1. Following Dalton s Atomic Theory, 2. In 1869 Russian chemist published a method. of organizing the elements. Mendeleev showed that

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1 20 CHEMISTRY 11 D. Organizing the Elements The Periodic Table 1. Following Dalton s Atomic Theory, By 1817, chemists had discovered 52 elements and by 1863 that number had risen to In 1869 Russian chemist published a method of organizing the elements Mendeleev showed that He broke the list into a series of rows such that elements in one row were directly over elements with similar properties in other rows. He called each horizontal row a and each vertical column a. In certain cases, Mendeleev Mendeleev also left gaps in his table for elements which he believed were not yet discovered. He was so confident in his method of organization that When these elements were eventually discovered, they matched Mendeleev s predictions quite closely. At last with Mendeleev s Periodic Table,

2 UNIT VIII ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE As more and better data became available, chemists made a significant change to Mendeleev s method of organizing the elements. The modern periodic table is organized This solved problems The Periodic Law summarizes the organization of the periodic table. THE PERIODIC LAW 4. In the modern periodic table, a PERIOD is the A GROUP or FAMILY is the There are several special groups, rows, and blocks of elements. The are the main groups of elements. The are the central block of elements which separates the two blocks of the representative elements. The are the elements in the first column (except hydrogen).

3 22 CHEMISTRY 11 The are the elements in the second column. The are the elements in group 17 headed by fluorine. The are the elements in group 18 headed by helium. The and are the two rows below the main part of the table starting with lanthanum and actinium respectively. 5. Elements can also be classified according to their metallic character. The properties of metals

4 UNIT VIII ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE 23 The properties of nonmetals 6. There are some elements The nonmetals can be divided into two subgroups, A SEMICONDUCTOR is Semiconductors were formerly called or because they have properties which resemble metals more than nonmetals. The important difference is that the electrical conductivity of metals with increasing temperatures whereas the electrical conductivity of semiconductors with increasing temperature.

5 24 CHEMISTRY There are two important trends in the periodic table which exists among the elements: i) ii)

6 UNIT VIII ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE 25 E. Chemical Bonding 1. An ELECTROSTATIC FORCE is All chemical bonding is based on the following relationships of electrostatics: The greater the distance between two charged particles, The greater the charge on two particles, 2. Each period on the periodic table The 1 st shell has electrons and therefore the 1 st period has elements. The 2 nd shell has electrons and therefore the 2 nd period has elements. The 3 rd shell has electrons and therefore the 3 rd period has elements. (Note: for the purposes of this section, the transition metals, lanthanides, and actinides are IGNORED. Only the REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTS will be considered.)

7 26 CHEMISTRY Going from left to right across a given period, the This increase in atomic number also brings an increase in the number of electrons surrounding the nucleus. All the electrons in a given shell can be assumed to have the same average distance from the nucleus. p+ 3p+

8 UNIT VIII ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE The shells surrounding the nucleus can be described as or An open shell is A closed shell is A closed shell has e.g. The 3 rd shell, Na to Ar, can hold a maximum of 8 electrons: 3s 2 3p 6. The atoms Na to Cl have less than 8 electrons in their 3 rd shell so they are OPEN. The atom Ar has its outermost shell full with 8 electrons therefore it is CLOSED. Previously VALENCE ELECTRONS were described as all the electrons in an atom excluding those in the core or filled d- or f-subshells. Valence electrons are. The NOBLE GASES have NO valence electrons and are NOT REACTIVE but F and Na HAVE valence electrons and ARE REACTIVE.

9 28 CHEMISTRY Isolated atoms have their electrons placed in s, p, d, and f orbitals; however, Only electrons are considered for bonding and the TRANSITION metals are ignored. There are a total of orbitals into which electrons can be placed (one s and three p orbitals). Each individual orbital holds up to electrons. Since electrons repel each other, Only after each orbital contains one electron will the The following or electron dot diagrams show how the valence electrons are distributed in an atom. The VALENCE (not valence electrons) of an atom = the number of electrons. Valence is sometimes called

10 UNIT VIII ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE In order to form a positive ion, an Li + energy Li + + e- IONIZATION ENERGY is (The electron is removed from the outermost shell and is always a valence electron unless the atom has a closed shell.) Ionization energy left to right across a period since The noble gas at the end of any period will Ionization energy top to bottom along a group since Ionization energy across a period and in a group.

11 30 CHEMISTRY 11 F. Types of Chemical Bonding 1. Atoms can form ions by either or electrons. Metal atoms generally form ions and nonmetal atoms form ions due to their difference in ELECTRONEGATIVITY. Electronegativity is Atoms of high electronegativity Electronegativity increases when the Electronegativity across a period and a group. In general, when an atom forms an ion, Na (1 valence e - ) e - + Na + (0 valence e - s like Ar) O (6 valence e - s) + 2e - O 2- (0 valence e - s like Ar) The most common charges found when going across the periodic table are shown below. The elements in group 14 (C, Si, Ge, Sn, and Pb) are not included because C, Si, and Ge do not form simple ionic compounds and Sn and Pb are metals which most readily form +2 ions and only rarely form +4 ions.

12 UNIT VIII ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE 31 Group Charge on ion 2. An IONIC BOND is formed It is formed when IONIC BONDS are formed when IONIC BONDS are very STRONG, so that compounds held together by ionic bonds have HIGH MELTING TEMPERATURES. In an IONIC SOLID there are Instead, there is a matrix of alternating positive and negative ions in three dimensions. Ionic solids are described as which are the lowest whole number ratio of positive to negative ions.

13 32 CHEMISTRY When an atom forms an ion, the resulting ion will be a different size than the corresponding neutral atom. When an atom gains electrons to form a ION, the does not change but since there are more electrons, the increases and the ion becomes than the neutral atom. When an atom loses electrons to form a ION, the between electrons decreases since there are fewer electrons. As such, and the ion becomes than the neutral atom. 4. In a COVALENT BOND Instead, the bond involves A covalent bond is formed when The states that atoms in groups 14 to 17 of the periodic table tend to form covalent bonds so as to have electrons in their valence shells.

14 UNIT VIII ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE 33 Atoms that form covalent bonds have relatively high electronegativities. They attract each other s electrons strongly but will not let go of their own electrons. This results in a tug of war and the electrons are shared in the bond. COVALENT BONDS are formed when a combines with a. 5. Oxygen atoms are 2 electrons short of a full shell. By sharing electrons and forming a, the atoms can form a full octet. Similarly, nitrogen atoms are 3 electrons short of a full shell. By sharing electrons and forming a, that atoms can form a full octet.

15 34 CHEMISTRY In covalent bonds between two different types of atoms the electrons This results in a bond where one end of the bond is slightly more negative (δ-) and the other end slightly more positive (δ+). Chemical bonds can be classified according to their difference in electronegativities. The following table lists the electronegativities of the elements H 1.0 Li 0.9 Na 0.8 K 0.8 Rb 0.7 Cs 0.7 Fr Be 1.2 Mg 1.0 Ca 1.0 Sr 0.9 Ba 0.9 Ra Sc 1.2 Y La-Lu Ac-No Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd 1.3 Hf 1.5 Ta 1.7 W 1.9 Re 2.2 Os 2.2 Ir 2.2 Pt 2.4 Au Hg B 1.5 Al C 1.8 Si Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge 1.7 In 1.8 Tl Sn 1.8 Pb 3.0 N 2.1 P 2.0 As 1.9 Sb 1.9 Bi 3.5 O 2.5 S 2.4 Se 2.1 Te 2.0 Po 4.0 F 3.0 Cl 2.8 Br 2.5 I 2.2 At Type of Chemical Bond Electronegativity Difference Ionic Polar Covalent Covalent NaCl = = ( ) CH 4 = = ( ) F 2 = = ( )

16 UNIT VIII ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE The formula of covalently-bonded binary compounds can be predicted. Group Valence If we want to predict that formula of a compound between N and F. G. Writing Lewis Structures 1. LEWIS STRUCTURES (electron dot structures) are used to The symbol is used to denote the and dots are used indicate the To write the Lewis Structure for an atom, Li Ca B C N

17 36 CHEMISTRY The Lewis Structure of an ionic compound is written by: e.g. Draw the Lewis Structure for MgCl 2 3. Drawing Lewis Structures of covalent compounds that obey the octet rule follow a simple set of rules. Add one electron for each charge and subtract one electron for each charge. Determine which atoms are bonded together and Use the remaining valence electrons to Then (These non-bonding pairs of electrons are called.) If a central atom has less than an octet of electrons, Tidy up,

18 UNIT VIII ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE 37 Draw Lewis Structures for the following: NH 4 + CHO 2 - HOPO RESONANCE STRUCTURES exist when as in CHO - 2 and HOPO. 4. There are a number of atoms that violate the octet rule. In addition to H, the atoms are exceptions to the tendency for covalently-bonded atoms to complete their octet. These atoms have such a low electronegativity that they Be has 2 valence electrons and can only share 4 electrons (forming 2 bonds) while B and Al have 3 valence electrons and can only share 6 electrons (3 bonds).

19 38 CHEMISTRY 11 The Lewis Structure for BF 3 is A molecule in which one or more atoms (other than hydrogen) does not possess a full octet of electrons is called an molecule. 5. Elements in the 3 rd and 4 th periods of the periodic table Other than the fact that the central atom will end up with more than 8 electrons, the same rules are used to draw Lewis Structures. The Lewis Structure for PCl 5 is

20 UNIT VIII ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE 39 H. The Shape and Behaviour of Molecules 1. Lewis structures can be used to help visualize molecules in three dimension. Since all electrons carry the same charge, The valence electrons should be evenly spread out in regions of space around the central atom. This is the basis of the Summary of VSEPR shapes. Bonds Lone Pairs Shape Example Structure BeCl 2 BCl 3 CH 4 NH 3 H 2 O PCl 5 ClF 3

21 40 CHEMISTRY 11 SF 6 BrF 5 XeF 4 2. Polar bonds are a result of varying electronegativities among the elements. Since molecules usually possess more that one bond, If the polar bonds of a molecule are If the polar bonds are As a general rule, (Square planar molecules are an exception to this rule.)

22 UNIT VIII ATOMS AND THE PERIODIC TABLE Individual molecules are held together by covalent bonds between the atoms in the molecule. Such bonds are strong and are called. There are also weak forces that hold individual molecules next to other molecules. These are called There are two main types of van der Waals forces: Polar molecules are often referred to as because these molecules have a slightly positive and slightly negative end. As a result of the these dipoles, and they affect many of the properties of a compound such as boiling point There is a special case of dipole-dipole forces known as hydrogen-bonding. A HYDROGEN-BOND A hydrogen-bond is simply a particularly strong dipole-dipole force. H O H H O H O H H

23 42 CHEMISTRY 11 London Forces are the of van der Waals forces and are the result of. London forces are the weakest type of bonding force known. In general, London forces are always present, but are much weaker than covalent or ionic bonds. Hence, That is, London forces are important between the following closed-shell species: i) ii)

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