Quiz Three (9:30-9:35 AM)

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1 Quiz Three (9:30-9:35 AM)

2 UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH ALABAMA GY 112: Earth History Lecture 7 & 8: Dating Instructor: Dr. Douglas W. Haywick

3 Last Time 1. William Smith and Water 2. Stratigraphic Principles 3. Geological Time (Web Lecture 6)

4 Clever thinkers: William Strata Smith: He recognized the importance of fossils in distinguishing different geological or stratigraphic units.

5 Stratigraphic Nomenclature Formation: a lithologically distinct rock unit that possesses recognizable upper and lower contacts with other units and which can be traced across the countryside from place to place. Member: an important unit but one not quite meeting the requirements of a formation Corso Group Group: a collection of similar type formations Source: 3dparks.wr.usgs.gov/coloradoplateau/images/bryce_strat.jpg

6 Geological Time The problem is that we have to deal with a lot of time. 4.6 GA = 4,600,000,000 years

7 Geological Time Time Eon Era Time 0 MA (today) Phanerozoic Cenozoic 65 MA to 0 MA Mesozoic 245 MA to 65 MA Paleozoic 550 MA to 245 MA Proterozoic Neoproterozoic 900 MA to 550 Ma 4.6 GA Archean Hadean Mesoproterozoic Paleoproterozoic 1.6 GA to 900 MA 2.5 GA to 1.6 GA 4.1 Ga to 2.5 Ga 4.6 Ga to 4.1 Ga

8 Geological Time Periods: the most useful subdivisions of (mostly) the Phanerozoic eon 65 MA 245 MA 550 MA

9 Pennsylvanian Mississippian Hadean

10 Today s Agenda 1. Relative vs. Absolute Dating Techniques a) Magnetostratigraphy b) Fission Track Dating 2. Radiometric Dating 3. Mass spectrophotometers (Web Lectures 7 & 8)

11 Dating Geologists can time events by putting them in order of occurrence. But, this does not allow you to actually date when those events actually occurred. Source:

12 Geological Dating Techniques Relative Techniques: Assigns an age to a rock that puts it into a narrow range (e.g., mid-devonian; Late Cretaceous, upper Pliocene).

13 Geological Dating Techniques Relative Techniques: Assigns an age to a rock that puts it into a narrow range (e.g., mid-devonian; Late Cretaceous, upper Pliocene). Absolute Techniques: Assigns an age to a rock that is a number (e.g., / MA; 1,453 KA +/- 67 KA).

14 Geological Dating Techniques Relative Techniques: paleontology (biostratigraphy), stable isotope stratigraphy, paleomagnetism/magnetostratigraphy) Source:

15 Geological Dating Techniques Relative Techniques: paleontology (biostratigraphy), stable isotope stratigraphy, paleomagnetism) Cambrian Ordovician Silurian

16 Geological Dating Techniques Absolute Techniques: fission track dating, radiometric dating Source:

17 Relative Dating Magnetic Stratigraphy or Magnetostratigraphy Recall: Paleomagnetism

18 Magnetostratigraphy N The Earth has a magnetic field north is north and south is south, but S

19 Magnetostratigraphy S The Earth has a magnetic field north is north; south is south, but. It hasn t always been that way N Magnetic reversals

20 Magnetostratigraphy Magnetization of ancient rocks at the time of their formation is a good piece of evidence supporting plate tectonics. Source: ems/geosystems11-15.jpg

21 Magnetostratigraphy Magnetization of ancient rocks at the time of their formation is a good piece of evidence supporting plate tectonics... and, it allows us to date rocks (kind of) Source: ems/geosystems11-15.jpg

22 Magnetostratigraphy Reversals in polarity of field are recorded in rocks when they crystallize and as they settle from water Magnetometer

23 Magnetostratigraphy Reversals in polarity of field are recorded in rocks when they crystallize and as they settle from water Magnetometer Vertical successions of sedimentary rock record changes in magnetic field over time

24 Magnetostratigraphy A portion of the paleomagnetic record from 10 MA to 0 MA (today)

25 Magnetostratigraphy Chron Polarity time-rock unit

26 Magnetostratigraphy Chron Polarity time-rock unit Period of normal or reversed polarity Normal interval Same as today Black Reversed interval Opposite to today White

27 Magnetostratigraphy

28 Absolute Dating Fission Track Dating

29 Fission Track Dating The Periodic Table of the elements

30 Fission Track Dating Radioactive elements are unstable

31 Absolute Techniques Fission-Track Dating Measure decay of uranium 238 by counting number of tracks

32 Absolute Techniques Fission-Track Dating Measure decay of uranium 238 by counting number of tracks

33 Radiometric Dating Uranium (and others) are unstable

34 Radioactive Decay

35 Radioactive Decay Three modes of decay

36 Radioactive Decay Three modes of decay 1) Alpha Decay Loss of alpha particle Convert parent into element that has nucleus containing two fewer protons U 235 Pb 207

37 Radioactive Decay Three modes of decay 1) Alpha Decay Loss of alpha particle Convert parent into element that has nucleus containing two fewer protons 2) Beta Decay Loss of beta particle Convert parent into element whose nucleus contains one more proton by losing an electron C 14 N 14

38 Radioactive Decay Three modes of decay 1) Alpha Decay Loss of alpha particle Convert parent into element that has nucleus containing two fewer protons 2) Beta Decay Loss of beta particle Convert parent into element whose nucleus contains one more proton by losing an electron 3) Gamma Decay Capture of beta particle Convert parent into element whose nucleus has one less proton K 40 Ar 40

39 Radioactive Decay Alpha Decay (Uranium) 238 U 206 Pb + 8α

40 Radioactive Decay Radiometric dating Radioactive isotopes decay at constant geometric rate After a certain amount of time, half of the parent present will survive and half will decay to daughter

41 Radioactive Decay Radiometric dating Radioactive isotopes decay at constant geometric rate Half-life After a certain amount of time, half of the parent present will survive and half will decay to daughter Interval of time for half of parent to decay

42 Absolute Age Absolute ages change Error increases in older rocks Techniques change Biostratigraphic correlations may be more accurate

43 Half Lives Parent Isotope Daughter Isotope Half Life (years) Datable Material(s) 14 C (Carbon-14) 14 N (Nitrogen-14) Wood, shells and organic material 235 U (Uranium-235) 207 Pb (Lead-207) Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 40 K (Potassium-40) 40 Ar (Argon-40) Metamorphic, igneous & sedimentary rocks; feldspar-bearing minerals 238 U (Uranium-238) 206 Pb (Lead-206) Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 232 Th (Thorium-232) 208 Pb (Lead-208) Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 87 Rb (Rubidium-87) 87 Sr (Strontium-87) Various rocks and minerals 147 Sm (Samarium-147) 143 Nd (Neodymium-143) Very old rocks, REE bearing minerals

44 Half Lives Parent Isotope Daughter Isotope Half Life (years) Datable Material(s) 14 C (Carbon-14) 14 N (Nitrogen-14) 5,730 Wood, shells and organic material 235 U (Uranium-235) 207 Pb (Lead-207) Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 40 K (Potassium-40) 40 Ar (Argon-40) Metamorphic, igneous & sedimentary rocks; feldspar-bearing minerals 238 U (Uranium-238) 206 Pb (Lead-206) Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 232 Th (Thorium-232) 208 Pb (Lead-208) Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 87 Rb (Rubidium-87) 87 Sr (Strontium-87) Various rocks and minerals 147 Sm (Samarium-147) 143 Nd (Neodymium-143) Very old rocks, REE bearing minerals

45 Half Lives Parent Isotope Daughter Isotope Half Life (years) Datable Material(s) 14 C (Carbon-14) 14 N (Nitrogen-14) 5,730 Wood, shells and organic material 235 U (Uranium-235) 207 Pb (Lead-207) 700,000,000 Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 40 K (Potassium-40) 40 Ar (Argon-40) Metamorphic, igneous & sedimentary rocks; feldspar-bearing minerals 238 U (Uranium-238) 206 Pb (Lead-206) Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 232 Th (Thorium-232) 208 Pb (Lead-208) Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 87 Rb (Rubidium-87) 87 Sr (Strontium-87) Various rocks and minerals 147 Sm (Samarium-147) 143 Nd (Neodymium-143) Very old rocks, REE bearing minerals

46 Half Lives Parent Isotope Daughter Isotope Half Life (years) Datable Material(s) 14 C (Carbon-14) 14 N (Nitrogen-14) 5,730 Wood, shells and organic material 235 U (Uranium-235) 207 Pb (Lead-207) 700,000,000 Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 40 K (Potassium-40) 40 Ar (Argon-40) 1,300,000,000 Metamorphic, igneous & sedimentary rocks; feldspar-bearing minerals 238 U (Uranium-238) 206 Pb (Lead-206) Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 232 Th (Thorium-232) 208 Pb (Lead-208) Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 87 Rb (Rubidium-87) 87 Sr (Strontium-87) Various rocks and minerals 147 Sm (Samarium-147) 143 Nd (Neodymium-143) Very old rocks, REE bearing minerals

47 Half Lives Parent Isotope Daughter Isotope Half Life (years) Datable Material(s) 14 C (Carbon-14) 14 N (Nitrogen-14) 5,730 Wood, shells and organic material 235 U (Uranium-235) 207 Pb (Lead-207) 700,000,000 Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 40 K (Potassium-40) 40 Ar (Argon-40) 1,300,000,000 Metamorphic, igneous & sedimentary rocks; feldspar-bearing minerals 238 U (Uranium-238) 206 Pb (Lead-206) 4,500,000,000 Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 232 Th (Thorium-232) 208 Pb (Lead-208) Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 87 Rb (Rubidium-87) 87 Sr (Strontium-87) Various rocks and minerals 147 Sm (Samarium-147) 143 Nd (Neodymium-143) Very old rocks, REE bearing minerals

48 Half Lives Parent Isotope Daughter Isotope Half Life (years) Datable Material(s) 14 C (Carbon-14) 14 N (Nitrogen-14) 5,730 Wood, shells and organic material 235 U (Uranium-235) 207 Pb (Lead-207) 700,000,000 Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 40 K (Potassium-40) 40 Ar (Argon-40) 1,300,000,000 Metamorphic, igneous & sedimentary rocks; feldspar-bearing minerals 238 U (Uranium-238) 206 Pb (Lead-206) 4,500,000,000 Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 232 Th (Thorium-232) 208 Pb (Lead-208) 14,000,000,000 Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 87 Rb (Rubidium-87) 87 Sr (Strontium-87) Various rocks and minerals 147 Sm (Samarium-147) 143 Nd (Neodymium-143) Very old rocks, REE bearing minerals

49 Half Lives Parent Isotope Daughter Isotope Half Life (years) Datable Material(s) 14 C (Carbon-14) 14 N (Nitrogen-14) 5,730 Wood, shells and organic material 235 U (Uranium-235) 207 Pb (Lead-207) 700,000,000 Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 40 K (Potassium-40) 40 Ar (Argon-40) 1,300,000,000 Metamorphic, igneous & sedimentary rocks; feldspar-bearing minerals 238 U (Uranium-238) 206 Pb (Lead-206) 4,500,000,000 Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 232 Th (Thorium-232) 208 Pb (Lead-208) 14,000,000,000 Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 87 Rb (Rubidium-87) 87 Sr (Strontium-87) 48,600,000,000 Various rocks and minerals 147 Sm (Samarium-147) 143 Nd (Neodymium-143) Very old rocks, REE bearing minerals

50 Half Lives Parent Isotope Daughter Isotope Half Life (years) Datable Material(s) 14 C (Carbon-14) 14 N (Nitrogen-14) 5,730 Wood, shells and organic material 235 U (Uranium-235) 207 Pb (Lead-207) 700,000,000 Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 40 K (Potassium-40) 40 Ar (Argon-40) 1,300,000,000 Metamorphic, igneous & sedimentary rocks; feldspar-bearing minerals 238 U (Uranium-238) 206 Pb (Lead-206) 4,500,000,000 Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 232 Th (Thorium-232) 208 Pb (Lead-208) 14,000,000,000 Metamorphic, igneous rocks, Zircon, U-bearing minerals 87 Rb (Rubidium-87) 87 Sr (Strontium-87) 48,600,000,000 Various rocks and minerals 147 Sm (Samarium-147) 143 Nd (Neodymium-143) 106,000,000,000 Very old rocks, REE bearing minerals

51 Age Determination Mass Spectrophotometer

52 Age Determination The all important age equation: N=N o e -λt No is the number of atoms of parent isotope remaining in a substance N is the number of atoms of daughter isotope produced through decay, λ is the decay constant (which depend on the isotope in question) t is the amount of elapsed time.

53 Age Determination A more useful equation for age determination: Rock age= 1/λ x ln[(do-d) + 1] N Do is the original amount of daughter isotope in the sample N is the amount of current parent isotope in the sample D is the amount of current daughter isotope in the sample λ is the decay constant

54 Today s Homework 1. Review online notes 2. Read War and Peace Next Time Lectures 8a: Stable isotope geochemistry hardcore chemistry! Heads-up for next week s lab Bring Scientific calculator to lab!

55 GY 112: Earth History Lectures 7, 8: Dating Instructor: Dr. Doug Haywick This is a free open access lecture, but not for commercial purposes. For personal use only.

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