

Planets: Name Distance from Sun Satellites Year Day Mercury 0.4AU yr 60 days Venus yr 243 days* Earth 1 1 yr 1 day Mars 1.

Planets: Name Distance from Sun Satellites Year Day Mercury 0.4AU yr 60 days Venus yr 243 days* Earth 1 1 yr 1 day Mars 1. The Solar System (Ch. 6 in text) We will skip from Ch. 6 to Ch. 15, only a survey of the solar system, the discovery of extrasolar planets (in more detail than the textbook), and the formation of planetary

More information

Planets and Brown Dwarfs

Planets and Brown Dwarfs Extra Solar Planets Extra Solar Planets We have estimated there may be 10 20 billion stars in Milky Way with Earth like planets, hospitable for life. But what evidence do we have that such planets even

More information

A star is a massive sphere of gases with a core like a thermonuclear reactor. They are the most common celestial bodies in the universe are stars.

A star is a massive sphere of gases with a core like a thermonuclear reactor. They are the most common celestial bodies in the universe are stars. A star is a massive sphere of gases with a core like a thermonuclear reactor. They are the most common celestial bodies in the universe are stars. They radiate energy (electromagnetic radiation) from a

More information

Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Final Exam Review Problems Revision 2

Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Final Exam Review Problems Revision 2 Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Final Exam Review Problems Revision 2 Multiple Choice Questions: The first eight questions are multiple choice. Except where explicitly noted, only one answer is correct

More information

Which letter on the timeline best represents the time when scientists estimate that the Big Bang occurred? A) A B) B C) C D) D

Which letter on the timeline best represents the time when scientists estimate that the Big Bang occurred? A) A B) B C) C D) D 1. The red shift of light from most galaxies is evidence that A) most galaxies are moving away from Earth B) a majority of stars in most galaxies are red giants C) the light slows down as it nears Earth

More information

Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Examination 3 April 11, 2003

Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Examination 3 April 11, 2003 Name: Seat Number: Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Examination 3 April 11, 2003 Do not open the test until instructed to begin. Instructions: Write your answers in the space provided. If you need additional

More information

Transiting Hot Jupiters near the Galactic Center

Transiting Hot Jupiters near the Galactic Center National Aeronautics and Space Administration Transiting Hot Jupiters near the Galactic Center Kailash C. Sahu Taken from: Hubble 2006 Science Year in Review The full contents of this book include more

More information

The Sun s center is much hotter than the surface. The Sun looks large and bright in the sky. Other stars look much smaller.

The Sun s center is much hotter than the surface. The Sun looks large and bright in the sky. Other stars look much smaller. The Sun A star is a huge ball of hot, glowing gases. The Sun is a star. The width of the Sun is equal to the width of 100 Earths placed side by side. The Sun is extremely hot. The surface of the Sun has

More information

The Milky Way, Hubble Law, the expansion of the Universe and Dark Matter Chapter 14 and 15 The Milky Way Galaxy and the two Magellanic Clouds.

The Milky Way, Hubble Law, the expansion of the Universe and Dark Matter Chapter 14 and 15 The Milky Way Galaxy and the two Magellanic Clouds. The Milky Way, Hubble Law, the expansion of the Universe and Dark Matter Chapter 14 and 15 The Milky Way Galaxy and the two Magellanic Clouds. Image taken from the European Southern Observatory in Chile

More information

Chapter 14 The Milky Way Galaxy

Chapter 14 The Milky Way Galaxy Chapter 14 The Milky Way Galaxy Spiral Galaxy M81 - similar to our Milky Way Galaxy Our Parent Galaxy A galaxy is a giant collection of stellar and interstellar matter held together by gravity Billions

More information

Planet Detection! Estimating f p!

Planet Detection! Estimating f p! Planet Detection! Estimating f p! Can We See Them?! Not easily! Best cases were reported in late 2008! Will see these later! Problem is separating planet light from star light! Star is 10 9 times brighter

More information

Astronomy 330 HW 2. Outline. Presentations. ! Kira Bonk ascension.html

Astronomy 330 HW 2. Outline. Presentations. ! Kira Bonk  ascension.html Astronomy 330 This class (Lecture 11): What is f p? Eric Gobst Suharsh Sivakumar Next Class: Life in the Solar System HW 2 Kira Bonk http://www.ufodigest.com/news/0308/ ascension.html Matthew Tenpas http://morphman.hubpages.com/hub/alien-

More information

Chapter 13 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 13 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 13 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Other Planetary Systems: The New Science of Distant Worlds 13.1 Detecting Planets Around Other Stars Our goals for learning: Why is it so challenging

More information

Importance of the study of extrasolar planets. Exoplanets Introduction. Importance of the study of extrasolar planets

Importance of the study of extrasolar planets. Exoplanets Introduction. Importance of the study of extrasolar planets Importance of the study of extrasolar planets Exoplanets Introduction Planets and Astrobiology (2017-2018) G. Vladilo Technological and scientific spin-offs Exoplanet observations are driving huge technological

More information

Searching for Other Worlds: The Methods

Searching for Other Worlds: The Methods Searching for Other Worlds: The Methods John Bally 1 1 Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences University of Colorado, Boulder The Search Extra-Solar

More information

Chapter 15 The Formation of Planetary Systems

Chapter 15 The Formation of Planetary Systems Chapter 15 The Formation of Planetary Systems Units of Chapter 15 15.1 Modeling Planet Formation 15.2 Formation of the Solar System 15.3 Terrestrial and Jovian Planets 15.4 Interplanetary Debris 15.5 Solar

More information

The Universe. What is it? What is in it? How did it form? How will it end? How do we know?

The Universe. What is it? What is in it? How did it form? How will it end? How do we know? The Universe What is it? What is in it? How did it form? How will it end? How do we know? What is your place in the Universe? What is the universe? a. The study of the universe its nature, origins, and

More information

Chapter 19 The Origin of the Solar System

Chapter 19 The Origin of the Solar System Chapter 19 The Origin of the Solar System Early Hypotheses catastrophic hypotheses, e.g., passing star hypothesis: Star passing closely to the the sun tore material out of the sun, from which planets could

More information

Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Spring 2003 Final Exam Review Topics

Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Spring 2003 Final Exam Review Topics Astronomy 102: Stars and Galaxies Spring 2003 Final Exam Review Topics The final exam will cover material from the whole course (including the galaxies and cosmology material from after Exam 3). The topics

More information

8/30/2010. Classifying Stars. Classifying Stars. Classifying Stars

8/30/2010. Classifying Stars. Classifying Stars. Classifying Stars Classifying Stars In the early 1900s, Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Russell made some important observations. They noticed that, in general, stars with higher temperatures also have brighter absolute magnitudes.

More information

Section 25.1 Exploring the Solar System (pages )

Section 25.1 Exploring the Solar System (pages ) Name Class Date Chapter 25 The Solar System Section 25.1 Exploring the Solar System (pages 790 794) This section explores early models of our solar system. It describes the components of the solar system

More information

X Rays must be viewed from space used for detecting exotic objects such as neutron stars and black holes also observing the Sun.

X Rays must be viewed from space used for detecting exotic objects such as neutron stars and black holes also observing the Sun. 6/25 How do we get information from the telescope? 1. Galileo drew pictures. 2. With the invention of photography, we began taking pictures of the view in the telescope. With telescopes that would rotate

More information

Attendance Quiz. Are you here today? (a) yes (b) no (c) Captain, the sensors indicate a class M planet orbiting this star. Here!

Attendance Quiz. Are you here today? (a) yes (b) no (c) Captain, the sensors indicate a class M planet orbiting this star. Here! Extrasolar Planets Attendance Quiz Are you here today? Here! (a) yes (b) no (c) Captain, the sensors indicate a class M planet orbiting this star Guest Lectures Thursday, May 4 Life in the Zooniverse:

More information

Data from: The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia.

Data from: The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia. Data from: The Extrasolar Planet Encyclopaedia http://exoplanet.eu/ 2009->10 Status of Exoplanet Searches Direct Detection: 5->9 planets detected Sensitive to large planets in large orbits around faint

More information

Galaxies and Stars. 3. Base your answer to the following question on The reaction below represents an energy-producing process.

Galaxies and Stars. 3. Base your answer to the following question on The reaction below represents an energy-producing process. Galaxies and Stars 1. To an observer on Earth, the Sun appears brighter than the star Rigel because the Sun is A) hotter than Rigel B) more luminous than Rigel C) closer than Rigel D) larger than Rigel

More information

Extrasolar Planets. Today. Dwarf Planets. Extrasolar Planets. Next week. Review Tuesday. Exam Thursday. also, Homework 6 Due

Extrasolar Planets. Today. Dwarf Planets. Extrasolar Planets. Next week. Review Tuesday. Exam Thursday. also, Homework 6 Due Extrasolar Planets Today Dwarf Planets Extrasolar Planets Next week Review Tuesday Exam Thursday also, Homework 6 Due will count best 5 of 6 homeworks 2007 Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Pearson

More information

Coriolis Effect - the apparent curved paths of projectiles, winds, and ocean currents

Coriolis Effect - the apparent curved paths of projectiles, winds, and ocean currents Regents Earth Science Unit 5: Astronomy Models of the Universe Earliest models of the universe were based on the idea that the Sun, Moon, and planets all orbit the Earth models needed to explain how the

More information

Modern Astronomy Review #1

Modern Astronomy Review #1 Modern Astronomy Review #1 1. The red-shift of light from distant galaxies provides evidence that the universe is (1) shrinking, only (3) shrinking and expanding in a cyclic pattern (2) expanding, only

More information

Currently, the largest optical telescope mirrors have a diameter of A) 1 m. B) 2 m. C) 5 m. D) 10 m. E) 100 m.

Currently, the largest optical telescope mirrors have a diameter of A) 1 m. B) 2 m. C) 5 m. D) 10 m. E) 100 m. If a material is highly opaque, then it reflects most light. absorbs most light. transmits most light. scatters most light. emits most light. When light reflects off an object, what is the relation between

More information

LESSON 1. Solar System

LESSON 1. Solar System Astronomy Notes LESSON 1 Solar System 11.1 Structure of the Solar System axis of rotation period of rotation period of revolution ellipse astronomical unit What is the solar system? 11.1 Structure of the

More information

Astronomy Part 1 Regents Questions

Astronomy Part 1 Regents Questions Regents Questions 1. The Sun revolves around the center of A) Polaris B) Aldebaran C) Earth D) the Milky Way Galaxy 4. In which sequence are the items listed from least total mass to greatest total mass?

More information

Extrasolar Planets. Methods of detection Characterization Theoretical ideas Future prospects

Extrasolar Planets. Methods of detection Characterization Theoretical ideas Future prospects Extrasolar Planets Methods of detection Characterization Theoretical ideas Future prospects Methods of detection Methods of detection Methods of detection Pulsar timing Planetary motion around pulsar

More information

What is the solar system?

What is the solar system? Notes Astronomy What is the solar system? 11.1 Structure of the Solar System Our solar system includes planets and dwarf planets, their moons, a star called the Sun, asteroids and comets. Planets, dwarf

More information

Structure of the Milky Way. Structure of the Milky Way. The Milky Way

Structure of the Milky Way. Structure of the Milky Way. The Milky Way Key Concepts: Lecture 29: Our first steps into the Galaxy Exploration of the Galaxy: first attempts to measure its structure (Herschel, Shapley). Structure of the Milky Way Initially, star counting was

More information

Formation of the Universe

Formation of the Universe A. The Universe 1. 2. 3. How did the universe begin? Only one exists or are there more? Composed of space and 100 billion galaxies A galaxy is a grouping of millions or billions of stars kept together

More information

Lecture #15: Plan. Telescopes (cont d) Effects of Earth s Atmosphere Extrasolar planets = Exoplanets

Lecture #15: Plan. Telescopes (cont d) Effects of Earth s Atmosphere Extrasolar planets = Exoplanets Lecture #15: Plan Telescopes (cont d) Effects of Earth s Atmosphere Extrasolar planets = Exoplanets Collecting Area Light bucket : the bigger the area of the telescope s mirror or lens, the more photons

More information

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION

TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION (The Universe) A. THE UNIVERSE: The universe encompasses all matter in existence. According to the Big Bang Theory, the universe was formed 10-20 billion years ago from a

More information

Chapter 23: Dark Matter, Dark Energy & Future of the Universe. Galactic rotation curves

Chapter 23: Dark Matter, Dark Energy & Future of the Universe. Galactic rotation curves Chapter 23: Dark Matter, Dark Energy & Future of the Universe Galactic rotation curves Orbital speed as a function of distance from the center: rotation_of_spiral_galaxy.htm Use Kepler s Third Law to get

More information

The Cosmological Distance Ladder. It's not perfect, but it works!

The Cosmological Distance Ladder. It's not perfect, but it works! The Cosmological Distance Ladder It's not perfect, but it works! First, we must know how big the Earth is. Next, we must determine the scale of the solar system. Copernicus (1543) correctly determined

More information

Finding Other Earths. Jason H. Steffen. Asset Earth Waubonsee Community College October 1, 2009

Finding Other Earths. Jason H. Steffen. Asset Earth Waubonsee Community College October 1, 2009 Finding Other Earths Jason H. Steffen Asset Earth Waubonsee Community College October 1, 2009 True Earth Analog Necessities: 1) Main Sequence Star 2) Within the Stellar Habitable Zone 3) Roughly Earth

More information

Extrasolar Planets = Exoplanets III.

Extrasolar Planets = Exoplanets III. Extrasolar Planets = Exoplanets III http://www.astro.keele.ac.uk/~rdj/planets/images/taugruishydra2.jpg Outline Gravitational microlensing Direct detection Exoplanet atmospheres Detecting planets by microlensing:

More information

Other planetary systems

Other planetary systems Exoplanets are faint! Other planetary systems Planets are seen only by reflected light at optical wavelengths At the distance of another star the faint light of a planet is lost in the glare of the star

More information

Our Galaxy. Milky Way Galaxy = Sun + ~100 billion other stars + gas and dust. Held together by gravity! The Milky Way with the Naked Eye

Our Galaxy. Milky Way Galaxy = Sun + ~100 billion other stars + gas and dust. Held together by gravity! The Milky Way with the Naked Eye Our Galaxy Milky Way Galaxy = Sun + ~100 billion other stars + gas and dust Held together by gravity! The Milky Way with the Naked Eye We get a special view of our own galaxy because we are part of it!

More information

Introduction to the Universe. What makes up the Universe?

Introduction to the Universe. What makes up the Universe? Introduction to the Universe What makes up the Universe? Objects in the Universe Astrophysics is the science that tries to make sense of the universe by - describing the Universe (Astronomy) - understanding

More information

AST 101 Introduction to Astronomy: Stars & Galaxies

AST 101 Introduction to Astronomy: Stars & Galaxies AST 101 Introduction to Astronomy: Stars & Galaxies The H-R Diagram review So far: Stars on Main Sequence (MS) Next: - Pre MS (Star Birth) - Post MS: Giants, Super Giants, White dwarfs Star Birth We start

More information

Stars and Galaxies 1

Stars and Galaxies 1 Stars and Galaxies 1 Characteristics of Stars 2 Star - body of gases that gives off great amounts of radiant energy as light and heat 3 Most stars look white but are actually different colors Antares -

More information

Astro 1010 Planetary Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 3

Astro 1010 Planetary Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 3 Astro 1010 Planetary Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 3 Chapter 6 1. Which of the following statements is false? a) Refraction is the bending of light when it passes from one medium to another. b) Mirrors

More information

The formation & evolution of solar systems

The formation & evolution of solar systems The formation & evolution of solar systems Content expectations Birth of the Solar System What did the material that eventually became the Sun and planets look like originally? Interstellar clouds like

More information

HD Transits HST/STIS First Transiting Exo-Planet. Exoplanet Discovery Methods. Paper Due Tue, Feb 23. (4) Transits. Transits.

HD Transits HST/STIS First Transiting Exo-Planet. Exoplanet Discovery Methods. Paper Due Tue, Feb 23. (4) Transits. Transits. Paper Due Tue, Feb 23 Exoplanet Discovery Methods (1) Direct imaging (2) Astrometry position (3) Radial velocity velocity Seager & Mallen-Ornelas 2003 ApJ 585, 1038. "A Unique Solution of Planet and Star

More information

Astronomy 103: First Exam

Astronomy 103: First Exam Name: Astronomy 103: First Exam Stephen Lepp October 27, 2010 Each question is worth 2 points. Write your name on this exam and on the scantron. 1 Short Answer A. What is the largest of the terrestrial

More information

Stellar Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 3

Stellar Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 3 Stellar Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 3 Chapter 7 1. A protostar is formed by a) the rapid expansion of gas from an exploding star. b) the gravitational collapse of a rotating interstellar cloud.

More information

Earth Space Systems. Semester 1 Exam. Astronomy Vocabulary

Earth Space Systems. Semester 1 Exam. Astronomy Vocabulary Earth Space Systems Semester 1 Exam Astronomy Vocabulary Astronomical Unit- Aurora- Big Bang- Black Hole- 1AU is the average distance between the Earth and the Sun (93 million miles). This unit of measurement

More information

PART 3 Galaxies. Gas, Stars and stellar motion in the Milky Way

PART 3 Galaxies. Gas, Stars and stellar motion in the Milky Way PART 3 Galaxies Gas, Stars and stellar motion in the Milky Way The Interstellar Medium The Sombrero Galaxy Space is far from empty! Clouds of cold gas Clouds of dust In a galaxy, gravity pulls the dust

More information

Astronomy Final Exam Study Guide

Astronomy Final Exam Study Guide Astronomy Final Exam Study Guide 1. Daily motion is diurnal. Yearly motion is annual. 2. The Celestial equator lies directly above the Earth s equator. The Celestial North Pole lies directly above the

More information

Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24

Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24 Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24 PROPERTIES OF STARS Distance Measuring a star's distance can be very difficult Stellar parallax Used for measuring distance to a star Apparent shift in a star's position

More information

Chapter 19 Galaxies. Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Each dot is a galaxy of stars. More distant, further into the past. halo

Chapter 19 Galaxies. Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Each dot is a galaxy of stars. More distant, further into the past. halo Chapter 19 Galaxies Hubble Ultra Deep Field: Each dot is a galaxy of stars. More distant, further into the past halo disk bulge Barred Spiral Galaxy: Has a bar of stars across the bulge Spiral Galaxy 1

More information

Beyond the Solar System 2006 Oct 17 Page 1 of 5

Beyond the Solar System 2006 Oct 17 Page 1 of 5 I. Stars have color, brightness, mass, temperature and size. II. Distances to stars are measured using stellar parallax a. The further away, the less offset b. Parallax angles are extremely small c. Measured

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 15. Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 15. Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 15 Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 15 Exoplanets Units of Chapter 15 15.1 Modeling Planet Formation 15.2 Solar System Regularities and Irregularities 15.3

More information

Activities: The transit method, exploring distant solar systems, the chemistry of life.

Activities: The transit method, exploring distant solar systems, the chemistry of life. Kendall Planetarium Extreme Planets Planetarium Show Teacher s Guide PROGRAM OUTLINE Description: Extreme Planets immerses audiences in the cutting-edge science of finding planets orbit around stars other

More information

Edmonds Community College Astronomy 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Exam # 2

Edmonds Community College Astronomy 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Exam # 2 Edmonds Community College Astronomy 100 Winter Quarter 2007 Sample Exam # 2 Instructor: L. M. Khandro 1. Relatively speaking, objects with high temperatures emit their peak radiation in short wavelengths

More information

Why is it hard to detect planets around other stars?

Why is it hard to detect planets around other stars? Extrasolar planets Why is it hard to detect planets around other stars? Planets are small and low in mass Planets are faint The angular separation between planets and their stars is tiny Why is it hard

More information

Class 15 Formation of the Solar System

Class 15 Formation of the Solar System Class 16 Extra-solar planets The radial-velocity technique for finding extrasolar planets Other techniques for finding extrasolar planets Class 15 Formation of the Solar System What does a successful model

More information

a. 0.5 AU b. 5 AU c. 50 AU d.* AU e AU

a. 0.5 AU b. 5 AU c. 50 AU d.* AU e AU 1 AST104 Sp04: WELCOME TO EXAM 1 Multiple Choice Questions: Mark the best answer choice. Read all answer choices before making selection. (No credit given when multiple answers are marked.) 1. A galaxy

More information

The Universe. 3. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below represents the bright-line spectrum for an element.

The Universe. 3. Base your answer to the following question on The diagram below represents the bright-line spectrum for an element. A) B) The Universe 1. According to the Big Bang theory, which graph hest represents the relationship between time and the size of the universe from the beginning of the universe to the present? C) D) 2.

More information

Young Solar-like Systems

Young Solar-like Systems Young Solar-like Systems FIG.2. Panels(a),(b),and(c)show 2.9,1.3,and 0.87 mm ALMA continuum images of other panels, as well as an inset with an enlarged view of the inner 300 mas centered on the (f) show

More information

F = ma P 2 = a 3 (M + m) P 2 = a 3. max T = 2900 K m

F = ma P 2 = a 3 (M + m) P 2 = a 3. max T = 2900 K m Summer 2013 Astronomy - Test 1 Test form A Name Do not forget to write your name and fill in the bubbles with your student number, and fill in test form A on the answer sheet. Write your name above as

More information

( ) a3 (Newton s version of Kepler s 3rd Law) Units: sec, m, kg

( ) a3 (Newton s version of Kepler s 3rd Law) Units: sec, m, kg Astronomy 18, UCSC Planets and Planetary Systems Generic Mid-Term Exam (A combination of exams from the past several times this class was taught) This exam consists of two parts: Part 1: Multiple Choice

More information