# Overview key concepts and terms (based on the textbook Chang 2006 and the practical manual)

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1 Introduction Geo-information Science (GRS-10306) Overview key concepts and terms (based on the textbook 2006 and the practical manual) Introduction Chapter 1 Geographic information system (GIS) Geographically referenced data o Spatial data (geometry) Continuous features Discrete features o Attribute data (characteristics) Data models (data structure) o Raster data model (location-based) o Vector data model (entity-based) Georelational (e.g. shapefile) Relational database Projection Data exploration Geographic visualization GIS modeling 1 GRS-10306

2 Spatial concepts: Data models Chapter 3.1, 3.2 Chapter 5.1, 5.2 (except / 5.2.7), 5.3 (except / 5.3.3), 5.5, 5.6 Chapter 9 (except 9.2.1) Module 1 (Part 2: Working with ArcMap) Module 2 Data storage: digitizing and data structure The Vector data model Spatial data storage: Feature types o Point o Line o Area Georelational data model Shapefile Raster data model Discrete / continuous Zone / Region Spatial data storage: Structures o Cell-by-cell encoding Cell value o Integer o Floating point Cell size (resolution) Raster data o Satellite imagery Landsat SPOT o Orthophotos o DEMs o Raster graphics Conversion o Rasterization o Vectorization 2 GRS-10306

3 Attribute data and tables Attribute table o Field o Record o Unique identifier: ID Relational database o Normalization o Table relationships One-to-many Many-to-one One-to-one Many-to-many o Join o Relate Data type o Integer o Float o Text o Date Data scale (also known as measurement scale / attribute scale) o Categorical (qualitative) Nominal Ordinal o Numeric (quantitative) Interval Ratio 3 GRS-10306

4 Spatial concepts: Geo-data Chapter 6.1, 6.2, 6.4 (except / 6.4.5) Module 1 (Part 1: Working with ArcCatalog) Acquisition: existing data Clearinghouse Spatial data infrastructure Metadata Acquisition: new data GPS data Digitizing on-screen 4 GRS-10306

5 Spatial concepts: Georeferencing Chapter 2 (except / / 2.4.4) Module 3 Map projections Modeling the surface of the Earth Ellipsoid o Bessel 1841 (local ellipsoid, basis for Dutch RD system) o WGS84 (global ellipsoid) o Semiminor axis o Semimajor axis o Flattening Geoid o Geoid undulation Geographic coordinate system (coordinate system for ellipsoid) o Longitude / Latitude o Meridian / Parallel o Geographic coordinates: Angles Degrees-minutes-seconds Map projections: from spheroid to plane Map projection Projection types o by preserved metric property Conformal Equivalent Equidistant Azimuthal o by class Conic Cylindrical Planar (azimuthal) o by aspect Normal (polar in case of planar projection) Oblique Transverse (equatorial in case of planar projection) o by case (line of tangency: 1:1 scale) Simple Secant Map projection examples o Mercator (conformal, cylindrical, normal) 5 GRS-10306

6 o o o Transverse Mercator (conformal, cylindrical, transverse) Lambert (conformal, conic) Albert (equivalent, conic) Map projection parameters o Standard line (line of tangency) o Scale factor o Central line o False easting o False northing Projected (plane) coordinate system (coordinate system for map projections) o UTM Grid system (built on transverse Mercator projection, secant) o Dutch RD system (built on oblique stereographic projection, secant) o Cartesian coordinates: Distance (X,Y) 6 GRS-10306

7 Spatial Concepts: Geo-data visualization Chapter 10 (except / 10.5) Chapter 11.5 Module 4 Map presentation Cartography Data classification Map design / layout Visual variables (graphic attributes) Maps o o o by function Thematic (special purpose) General reference (general purpose) by type Choropleth Dot Dasymetric Isarithmetic by ArcGIS symbology (Map types) single symbol unique value graduated color graduated symbol proportional symbol chart Map design o Visual hierarchy o Contrast o Transparency 12 Steps to present a map (theory of Bertin) 7 GRS-10306

8 Data handling 1: Queries / Data-action model Chapter 11.2, 11.3, 11.4 Module 5 Queries Attribute data query o Structured query language (SQL) Boolean expression Boolean connectors o Relational database query Spatial data query o by graphic o by spatial relationship (topological query) Proximity (adjacency) Containment (fall within) Intersect Spatial join Raster data query Data-action model o Data-action model symbology 8 GRS-10306

9 Data handling 2: Transformations Chapter 7 (except / 7.3) Module 6 Transformations Georeferencing o Map-to-map transformation o Image-to-map transformation (a.k.a. image rectification) image registration geometric transformation o Affine transformation o Ground control points o Root mean square error Positional accuracy Resampling (thematic data) o Nearest neighbor o Bilinear interpolation 9 GRS-10306

10 Data handling 3: Operations Chapter 12 (except / / 12.4) Chapter 13 (except ) Module 7 Raster operations Module 8 Vector operations Vector data analysis Buffering Overlay o Point-in-polygon o Line-in-polygon o Polygon-in-polygon Intersect Union Identity o Map manipulation Dissolve Clip Eliminate Merge Raster data analysis Local operations o Single raster Mathematical functions o Multiple rasters Arithmetic operators Logical operators (TRUE / FALSE output) Cell statistics Overlay (Combine function) o Reclassification o Map algebra Neighborhood operations (focal operations) o Neighborhood statistics Zonal operations o Zonal statistics o Zonal geometry Global operations o Physical distance (Euclidean distance) 10 GRS-10306

11 o Physical distance measurement operation Raster data extraction Raster data generalization (Aggregate) Raster data management (Clip, Mosaic) 11 GRS-10306

12 Data handling 4: Surface analysis Module 9 Surface analysis Digital terrain modelling Surface Structure terrain surfaces o DEM Terrain mapping o Contour lines o Contour interval o Base contour Terrain variables o Slope gradient o Slope aspect Spatial interpolation Control points (also referred to sample points or observations ) Interpolation types o Deterministic models Interpolation methods o Inverse distance weighted o Spline (tension) Validation Background information Chapters 14 and 16 in provide more information about terrain mapping and spatial interpolation techniques for the interested reader. However, because of the technical character of these chapters they will not be part of the exam. 12 GRS-10306

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