Name PRACTICE Unit 3: Periodic Table

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1 1. Compared to the atoms of nonmetals in Period 3, the atoms of metals in Period 3 have (1) fewer valence electrons (2) more valence electrons (3) fewer electron shells (4) more electron shells 2. On the modern Periodic Table, the elements are arranged in order of increasing (1) atomic mass (2) atomic number (3) mass number (4) oxidation number 3. Which list consists of elements that have the most similar chemical properties? (1) Mg, Al, and Si (2) Mg, Ca, and Ba (3) K, Al, and Ni (4) K, Ca, and Ga 4. Most of the groups in the Periodic Table of the Elements contain (1) nonmetals, only (2) metals, only (3) nonmetals and metals (4) metals and metalloids 5. As the elements in Group 15 are considered in order of increasing atomic number, which sequence in properties occurs? (1) nonmetal metalloid metal (2) metalloid metal nonmetal (3) metal metalloid nonmetal (4) metal nonmetal metalloid 6. Which element exists as a diatomic molecule at STP? (1) bromine (2) argon (3) sulfur (4) rubidium 7. Which of the following elements in Period 3 has the greatest metallic character? (1) Ar (2) Si (3) Mg (4) S 8. Which sequence of atomic numbers represents elements which have similar chemical properties? (1) 19, 23, 30, 36 (2) 9, 16, 33, 50 (3) 3, 12, 21, 40 (4) 4, 20, 38, A solid element that is malleable, a good conductor of electricity, and reacts with oxygen is classified as a (1) metal (2) metalloid (3) noble gas (4) nonmetal 10. Which element is classified as a nonmetal? (1) Be (2) Al (3) Si (4) Cl 11. Which compound forms a green aqueous solution? (1) RbCl (2) CaCl2 (3) NiCl2 (4) ZnCl2 12. Atoms of metallic elements tend to (1) gain electrons and form negative ions (2) gain electrons and form positive ions (3) lose electrons and form negative ions (4) lose electrons and form positive ions 13. Which particle diagram represents the arrangement of F2 molecules in a sample of fluorine at 95 K and standard pressure? (1) (2) (3) (4) 14. Which element is an active nonmetal? (1) neon (2) oxygen (3) zinc (4) chromium 15. At STP, which substance is a noble gas? (1) ammonia (2) chlorine (3) neon (4) nitrogen 16. Which Group 14 element is a metalloid? (1) tin (2) silicon (3) lead (4) carbon 17. Which element is a metal that is in the liquid phase at STP? (1) bromine (2) cobalt (3) hydrogen (4) mercury 18. What is the density of N2 at STP? (1) g/cm 3 (3) g/cm 3 (2) g/cm 3 (4) g/cm What is the total number of electrons found in an atom of sulfur? (1) 6 (2) 8 (3) 16 (4) An atom of which element has the largest atomic radius? (1) Fe (2) Mg (3) Si (4) Zn Page 1

2 21. At STP, solid carbon can exist as graphite or as diamond. These two forms of carbon have (1) the same properties and the same crystal structures (2) the same properties and different crystal structures (3) different properties and the same crystal structures (4) different properties and different crystal structures 22. In which shell are the valence electrons of the elements in Period 2 found? (1) 1 (2) 2 (3) 3 (4) Which changes occur as a cadmium atom, Cd, becomes a cadmium ion, Cd 2+? (1) The Cd atom gains two electrons and its radius decreases. (2) The Cd atom gains two electrons and its radius increases. (3) The Cd atom loses two electrons and its radius decreases. 30. Which element has chemical properties that are most similar to the chemical properties of sodium? (1) Mg (2) K (3) Se (4) Cl Base your answers to questions 31 through 33 on the elements in Group 2 on the Periodic Table. 31. State the general trend in first ionization energy for the elements in Group 2 as these elements are considered in order from top to bottom in the group. 32. State, in terms of the number of electron shells, why the radius of a strontium atom in the ground state is larger than the radius of a magnesium atom in the ground state. 33. Explain, in terms of atomic structure, why the elements in Group 2 have similar chemical properties. (4) The Cd atom loses two electrons and its radius increases. 24. As the elements is Period 3 are considered in order of increasing atomic number, there is a general decrease in (1) atomic mass (2) atomic radius (3) electronegativity (4) first ionization energy 25. Which ion has the largest radius? (1) I (2) Cl (3) Br (4) F 26. Which term represents the attraction one atom has for the electrons in a bond with another atom? (1) electronegativity (2) electrical conductivity (3) first ionization energy (4) mechanical energy 27. An atom of which element has the greatest attraction for the electrons in a bond with a hydrogen atom? (1) chlorine (2) phosphorus (1) bromine (2) calcium (3) silicon (4) sulfur 28. Which element requires the least amount of energy to remove the most loosely held electron from a gaseous atom in the ground state? (3) sodium (4) silver 29. Which of the following Group 2 elements has the lowest first ionization energy? (1) Be (2) Mg (3) Ca (4) Ba Page 2

3 34. Explain, in terms of atomic structure, why Group 18 elements on the Periodic Table rarely form compounds. 35. Explain, in terms of electrons, why the radius of a potassium atom is larger than the radius of a potassium ion in the ground state. Base your answers to questions 36 through 39 on the information below. The atomic radius and the ionic radius for some Group 1 and some Group 17 elements are given in the tables below. 36. State the relationship between atomic number and first ionization energy as the elements in Group 1 are considered in order of increasing atomic number. 37. Write both the name and the charge of the particle that is gained by an F atom when the atom becomes an F ion. 38. Explain, in terms of electron shells, why the radius of a K + ion is greater than the radius of an Na + ion. 39. Estimate the radius of a Br ion. Page 3

4 Base your answers to questions 40 and 41 on the information below. The ionic radii of some Group 2 elements are given in the table below. 40. On the grid, mark an appropriate scale on the axis labeled "Ionic Radius (pm)." 41. On the same grid, plot the data from the data table. Circle and connect the points. Page 4

5 Page 5

6 Answer Key Periodic Table Exam as atomic number increases, first ionization energy decreases. 32. A strontium atom in the ground state has two more electron shells than a magnesium atom in the ground state. 33. In the ground state, an atom of each element has two valence electrons. The number of electrons in the outermost shell of each atom is the same. 34. Group 18 elements rarely form compounds because their atoms have stable electron configurations. Their valence shells are completely filled. All the elements have maximum numbers of valence electrons. Atoms of Group 18 have a stable octet except He, which is stable with two electrons. 35. A potassium atom has four electron shells and a potassium ion has three electron shells. A potassium atom has one more electron shell than a potassium ion. A K + ion has one fewer electron than a K atom. 36. —As the elements in Group 1 are considered in order of increasing atomic number, first ionization energy decreases. — As atomic number increases, first ionization energy decreases. 37. —Particle: electron Charge of particle: 1 —Particle: electron Charge of particle: negative 38. —A K + ion has three electron shells and an Na + ion has only two. —A sodium ion has fewer electron shells than a potassium ion. 39. —ionic radius value greater than 181 pm and less than 220. pm

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