# CS626: NLP, Speech and the Web. Pushpak Bhattacharyya CSE Dept., IIT Bombay Lecture 14: Parsing Algorithms 30 th August, 2012

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1 CS626: NLP, Speech and the Web Pushpak Bhattacharyya CSE Dept., IIT Bombay Lecture 14: Parsing Algorithms 30 th August, 2012

2 Parsing Problem Semantics Part of Speech Tagging NLP Trinity Morph Analysis Marathi French CRF HMM MEMM Hindi English Language Algorithm

3 A note on Language Modeling Example sentence ^ The tortoise beat the hare in the race. Guided Guided by Guided by by frequency Language world Knowledge Knowledge N-gram (n=3) CFG Probabilistic CFG Dependency Grammar Prob. DG ^ the tortoise 5*10-3 S-> NP VP S->NP VP 1.0 the tortoise beat NP->DT N NP->DT N 3* tortoise beat the VP->V NP 7*10-5 PP VP->V NP PP 0.4 beat the hare PP-> P NP PP-> P NP 5* Semantic Roles agt, obj, sen, etc. Semantic Rules are always between Heads Semantic Roles with probabilities

4 Parse Tree S NP VP DT N V NP PP The Tortoise beat DT N P NP the hare in DT N the race

5 UNL Expression agt obj scn (scene)

6 Purpose of LM Prediction of next word (Speech Processing) Language Identification (for same script) Belongingness check (parsing) P(NP->DT N) means what is the probability that the YIELD of the non terminal NP is DT N

7 Computation of Parsing

8 Parsing Essentially a Yes/No problem (belongingness) Parse Tree is a side effect 2 general ways Expand from grammar or Resolve through data Language Representation Intrinsic Representation Grammar for STR: S asb ϵ Extrinsic Representation STR: {ϵ, ab, aabb,, a n b n } -Compact representation -Less Kolomogorov Complexity -Enumerated Representation

9 Points to consider: Should POS Tagging precede parsing? Is POS Tagging necessary for Parsing? POS Tagging increases implementation efficiency Data People laugh Lexicon People- Noun, Verb laugh- Noun, Verb Grammar Going back again and again to the lexicon isn t required when POS Tagging has been done before Parsing

10 Two issues are at the crux of parsing: Ambiguity in Data Ambiguity in Grammar Parsing Algorithms: Top-Down Parsing Predictive Parsing, Expectation Driven Parsing, Theory Driven Parsing, Grammar Driven Parsing Suffers from Left-recursion Bottom-Up Parsing Data Driven parsing Ambiguity on POS Tags can lead to useless steps while parsing Chart Parsing

11 Example sentence: 1 People 2 laugh 3 loudly 4 Multiple parse trees possible for ambiguous sentences The man saw a boy with a telescope Partial parses are also important Text entailment Question Answering People laugh loudly Who laughs? People laugh

12 Grammar and Parsing Algorithms

13 A simplified grammar S NP VP NP DT N N VP V ADV V

14 Example Sentence People laugh These are positions Lexicon: People - N, V Laugh - N, V This indicate that both Noun and Verb is possible for the word People

15 Top-Down Parsing State Backup State Action ((S) 1) - - Position of input pointer 2. ((NP VP)1) - - 3a. ((DT N VP)1) ((N VP) 1) - 3b. ((N VP)1) ((VP)2) - Consume People 5a. ((V ADV)2) ((V)2) - 6. ((ADV)3) ((V)2) Consume laugh 5b. ((V)2) ((.)3) - Consume laugh Termination Condition : All inputs over. No symbols remaining. Note: Input symbols can be pushed back.

16 Discussion for Top-Down Parsing This kind of searching is goal driven. Gives importance to textual precedence (rule precedence). No regard for data, a priori (useless expansions made).

17 Bottom-Up Parsing Some conventions: N 12 Represents positions S 1? -> NP 12 VP 2? End position unknown Work on the LHS done, while the work on RHS remaining

18 Bottom-Up Parsing (pictorial representation) S -> NP 12 VP 23 People Laugh N 12 N 23 V 12 V 23 NP 12 -> N 12 NP 23 -> N 23 VP 12 -> V 12 VP 23 -> V 23 S 1? -> NP 12 VP 2?

19 Problem with Top-Down Parsing Left Recursion Suppose you have A-> AB rule. Then we will have the expansion as follows: ((A)K) -> ((AB)K) -> ((ABB)K)..

20 Combining top-down and bottom-up strategies

21 Top-Down Bottom-Up Chart Parsing Combines advantages of top-down & bottomup parsing. Does not work in case of left recursion. e.g. People laugh People noun, verb Laugh noun, verb Grammar S NP VP NP DT N N VP V ADV V

22 Transitive Closure People laugh S NP VP NP N VP V NP DT N S NP VP S NP VP NP N VP V ADV success VP V

23 Arcs in Parsing Each arc represents a chart which records Completed work (left of ) Expected work (right of )

24 Example People laugh loudly S NP VP NP N VP V VP V ADV NP DT N S NP VP VP V ADV S NP VP NP N VP V ADV S NP VP VP V

25 Dealing With Structural Ambiguity Multiple parses for a sentence The man saw the boy with a telescope. The man saw the mountain with a telescope. The man saw the boy with the ponytail. At the level of syntax, all these sentences are ambiguous. But semantics can disambiguate 2 nd & 3 rd sentence.

26 Prepositional Phrase (PP) Attachment Problem V NP 1 P NP 2 (Here P means preposition) NP 2 attaches to NP 1? or NP 2 attaches to V?

27 Parse Trees for a Structurally Ambiguous Sentence Let the grammar be S NP VP NP DT N DT N PP PP P NP VP V NP PP V NP For the sentence, I saw a boy with a telescope

28 Parse Tree - 1 S NP VP N V NP I saw Det N PP a boy P NP with Det N a telescope

29 Parse Tree -2 S NP VP N V NP PP I saw Det N P NP Det N a boy with a telescope

30 Dealing With Structural Ambiguity Multiple parses for a sentence The man saw the boy with a telescope. The man saw the mountain with a telescope. The man saw the boy with the ponytail. At the level of syntax, all these sentences are ambiguous. But semantics can disambiguate 2 nd & 3 rd sentence.

31 Prepositional Phrase (PP) Attachment Problem V NP 1 P NP 2 (Here P means preposition) NP 2 attaches to NP 1? or NP 2 attaches to V?

32 Xerox Parsers XLE Parser (Freely available) XIP Parser (expensive) Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC at UPenn) Europe India European Language Resource Association (ELRA) Linguistic Data Consortium for Indian Languages (LDC-IL)

33 Parse Trees for a Structurally Ambiguous Sentence Let the grammar be S NP VP NP DT N DT N PP PP P NP VP V NP PP V NP For the sentence, I saw a boy with a telescope

34 Parse Tree - 1 S NP VP N V NP I saw Det N PP a boy P NP with Det N a telescope

35 Parse Tree -2 S NP VP N V NP PP I saw Det N P NP Det N a boy with a telescope

36 Parsing Structural Ambiguity

37 Parsing for Structurally Ambiguous Sentences Sentence I saw a boy with a telescope Grammar: S NP VP NP ART N ART N PP PRON VP V NP PP V NP ART a an the N boy telescope PRON I V saw

38 Ambiguous Parses Two possible parses: PP attached with Verb (i.e. I used a telescope to see) ( S ( NP ( PRON I ) ) ( VP ( V saw ) ( NP ( (ART a ) ( N boy )) ( PP (P with ) (NP ( ART a ) ( N telescope ))))) PP attached with Noun (i.e. boy had a telescope) ( S ( NP ( PRON I ) ) ( VP ( V saw ) ( NP ( (ART a ) ( N boy ) (PP (P with ) (NP ( ART a ) ( N telescope ))))))

39 Top Down Parse State Backup State Action Comments 1 ( ( S ) 1 ) Use S NP VP

40 Top Down Parse State Backup State Action Comments 1 ( ( S ) 1 ) Use S NP VP 2 ( ( NP VP ) 1 ) Use NP ART N ART N PP PRON

41 Top Down Parse State Backup State Action Comments 1 ( ( S ) 1 ) Use S NP VP 2 ( ( NP VP ) 1 ) Use NP ART N ART N PP PRON 3 ( ( ART N VP ) 1 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP VP ) 1 ) (b) ( ( PRON VP ) 1) ART does not match I, backup state (b) used

42 Top Down Parse State Backup State Action Comments 1 ( ( S ) 1 ) Use S NP VP 2 ( ( NP VP ) 1 ) Use NP ART N ART N PP PRON 3 ( ( ART N VP ) 1 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP VP ) 1 ) (b) ( ( PRON VP ) 1) 3 B ( ( PRON VP ) 1 ) ART does not match I, backup state (b) used

43 Top Down Parse State Backup State Action Comments 1 ( ( S ) 1 ) Use S NP VP 2 ( ( NP VP ) 1 ) Use NP ART N ART N PP PRON 3 ( ( ART N VP ) 1 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP VP ) 1 ) (b) ( ( PRON VP ) 1) 3 B ( ( PRON VP ) 1 ) 4 ( ( VP ) 2 ) Consumed I ART does not match I, backup state (b) used

44 Top Down Parse State Backup State Action Comments 1 ( ( S ) 1 ) Use S NP VP 2 ( ( NP VP ) 1 ) Use NP ART N ART N PP PRON 3 ( ( ART N VP ) 1 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP VP ) 1 ) (b) ( ( PRON VP ) 1) 3 B ( ( PRON VP ) 1 ) 4 ( ( VP ) 2 ) Consumed I ART does not match I, backup state (b) used 5 ( ( V NP PP ) 2 ) ( ( V NP ) 2 ) Verb Attachment Rule used

45 Top Down Parse State Backup State Action Comments 1 ( ( S ) 1 ) Use S NP VP 2 ( ( NP VP ) 1 ) Use NP ART N ART N PP PRON 3 ( ( ART N VP ) 1 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP VP ) 1 ) (b) ( ( PRON VP ) 1) 3 B ( ( PRON VP ) 1 ) 4 ( ( VP ) 2 ) Consumed I ART does not match I, backup state (b) used 5 ( ( V NP PP ) 2 ) ( ( V NP ) 2 ) Verb Attachment Rule used 6 ( ( NP PP ) 3 ) Consumed saw

46 Top Down Parse State Backup State Action Comments 1 ( ( S ) 1 ) Use S NP VP 2 ( ( NP VP ) 1 ) Use NP ART N ART N PP PRON 3 ( ( ART N VP ) 1 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP VP ) 1 ) (b) ( ( PRON VP ) 1) 3 B ( ( PRON VP ) 1 ) 4 ( ( VP ) 2 ) Consumed I ART does not match I, backup state (b) used 5 ( ( V NP PP ) 2 ) ( ( V NP ) 2 ) Verb Attachment Rule used 6 ( ( NP PP ) 3 ) Consumed saw 7 ( ( ART N PP ) 3 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP PP ) 3 ) (b) ( ( PRON PP ) 3 )

47 Top Down Parse State Backup State Action Comments 1 ( ( S ) 1 ) Use S NP VP 2 ( ( NP VP ) 1 ) Use NP ART N ART N PP PRON 3 ( ( ART N VP ) 1 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP VP ) 1 ) (b) ( ( PRON VP ) 1) 3 B ( ( PRON VP ) 1 ) 4 ( ( VP ) 2 ) Consumed I ART does not match I, backup state (b) used 5 ( ( V NP PP ) 2 ) ( ( V NP ) 2 ) Verb Attachment Rule used 6 ( ( NP PP ) 3 ) Consumed saw 7 ( ( ART N PP ) 3 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP PP ) 3 ) (b) ( ( PRON PP ) 3 ) 8 ( ( N PP) 4 ) Consumed a

48 Top Down Parse State Backup State Action Comments 1 ( ( S ) 1 ) Use S NP VP 2 ( ( NP VP ) 1 ) Use NP ART N ART N PP PRON 3 ( ( ART N VP ) 1 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP VP ) 1 ) (b) ( ( PRON VP ) 1) 3 B ( ( PRON VP ) 1 ) 4 ( ( VP ) 2 ) Consumed I ART does not match I, backup state (b) used 5 ( ( V NP PP ) 2 ) ( ( V NP ) 2 ) Verb Attachment Rule used 6 ( ( NP PP ) 3 ) Consumed saw 7 ( ( ART N PP ) 3 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP PP ) 3 ) (b) ( ( PRON PP ) 3 ) 8 ( ( N PP) 4 ) Consumed a 9 ( ( PP ) 5 ) Consumed

49 Top Down Parse State Backup State Action Comments 1 ( ( S ) 1 ) Use S NP VP 2 ( ( NP VP ) 1 ) Use NP ART N ART N PP PRON 3 ( ( ART N VP ) 1 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP VP ) 1 ) (b) ( ( PRON VP ) 1) 3 B ( ( PRON VP ) 1 ) 4 ( ( VP ) 2 ) Consumed I ART does not match I, backup state (b) used 5 ( ( V NP PP ) 2 ) ( ( V NP ) 2 ) Verb Attachment Rule used 6 ( ( NP PP ) 3 ) Consumed saw 7 ( ( ART N PP ) 3 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP PP ) 3 ) (b) ( ( PRON PP ) 3 ) 8 ( ( N PP) 4 ) Consumed a 9 ( ( PP ) 5 ) Consumed

50 Top Down Parse State Backup State Action Comments 1 ( ( S ) 1 ) Use S NP VP 7 ( ( ART N PP ) 3 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP PP ) 3 ) (b) ( ( PRON PP ) 3 ) 8 ( ( N PP) 4 ) Consumed a 9 ( ( PP ) 5 ) Consumed boy 10 ( ( P NP ) 5 ) 11 ( ( NP ) 6 ) Consumed with

51 Top Down Parse State Backup State Action Comments 1 ( ( S ) 1 ) Use S NP VP 7 ( ( ART N PP ) 3 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP PP ) 3 ) (b) ( ( PRON PP ) 3 ) 8 ( ( N PP) 4 ) Consumed a 9 ( ( PP ) 5 ) Consumed boy 10 ( ( P NP ) 5 ) 11 ( ( NP ) 6 ) Consumed with 12 ( ( ART N ) 6 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP ) 6 ) (b) ( ( PRON ) 6)

52 Top Down Parse State Backup State Action Comments 1 ( ( S ) 1 ) Use S NP VP 7 ( ( ART N PP ) 3 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP PP ) 3 ) (b) ( ( PRON PP ) 3 ) 8 ( ( N PP) 4 ) Consumed a 9 ( ( PP ) 5 ) Consumed boy 10 ( ( P NP ) 5 ) 11 ( ( NP ) 6 ) Consumed with 12 ( ( ART N ) 6 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP ) 6 ) (b) ( ( PRON ) 6) 13 ( ( N ) 7 ) Consumed a

53 Top Down Parse State Backup State Action Comments 1 ( ( S ) 1 ) Use S NP VP 7 ( ( ART N PP ) 3 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP PP ) 3 ) (b) ( ( PRON PP ) 3 ) 8 ( ( N PP) 4 ) Consumed a 9 ( ( PP ) 5 ) Consumed boy 10 ( ( P NP ) 5 ) 11 ( ( NP ) 6 ) Consumed with 12 ( ( ART N ) 6 ) (a) ( ( ART N PP ) 6 ) (b) ( ( PRON ) 6) 13 ( ( N ) 7 ) Consumed a 14 ( ( ) 8 ) Consume telescope Finish Parsing

54 Top Down Parsing - Observations Top down parsing gave us the Verb Attachment Parse Tree (i.e., I used a telescope) To obtain the alternate parse tree, the backup state in step 5 will have to be invoked Is there an efficient way to obtain all parses?

55 Bottom Up Parse I saw a boy with a telescope Colour Scheme : Blue for Normal Parse Green for Verb Attachment Parse Purple for Noun Attachment Parse Red for Invalid Parse

56 Bottom Up Parse I saw a boy with a telescope NP 12 PRON 12 S 1? NP 12 VP 2?

57 Bottom Up Parse I saw a boy with a telescope NP 12 PRON 12 VP 2? V 23 NP 3? S 1? NP 12 VP 2? VP 2? V 23 NP 3? PP??

58 Bottom Up Parse I saw a boy with a telescope NP 12 PRON 12 VP 2? V 23 NP 3? NP 35 ART 34 N 45 S 1? NP 12 VP 2? VP 2? V 23 NP 3? PP?? NP 3? ART 34 N 45 PP 5?

59 Bottom Up Parse I saw a boy with a telescope NP 12 PRON 12 VP 2? V 23 NP 3? NP 35 ART 34 N 45 NP 35 ART 34 N 45 S 1? NP 12 VP 2? VP 2? V 23 NP 3? PP?? NP 3? ART 34 N 45 PP 5? NP 3? ART 34 N 45 PP 5?

60 Bottom Up Parse I saw a boy with a telescope NP 12 PRON 12 VP 2? V 23 NP 3? NP 35 ART 34 N 45 NP 35 ART 34 N 45 S 1? NP 12 VP 2? VP 2? V 23 NP 3? PP?? NP 3? ART 34 N 45 PP 5? NP 3? ART 34 N 45 PP 5? VP 25 V 23 NP 35 S 15 NP 12 VP 25 VP 2? V 23 NP 35 PP 5?

61 Bottom Up Parse I saw a boy with a telescope NP 12 PRON 12 VP 2? V 23 NP 3? NP 35 ART 34 N 45 NP 35 ART 34 N 45 PP 5? P 56 NP 6? S 1? NP 12 VP 2? VP 2? V 23 NP 3? PP?? NP 3? ART 34 N 45 PP 5? NP 3? ART 34 N 45 PP 5? VP 25 V 23 NP 35 S 15 NP 12 VP 25 VP 2? V 23 NP 35 PP 5?

62 Bottom Up Parse I saw a boy with a telescope NP 12 PRON 12 VP 2? V 23 NP 3? NP 35 ART 34 N 45 NP 35 ART 34 N 45 PP 5? P 56 NP 6? NP 68 ART 67 N 7? S 1? NP 12 VP 2? VP 2? V 23 NP 3? PP?? NP 3? ART 34 N 45 PP 5? NP 3? ART 34 N 45 PP 5? NP6? ART 67 N 78 PP 8? VP 25 V 23 NP 35 S 15 NP 12 VP 25 VP 2? V 23 NP 35 PP 5?

63 Bottom Up Parse I saw a boy with a telescope NP 12 PRON 12 VP 2? V 23 NP 3? NP 35 ART 34 N 45 NP 35 ART 34 N 45 PP 5? P 56 NP 6? NP 68 ART 67 N 7? NP 68 ART 67 N 78 S 1? NP 12 VP 2? VP 2? V 23 NP 3? PP?? NP 3? ART 34 N 45 PP 5? NP 3? ART 34 N 45 PP 5? NP6? ART 67 N 78 PP 8? VP 25 V 23 NP 35 S 15 NP 12 VP 25 VP 2? V 23 NP 35 PP 5?

64 Bottom Up Parse I saw a boy with a telescope NP 12 PRON 12 VP 2? V 23 NP 3? NP 35 ART 34 N 45 NP 35 ART 34 N 45 PP 5? P 56 NP 6? NP 68 ART 67 N 7? NP 68 ART 67 N 78 S 1? NP 12 VP 2? VP 2? V 23 NP 3? PP?? NP 3? ART 34 N 45 PP 5? NP 3? ART 34 N 45 PP 5? NP6? ART 67 N 78 PP 8? VP 25 V 23 NP 35 S 15 NP 12 VP 25 VP 2? V 23 NP 35 PP 5? PP 58 P 56 NP 68

65 Bottom Up Parse I saw a boy with a telescope NP 12 PRON 12 VP 2? V 23 NP 3? NP 35 ART 34 N 45 NP 35 ART 34 N 45 PP 5? P 56 NP 6? NP 68 ART 67 N 7? NP 68 ART 67 N 78 S 1? NP 12 VP 2? VP 2? V 23 NP 3? PP?? NP 3? ART 34 N 45 PP 5? NP 3? ART 34 N 45 PP 5? NP6? ART 67 N 78 PP 8? VP 25 V 23 NP 35 S 15 NP 12 VP 25 VP 2? V 23 NP 35 PP 5? PP 58 P 56 NP 68 NP 38 ART 34 N 45 PP 58

66 Bottom Up Parse I saw a boy with a telescope NP 12 PRON 12 VP 2? V 23 NP 3? NP 35 ART 34 N 45 NP 35 ART 34 N 45 PP 5? P 56 NP 6? NP 68 ART 67 N 7? NP 68 ART 67 N 78 S 1? NP 12 VP 2? VP 2? V 23 NP 3? PP?? NP 3? ART 34 N 45 PP 5? NP 3? ART 34 N 45 PP 5? NP6? ART 67 N 78 PP 8? VP 25 V 23 NP 35 S 15 NP 12 VP 25 VP 2? V 23 NP 35 PP 5? PP 58 P 56 NP 68 NP 38 ART 34 N 45 PP 58 VP 28 V 23 NP 35 PP 58 VP 28 V 23 NP 38

67 Bottom Up Parse I saw a boy with a telescope NP 12 PRON 12 VP 2? V 23 NP 3? NP 35 ART 34 N 45 NP 35 ART 34 N 45 PP 5? P 56 NP 6? NP 68 ART 67 N 7? NP 68 ART 67 N 78 S 1? NP 12 VP 2? VP 2? V 23 NP 3? PP?? NP 3? ART 34 N 45 PP 5? NP 3? ART 34 N 45 PP 5? NP6? ART 67 N 78 PP 8? VP 25 V 23 NP 35 S 15 NP 12 VP 25 VP 2? V 23 NP 35 PP 5? PP 58 P 56 NP 68 NP 38 ART 34 N 45 PP 58 VP 28 V 23 NP 35 PP 58 VP 28 V 23 NP 38 S 18 NP 12 VP 28

68 Bottom Up Parsing - Observations Both Noun Attachment and Verb Attachment Parses obtained by simply systematically applying the rules Numbers in subscript help in verifying the parse and getting chunks from the parse

69 Exercise For the sentence, The man saw the boy with a telescope & the grammar given previously, compare the performance of top-down, bottom-up & top-down chart parsing.

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