# Name: Period: Date: Find the following elements according to their group and period: Write the excited state electron configuration of Na.

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1 Name: Period: Date: UNIT 3: Electrons Lesson 3: Small particles, big similarities Do Now: By the end of today, you will have an answer to: Why do elements within the same group react similarly? Find the following elements according to their group and period: 1. Group 2, Period 7 How many electrons does this element have? 2. Group 14, Period 4 How many electrons does this element have? Write the excited state electron configuration of Na. In terms of electrons and energy, how are spectral lines produced? VIDEO CATALYST! Sodium (Na) Lithium (Li) What are some physical similarities between these metals? After watching the video, what are some similarities between these metals in terms of reactivity? Take a look at the following elements on the periodic table. What similarities and differences do you notice?

2 IMPORTANT VOCABULARY: Term Definition Electron Configuration Valence electrons Octet Rule EXAMPLE: How many electrons are in the first shell? How many electrons in the 2 nd shell? How many electrons in the 3 rd shell? How many valence electrons are in Na? Try it on your own! Directions: Find the electron configuration for the following elements. Circle the valence electrons. 1. Magnesium 3. Xenon 2. Potassium 4. Ca- 40 Drawing the Lewis dot diagram Lewis dot diagram: used to show the number of valence electrons in an atom. What is the electron configuration for Cl? How many valence electrons does it have? Each dot represents a valence electron. Quick Practice!! Hydrogen Carbon Oxygen Fluorine Lithium Silicon Sulfur Chlorine Sodium Germanium Selenium Bromine KEY POINT:

3 CW 3.3: Valence Electrons 10 points 1. What is the total number of valence electrons in an atom of germanium in the ground state? 2. Which element has an atom in the ground state with a total of three valence electrons? (1) Aluminum (2) Lithium (3) Phosphorous (4) Scandium 3. Which symbol represents an atom in the ground state with the most stable valence electron configuration? (1) B (2) Li (3) O (4) Ne 4. Which electron configuration represents the electrons of an atom in an excited state? (1) (3) (4) An atom of aluminum in the ground state and the same: (1) mass (2) electronegativity (3) total number of protons (4) total number of valence electrons 6. Which set of symbols represents atoms with valence electrons in the same electron shell? (1) Ba, Br, Bi (2) Sr, Sn, I (3) O, S, Te (4) Mn, Hg, Cu CW 3.3: Valence Electrons 10 points 1. What is the total number of valence electrons in an atom of germanium in the ground state? 2. Which element has an atom in the ground state with a total of three valence electrons? (1) Aluminum (2) Lithium (3) Phosphorous (4) Scandium 3. Which symbol represents an atom in the ground state with the most stable valence electron configuration? (1) B (2) Li (3) O (4) Ne 4. Which electron configuration represents the electrons of an atom in an excited state? (1) (3) (4) An atom of aluminum in the ground state and the same: (1) mass (2) electronegativity (3) total number of protons (4) total number of valence electrons 6. Which set of symbols represents atoms with valence electrons in the same electron shell? (1) Ba, Br, Bi (2) Sr, Sn, I (3) O, S, Te (4) Mn, Hg, Cu

4 7. Which element has chemical properties that are most similar to the chemical properties of sodium? (1) Mg (2) K (3) Se (4) Cl 8. What is the total number of valence electrons in an atom of sulfur in the ground state? (1) 6 (2) 8 9. An atom in the ground state contains 8 valence electrons. This atom is classified as a (1) metal (2) semimetal (3) noble gas (4) halogen 10. Which electron- dot symbol correctly represents an atom of its given element? 11. As the atoms of the Group 17 elements in the ground state are considered from top to bottom, each successive element has (1) the same number of valence electrons and similar chemical properties (2) the same number of valence electrons and identical chemical properties (3) an increasing number of valence electrons and similar chemical properties (4) an increasing number of valence electrons and identical chemical properties 12. The atoms of the elements in Group 2 have the same (1) mass number (2) atomic number (3) number of protons (4) number of valence electrons 7. Which element has chemical properties that are most similar to the chemical properties of sodium? (1) Mg (2) K (3) Se (4) Cl 8. What is the total number of valence electrons in an atom of sulfur in the ground state? (1) 6 (2) 8 9. An atom in the ground state contains 8 valence electrons. This atom is classified as a (1) metal (2) semimetal (3) noble gas (4) halogen 10. Which electron- dot symbol correctly represents an atom of its given element? 11. As the atoms of the Group 17 elements in the ground state are considered from top to bottom, each successive element has (1) the same number of valence electrons and similar chemical properties (2) the same number of valence electrons and identical chemical properties (3) an increasing number of valence electrons and similar chemical properties (4) an increasing number of valence electrons and identical chemical properties 12. The atoms of the elements in Group 2 have the same (1) mass number (2) atomic number (3) number of protons (4) number of valence electrons

5 HW 3.3: Valence Electrons 20 points 1. Compared to the atoms of nonmetals in Period 3, the atoms of metals in Period 3 have (1) fewer valence electrons (2) more valence electrons (3) fewer electron shells (4) more electron shells 2. What is the total number of valence electrons in a calcium atom in the ground state? (3) 18 (4) Which list consists of elements that have the most similar chemical properties? (1) Mg, Al, and Si (3) K, Al, and Ni (2) Mg, Ca, and Ba (4) K, Ca, and Ga 4. An atom of aluminum in the ground state and the same (1) Mass (2) Electronegativity (3) Total number of protons 5. Magnesium and calcium have similar chemical properties because a magnesium atom and a calcium atom have the same (1) Atomic number (2) Mass number (3) Total number of electrons shells 6. Which Lewis electron- dot diagram represents an atom in the ground state for a Group 13 element? HW 3.3: Valence Electrons 20 points 1. Compared to the atoms of nonmetals in Period 3, the atoms of metals in Period 3 have (1) fewer valence electrons (2) more valence electrons (3) fewer electron shells (4) more electron shells 2. What is the total number of valence electrons in a calcium atom in the ground state? (3) 8 (3) 18 (4) 2 (4) Which list consists of elements that have the most similar chemical properties? (3) Mg, Al, and Si (3) K, Al, and Ni (4) Mg, Ca, and Ba (4) K, Ca, and Ga (1) Mass (2) Electronegativity (3) Total number of protons 5. Magnesium and calcium have similar chemical properties because a magnesium atom and a calcium atom have the same (1) Atomic number (2) Mass number (3) Total number of electrons shells 6. Which Lewis electron- dot diagram represents an atom in the ground state for a Group 13 element? 4. An atom of aluminum in the ground state and the same

6 7. State the total number of valence electrons in a cadmium atom in the ground state. 8. Explain, in terms of atomic structure, why the elements in Group 2 have similar chemical properties. 9. In the space in your answer booklet, draw a Lewis electron dot diagram for an atom of sulfur- 33. Base your answers to numbers 10 through 12 on the information below. Two isotopes of potassium are K- 27 and K What is the total number of neutrons in the nucleus of a K- 37 atom? 11. How many valence electrons are in an atom of K- 42 in the ground state? 12. Explain, in terms of subatomic particles, why K- 37 and K- 42 are isotopes of potassium. 7. State the total number of valence electrons in a cadmium atom in the ground state. 8. Explain, in terms of atomic structure, why the elements in Group 2 have similar chemical properties. 9. In the space in your answer booklet, draw a Lewis electron dot diagram for an atom of sulfur- 33. Base your answers to numbers 10 through 12 on the information below. Two isotopes of potassium are K- 27 and K What is the total number of neutrons in the nucleus of a K- 37 atom? 11. How many valence electrons are in an atom of K- 42 in the ground state? 12. Explain, in terms of subatomic particles, why K- 37 and K- 42 are isotopes of potassium.

7 Exit Ticket Quiz 3.3- Valence Electrons 4 points 1. What is the total number of electrons in the valence shell of an atom of aluminum in the ground state? (4) Which element has chemical properties that are most similar to the chemical properties of sodium? (1) beryllium (2) calcium (3) lithium (4) magnesium 3. What is the total number of valence electrons in an atom of germanium in the ground state? 4. Magnesium and calcium have similar chemical properties because an atom of each element has the same total number of (1) electron shells (2) valence electrons (3) neutrons (4) protons Exit Ticket Quiz 4.4- Valence Electrons 4 points 1. What is the total number of electrons in the valence shell of an atom of aluminum in the ground state? (4) Which element has chemical properties that are most similar to the chemical properties of sodium? (1) beryllium (2) calcium (3) lithium (4) magnesium 3. What is the total number of valence electrons in an atom of germanium in the ground state? 4. Magnesium and calcium have similar chemical properties because an atom of each element has the same total number of (1) electron shells (2) valence electrons (3) neutrons (4) protons

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