Unit 3. Atoms and molecules

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1 Unit 3. Atoms and molecules Index. s and compounds Dalton's Atomic theory The atom Atomic number and mass number Isotopes, atomic mass unit and atomic mass configuration Chemical Bond ic bond Covalent bond Metallic bond... Activities...8 Practice exam...9 Periodic system...0 Page of 3

2 . s and compounds.. Dalton's Atomic theory ) All matter is made of atoms. Atoms are indivisible and indestructible. 2) All atoms of a given element are identical in mass and properties. 3) Compounds are formed by a combination of two or more different kinds of atoms 4) Atoms of a given element are identical in size, mass, and other properties; atoms of different elements differ in size, mass and other properties. 5) Atoms of different elements combine in simple whole-number ratios to form chemical compounds. Activities:. Type the symbols: silver, gold, iron, fluorine, oxygen, sodium, sulfur, calcium, magnesium, bromine, helium, iodine 2. Write the elements corresponding to the following symbols: Li, K, Rb, Cs, Be, Sr, Ba,Ni, Co, Cu, Hg, Pb, C, Si, Al, B, N, Cl, P, As, Se, Ar, 3. What... is the most abundant element in the Universe? is the most abundant element on Earth? are the 4 basis chemical elements in the living organisms 4.- Write the main points of Dalton's atomic theory 5.- Give either the element or symbol that goes with each of the following: a) sodium f) Ag b) sulfur g) C c) hydrogen h) Si d) lithium i) Hg e) helium j) O 2.-The atom At the end on 9th century, two particles were discovered inside the atom: Particle Mass Charge proton,6 0-2 Kg +,6 0-9C electron 9, 0-3 kg -,6 0-9 C In the 20th century one additional particle was discovered: Page 2 of 3

3 Particle Mass Charge neutron,6 0-2 Kg 0 So, what is an atom like? Different atomic models were proposed in this chronological order: Atomic model when structure Thomson 89 Solid sphere of positively charged matter with embedded Rutherford 9 Nuclear model with 2 distinct areas: a positively charged nucleus containing most of the mass of the atom (in it were the protons and neutrons were suggested) and a cortex with rotating in circular orbits. Between the nucleus and the cortex there was a lot of space. Bohr 93 Similar but with definite circular orbits. The can only travel in certain orbits (called stationary orbits by Bohr: at a certain discrete set of distances from the nucleus with specific energies. Current atomic model XX century Nuclear model with 2 distinct areas: a positively charged nucleus containing most of the mass of the atom. In it, there were protons and neutrons and a cortex with distributed in orbitals. Page 3 of 3 drawing

4 3.-Atomic number and mass number Atomic number, Z: The number of protons that an atom has. Mass number, A: The number of nucleons (combined number of protons and neutrons) that an atom has. Name of the element A Z hydrogen carbon Number of protons Number of 6 Number of neutrons Symbol 8 23 magnesium 24 lithium chlorine oxygen bromine 80 potassium nitrogen Aluminum Be cobalt 59 arsenic silver S 2 H iron iron Helium 4 Neon Sodium 23 iodine 2 lead 20 P Au cesium mercury 200 Na Page 4 of 3 8 F

5 4.-Isotopes, atomic mass unit and atomic mass Isotopes: atoms with the same atomic number but different mass number. The kilogram is too big to measure atoms, so we use the atomic mass unit, u. It is twelfth the mass of an atom of carbon 2 and is roughly the mass of a proton or a neutron. The atomic mass of an element is the weighted average, according to the abundance of the different masses of the isotopes that make up the element. The atomic mass is listed on the periodic table. 5.- configuration It is the distribution of of an atom in atomic orbitals. Type of orbital Number of orbitals capacity s 2 p 3 6 d 5 0 f 4 Order of the orbital energy: 6.- Write down the name and the electron configuration of the following elements: a) N (Z=) c) Cl (Z=) e) P (Z=5) b) Sr (Z=38) d) Mg (Z=2) f) Be (Z=4) g) Ca (Z=20) i) Ne (Z=0) k) Fe (Z=26) h) Br (Z=35) j) Si (Z=4) l) I (Z=54) They are the of the outer shell. The number of in an atom's outermost valence shell governs its bonding behaviour..- Write down the valence of the elements in the previous activity. Page 5 of 3

6 6.-Chemical Bond Atoms are rarely isolated. Except for the noble gases, other atoms can form different groupings. If atoms have the same atomic number, then elements are formed. If atoms have different atomic number, then compounds are formed. Why? Because of their stability. Noble gases have great stability and (except helium) have 8 valence. So, usually, all atoms want to have 8 in their outer shell. They are going to do different things (gain, lose or share ) to have this number (8) of in the outer shell. This is called the Octet rule. Types of chemical bond Based on how they get 8 in the outermost shell, there are 3 types of chemical bonds: ionic bond covalent bond metallic bond 6.. ic bond The bond results from electrostatic attraction between ions of different charges. The transfer causes one atom to assume a net positive charge, and the other to assume a net negative charge.. What is the chemical bond between Na and Cl like? configuration Na s2 2s2 2p6 3s Na+ NaCl Cl s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5 Cl- What is the chemical bond between Na and 8O like? configuration Na s2 2s2 2p6 3s Na+ Na2O O s2 2s2 2p4 6 O2-8 What is the chemical bond between Mg and 8O like? 2 configuration Page 6 of 3

7 What is the chemical bond between Cl and 20Ca like? configuration What is the chemical bond between 3Al and Cl? configuration What is the chemical bond between 2Mg and N like? configuration What is the chemical bond between 9F and 3Li like? configuration Properties of substances with ionic bonds ic substances require high temperatures to melt Solid at room temperature Form crystals Hard but brittle Do not conduct electricity in solid but do if dissolved in water Dissolve well in water Example: table salt 6.2. Covalent bond Atoms that share one or more pair of. This type of bond is represented by s. What is the chemical bond between 9F and 9F like? F2 F s2 2s2 2p5 F s2 2s2 2p5 9 9 Page of 3

8 What is the chemical bond between 8O and 8O like? What is the chemical bond between N and N like? What is the chemical bond between H and H like? What is the chemical bond between H and 8O like? What is the chemical bond between H and N like? What is the chemical bond between H and 6C like? What is the chemical bond between Cl and 5P like? Page 8 of 3

9 What is the chemical bond between Cl and 8O like? Properties of substances with covalent bonds They can be: Molecular substances Atomic crystals Solid, liquid or gases at room temperature low melting point do not conduct electricity some dissolve well in water Examples: water, glucose Solid at room temperature high melting point do not conduct electricity do not dissolve well in water Examples: diamond 6.3. Metallic bond In this type of bonding, each atom in a metal donates one or more to a sea of that reside between many metal atoms. In this sea, each electron is free to be associated with a great many atoms at once. The bond results because the metal atoms become somewhat positively charged due to loss of their, while the remain attracted to many atoms, without being part of any given atom. What is the chemical bond between atoms of Na like? configuration Na s2 2s2 2p6 3s Na+ Drawing Na What is the chemical bond between atoms of 2Mg like? configuration Drawing What is the chemical bond between atoms of 3Al like? configuration Drawing Page 9 of 3

10 What is the chemical bond between atoms of 3Li like? configuration Drawing Properties of metallic bonds They form crystals Luster (surface light reflectivity) Electrical and thermal conductivity Ductility Tensile strength Activities 8.- a) Write the electron configuration of: Rb (Z=3), F (Z=9) and Ca (Z=20) b) Explain the bonding of the following combinations: a) Rb and F b) F and F c) F and Ca 9.- Which of the following characteristics are related of ionic substances: a) Form molecules b) They conduct electricity when are dissolved c) Do not dissolve in water d) High melting point 0.- Name the properties of metals. Classify the following substances looking at the table Substance A B C Fusion temperature -60º C 350º 800º C Solubility in water No No Yes Conductivity No Yes Yes 2.- Give three examples of each type of substance 3.- Circle the pairs of isotopes: a) 2C b) 35 4 C A 4 N 35 6 B 3 C 4.- Explain each atomic model, writing the differences between them. Page 0 of 3

11 Practice exam.- Complete the following table: Z sulphur A Number of protons Number of Number of neutrons Atomic symbol potassium 9 8 Fe nickel 28 gold Ne 58 9 argon phosphorus Mg 4 3 N 2.- Give the electron configurations for the following elements, listing the number of in the outermost shell and their most likely ion: a) Al (Z=3) b) Br (Z=35) c) Ca (Z=20) d) Cd (Z=48) e) P (Z=5) 3.- Describe the ionic bond between: a) Potassium (Z=9) and oxygen (Z=8) b) Nitrogen (Z=) and magnesium (Z=2) 4.- Describe the covalent bond between: a) Oxygen (Z=8) and hydrogen (Z=) b) Nitrogen (Z=) and nitrogen 5. a) List the properties of metallic bonds. Explain a sodium crystal (Z=). List the properties of ionic bonds 6. Describe Thomson's, Rutherford's and Bohr's atomic models. Page of 3

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