2 All the heavier elements were manufactured by stars later, either by thermonuclear fusion reactions deep in their interiors or by the violent explosions that mark the end of massive stars.
3 The planets formed by the accretion of planetesimals and the accumulation of gases in the solar nebula
4 Concept Question As the solar nebula contracts, it A) flattens out into the ecliptic plane around the Sun's poles. B) spins faster due to conservation of angular momentum. C) cools due to condensation. D) loses angular momentum.
6 Concept Question In terms of composition, A) all planets are condensed from the same nebula and have similar compositions. B) the jovian planets are more like the Sun than are the terrestrials. C) the terrestrials are more like the Sun, since they formed close to it. D) the Sun is unique, made of nothing but hydrogen and helium.
7 The Moon Mass = 7.4 x kg = M earth Radius = 1738 km = 0.27 R earth Density: ρ= 3.3 g/cm 3 (Earth 5.5 g/cm 3 ) Gravity = 1/6 that of Earth
8 Tides A feature of oceans (but solid materials have small tides too). Two high and two low tides per day. Tides are due to the gravitational pull being stronger on side of Earth closest to it (Sun causes smaller tides) Earth-Moon gravity keeps them orbiting each other. But side of Earth closest to Moon has slightly stronger pull to Moon => bulges towards it. Other side has weaker pull => bulges away compared to rest of Earth. The Earth spins once a day while the bulge always points towards and away from the Moon => high and low tides.
10 Tides Spring Tide Neap Tide
11 Tidal Bulge
12 Tidal locking We always see the same face of the Moon. This means: period of orbit = period of spin Top view of Moon orbiting Earth Earth Why? The tidal bulge in the solid Moon elongates it slightly (2-3 km) along an axis pointing to Earth. If orbit period is faster than the spin period, tidal bulge would have to move around surface of Moon, creating friction, which slows the Moon s spin down until tidal bulge no longer migrates around.
13 Far versus Near side of the moon
14 The Lunar Surface Large, dark featureless areas: marias or seas. Lighter areas at higher elevation: highlands. Loads of craters (due mostly to meteorite impacts). No winds to erode them away. Highlands have 10 times the crater density of maria. marias highlands
15 Lunar Volcanism (long ago) Remember: volcanism is a way of losing internal heat Evidence: Maria: result of old, widespread lava flows (filled in largest, early impact craters). ditches indicating old lava flows. Linear chains of craters (not formed by impacts), probably marks ancient fault, collapsed lava domes.
16 Cratering Impact speeds several km/s Ejecta blanket of pulverized rock surrounds crated Impacts => regolith: ~20m thick layer of pulverized rock covering the Moon.
17 Cratering Rates Small meteoroids common, large ones rare. So same is true for craters: Crater Size Occurrence 10 km Every 10 million years 1 m Every month If no other processes (erosion, lava flows) change the surface, the number of craters in an area tells you the age of the surface.
18 Moon s History Age: 4.5 billion years 3.9 billion years ago: Heaviest meteoritic bombardment ended billion years ago: Volcanism created maria. Maria are just the largest crates, filled in. 3.2 billion years present: No volcanism, cratering continued at lower rate. Geologically dead!
19 Lunar Structure Inner Core and Outer Core take up small fraction of volume compared to Earth case the Moon is more rigid And no atmosphere, so no wind or erosion. Surface reflects geologic history well.
20 Concept Question When do the largest high tides occur? A. When the Moon is at first quarter B. When the Moon is full C. When the Earth is at aphelion (furthest from sun) D. When the Moon is at 3 rd quarter
21 Concept Question The surface gravity of the moon is 1/6 that of Earth. If Matt weights 120 lbs on Earth, how much does he weigh standing on the moon? A. 60 lbs B. 30 lbs C. 20 lbs D. 10 lbs
22 Concept Question Suppose the Moon was half as dense, but the same size. How much would Matt (120 lbs on Earth) weigh? A. 60 lbs B. 30 lbs C. 20 lbs D. 10 lbs
23 How did the Moon form? We re not quite sure! Three older theories: 1. Fission: The material that would be the Moon was thrown off the Earth and coalesced into a singled body. Problem: Earth not spinning fast enough to eject large amount of material. 2. Co-formation: The Moon and the Earth formed out of the same material at the beginning of the Solar System. Problem: Moon has different density and composition. 3. Capture: The Moon was a stray body captured into orbit around Earth. Problem: An extremely unlikely event, given the Moon s size is a substantial fraction of Earth s.
24 Now: Impact theory preferred Early in Solar System, when many large planetesimals were around, a Mars-sized object hit the forming Earth, ejecting material from the upper mantle which went into orbit around the Earth and coalesced to form the Moon. Computer simulations suggest this is plausible. Similar spin orientations. Moon samples indicate that the Moon's surface was once molten. The Moon has a relatively small iron core. Evidence exists of similar collisions in other star systems Giant collisions are consistent with the leading theories of the formation of the Solar System.
25 Mercury Mass = 3.43 x kg = M earth Radius = 2439 km = 0.38 R earth Density: ρ= 5.4 g/cm 3 (Earth 5.5 g/cm 3 ) Gravity = 0.38 that of Earth Semi-major axis = 0.39 AU Orbital Period = 88 days
26 Solar Transit Transits occur about twelve times a century when the sun, Earth and Mercury are aligned There was a transit on November 8, 2006
27 Best Earth-based Views of Mercury Difficulties observing Mercury from Earth led early astronomers to incorrectly decide that Mercury always kept the same face towards the sun in synchronous orbit Note phases like the moon
28 Radio telescope observations from sites such as Arecibo gave evidence of a non-synchronous orbit
30 Discovery of Water Ice on Mercury Goldstone 70 m radar received by the VLA. Polar regions could be 125 K and never warmed by the Sun.
31 Mercury rotates slowly and has an unusual spin-orbiting coupling
32 Strong tidal effects, Mercury s slightly elongated shape and its very eccentric orbit cause this strange 3- to-2 orbit A day of solar light on Mercury would be 88 earth days
33 Mercury: Heavily cratered surface Less dense cratering than moon Gently rolling plains Scarps No evidence of tectonics
34 The Moon: Note how much more densely the craters occur on the moon s surface.
36 The Caloris Basin is evidence of a large impact
40 The magnetosphere blocks the solar wind from reaching the surface of the planet
41 Venus Mass = 0.82 M earth Radius = 0.95 R earth Density: ρ= 5.2 g/cm 3 (Earth 5.5 g/cm 3 ) Gravity = 0.90 that of Earth Average distance from Sun = 0.72 AU Orbital period = 225 days Rotation period = 243 days (longer than orbital period, and retrograde!)
42 Venus has a hot, dense atmosphere and corrosive cloud layers Spacecraft measurements reveal that 96.5% of the Venusian atmosphere is carbon dioxide The remaining balance of the atmosphere is nitrogen. Venus s clouds consist of droplets of concentrated sulfuric acid. The surface pressure on Venus is 90 atm, and the surface temperature is 460 C (860 o F) Both temperature and pressure decrease as altitude increases
43 The Greenhouse Effect Main greenhouse gases are H 2 O and CO 2.
44 Runaway Greenhouse Effect 1. Water and CO 2 evaporate from oceans and ejected from volcanos into atmosphere 2. Greenhouse effect more efficient 3. Temperature rises 4. More evaporation, less liquid water to absorb CO 2 (back to #1) => Complete evaporation of oceans. Thick atmosphere.
47 Radar data (Pioneer Venus mission) reveal altitude variations on surface. Flatter than Earth, no evidence for plate boundaries => no large scale plate tectonics. But plenty of evidence of stresses and fractures on smaller scales => much small-scale shifting of crust.
48 The density of craters suggests that the entire surface of Venus is no more than a few hundred million years old. According to the equilibrium resurfacing hypothesis, this happens because old craters are erased by ongoing volcanic eruptions
50 Concept Question The Moon was most likely formed: A. By fission as a large chunk of the Earth was thrown off B. By the same stuff that formed the Earth, coformation C. By an impact of a proto-planet with the proto- Earth D. Out of the proto-planetary nebula and later captured by the Earth
51 Concept Question We think Mercury could have ice at the poles because: A. Mercury is so far from the Sun B. Optical images show white polar caps C. Radar images show high reflectivity at the poles D. Mercury is in a 3:2 spin:resonance orbit around the Sun
52 Concept Question Why is Venus the hottest planet in the Solar System? A. It is the closest planet to the Sun B. There is a lot of radioactive material in the crust. C. There is a large concentration of CO 2 in the atmosphere D. There is no liquid water
The Moon Mass = 7.4 x 1025 g = 0.012 MEarth Radius = 1738 km = 0.27 REarth Density = 3.3 g/cm3 (Earth 5.5 g/cm3) Gravity = 1/6 that of Earth Dark side of the moon We always see the same face of the Moon.
The Moon & Mercury: Dead Worlds There are many similarities between the Moon and Mercury, and some major differences we ll concentrate mostly on the Moon. Appearance of the Moon from the Earth We ve already
Mercury and Venus Learning Objectives! Contrast the Earth, the Moon, Venus and Mercury. Do they differ in density (composition, core), atmosphere, surface age, size, geological activity, magnetic field?!
Lecture 19: The Moon & Mercury The Moon & Mercury The Moon and Mercury are similar in some ways They both have: Heavily cratered Dark colored surfaces No atmosphere No water They also have some interesting
Lecture #10: Plan The Moon Terrestrial Planets Both Sides of the Moon Moon: Direct Exploration Moon: Direct Exploration Moon: Direct Exploration Apollo Landing Sites Moon: Apollo Program Magnificent desolation
Lunar Geology ASTR 2120 Sarazin Interior of the Moon Density low (3.3 gm/cc), very little iron No iron core Very small heat flow out of interior Little radioactive heating No magnetic field No molten iron
Announcements NRAO REU program Feb 1, 2019 https://science.nrao.edu/opportunities/student-programs/ summerstudents AFRL Scholars program Jan 16, 2019 https://afrlscholars.usra.edu HW#8 due Nov 1 Test#2
Astronomy 1 Fall 2016 Announcements: 1. Midterm exam on Thursday (in this room) 2. Oct 21 st - 26 th : Sections replaced by evening observing) Lecture 8: October 18, 2016 Previously on Astro 1 Solar System
The Sun and Planets Lecture Notes 6. Lecture 6 Venus 1 Spring Semester 2017 Prof Dr Ravit Helled Cover photo: Venus in true color (Courtesy of NASA) Venus Properties Venus is the second brightest natural
Astronomy 1140 Quiz 3 Review Anil Pradhan October 26, 2016 I The Inner Planets 1. What are the terrestrial planets? What do they have in common? Terrestrial planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars. Theses
Earth Interior Crust Hydrosphere Atmosphere Magnetosphere Tides Semi-major Axis 1 A.U. Inclination 0 Orbital period 1.000 tropical year Orbital eccentricity 0.017 Rotational period 23 h 56 min 4.1 s Tilt
Test 4 Final Review 5/2/2018 Lecture 25 Apparent daily motion of celestial objects is due to earth s rotation Seasons are created due to the title of the Earth relative to the Sun Phases of the moon due
Overview of Solar System The solar system is a disk Rotation of sun, orbits of planets all in same direction. Most planets rotate in this same sense. (Venus, Uranus, Pluto are exceptions). Angular momentum
Class Announcements Please fill out an evaluation for this class. If you release your name I ll I give you quiz credit. Will you read Chap 32 before Wed. class? a) Yes b) No Chap 32 Beyond the Earth Objectives
Chapter 7 The Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Surface divided into two major regions Highlands Bright rugged areas composed mainly of anorthosite
Astronomy 1140 Quiz 3 Review Anil Pradhan October 27, 2017 I The Inner Planets 1. What are the terrestrial planets? What do they have in common? Terrestrial planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars. Theses
NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS 9 - SEARCHING FOR LIFE IN OUR SOLAR SYSTEM: EARTH'S MOON (CONTINUED), MERCURY, AND VENUS Dr. Karen Kolehmainen Department of Physics CSUSB http://physics.csusb.edu/~karen/ TIDAL
Lunar Cratering and Surface Composition Earth vs. Moon On Earth, the combined actions of wind and water erode our planet s surface and reshape its appearance almost daily Most of the ancient history of
Inner Planets (Part II) Sept. 18, 2002 1) Atmospheres 2) Greenhouse Effect 3) Mercury 4) Venus 5) Mars 6) Moon Announcements Due to technical difficulties, Monday s quiz doesn t count An extra credit problem
I always wanted to be somebody, but I should have been more specific. Lilly Tomlin Reading has been updated. (All of Chaps. 9& 10) Friday, first sit for passing back HW, then with chart. Water on the Moon?
Chapter 7 The 1 Agenda Announce: Project Part II due Tue No class next Thursday...Tgiving break! No class 12/14 (last day) Spectral Lines Lab due Pass Back Test 2 Discuss grades NYT article on gamma ray
1 Lecture 11 Earth s Moon January 6d, 2014 2 Moon and Earth to Scale Distance: a = 385,000 km ~ 60R Eccentricity: e = 0.055 Galileo Spacecraft Dec. 1992 3 [Review question] Eclipses do not occur each month
-Melissa Greenberg, Arielle Hoffman, Zachary Feldmann, Ryan Pozin, Elizabeth Weeks, Christopher Pesota, & Sara Pilcher Formation Overview All explanations as to how the solar system was formed are only
Review Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Jovian Planet Systems If Jupiter was the size of a basketball, Earth would be the size of a(n) a) bacterium. b) grain of rice. c) marble. d) orange.
The History of the Earth We have talked about how the universe and sun formed, but what about the planets and moons? Review: Origin of the Universe The universe began about 13.7 billion years ago The Big
The Reading Assignment Chapter 12 Announcements 4 th homework due March 20 (first class after spring break) Reminder about term paper due April 17. Next study-group session is Monday, March 19, from 10:30AM-12:00Noon
Lecture Outlines Chapter 8 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 8 The Moon and Mercury Units of Chapter 8 8.1 Orbital Properties 8.2 Physical Properties 8.3 Surface Features on the Moon
Comparative Planetology II: The Origin of Our Solar System Chapter Eight ASTR 111 003 Fall 2007 Lecture 07 Oct. 15, 2007 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I: Solar System Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6)
Chapter 17: Mercury, Venus and Mars Mercury Very similar to Earth s moon in several ways: Small; no atmosphere lowlands flooded by ancient lava flows heavily cratered surfaces Most of our knowledge based
Astronomy A. Dayle Hancock email@example.com Small 239 Office hours: MTWR 10-11am The Moon The Moon's surface Humans on the Moon The Moon's interior The difference between Moon and Earth rocks The collision
Comparative Planetology I: Our Solar System Guiding Questions 1. Are all the other planets similar to Earth, or are they very different? 2. Do other planets have moons like Earth s Moon? 3. How do astronomers
Fall 2013 Astronomy - Test 2 Test form A Name Do not forget to write your name and fill in the bubbles with your student number, and fill in test form A on the answer sheet. Write your name above as well.
Astro 1010 Planetary Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 4 Chapter 8 1. Which of the following processes is not important in shaping the surface of terrestrial planets? a) Impact cratering b) Tectonism
1) Mercury presents the same side to the Sun 1) A) every third orbit. B) every 12 hours. C) all the time, just like our Moon. D) every other orbit. E) Twice every orbit. 2) Both the Moon and Mercury are
Jupiter Orbit, Rotation Physical Properties Atmosphere, surface Interior Magnetosphere Moons (Voyager 1) Jupiter is the third-brightest object in the night sky (after the Moon and Venus). Exploration by
Section 1: The Universe 1. Cosmology is the study of. 2. Identify the type of cosmology a. The sun is the center of the Universe b. The Earth is the center of the Universe 3. The two most abundant gases
Climate Regulation - What stabilizes the climate - Greenhouse effect Last time! Processes that shaped Earth: Volcanism, tectonics! How we retain atmospheric molecules ( escape speed )! A magnetic field
Importance of Solar System Objects discussed thus far Interiors of Terrestrial Planets Chapter 9 Sun: Major source of heat for the surfaces of planets Asteroids: Provide possible insight to the composition
Astronomy 1 S 16 Exam 1 Name Identify terms Label each term with the appropriate letter of a definition listed 1. Spectral line R 8. Albedo H 15. helioseismology E 2. Terrestrial Planet G 9. Coulomb Force
Name: Astronomy 103: First Exam Stephen Lepp October 27, 2010 Each question is worth 2 points. Write your name on this exam and on the scantron. 1 Short Answer A. What is the largest of the terrestrial
The Moon Tidal Coupling Surface Features Impact Cratering Moon Rocks History and Origin of the Moon Earth Moon Semi-major Axis 1 A.U. 384 x 10 3 km Inclination 0 Orbital period 1.000 tropical year 27.32
18.1 Earth and Its Moon Revolving around Earth at a distance of 384,400 kilometers is our only moon. Since the invention of spacecraft, our knowledge of Earth and the Moon has grown tremendously. In fact,
Chapter 5 Review Name TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 1) Our Earth is about four times larger than the Moon in diameter. 1) 2) The Earth's hotter, inner
Jovian Planet Systems Reading: Chapter 14.1-14.5 Jovian Planet Systems Voyager 1 and 2 explored the outer planets in the 1970s and 1980s. The Galileo spacecraft circled Jupiter dozens of times in the late
Our Barren Moon Chapter Ten Guiding Questions 1. Is the Moon completely covered with craters? 2. Has there been any exploration of the Moon since the Apollo program in the 1970s? 3. Does the Moon s interior
Venus Rotation and Orbital Motion The interior orbit of Venus means that it never strays far from the Sun in the sky. Because of its highly reflective cloud cover, Venus is brighter than any star in the
Chapter 19 The Origin of the Solar System Early Hypotheses catastrophic hypotheses, e.g., passing star hypothesis: Star passing closely to the the sun tore material out of the sun, from which planets could
Part II: Solar System The Moon Audio update: 2014Feb23 The Moon A. Orbital Stuff B. The Surface C. Composition and Interior D. Formation E. Notes 2 A. Orbital Motion 3 Earth-Moon is a Binary Planet 4 1.
The Sun and Planets Lecture Notes 5. Spring Semester 2019 Prof Dr Ravit Helled The Moon Definitions Escape Velocity Escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape a massive body. The
ASTRONOMY THE BIG BANG THEORY WHAT WE KNOW Scientists observe that every object in the universe is moving away from each other. Objects furthest away are moving the fastest. So.. WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? If
Our Barren Moon Guiding Questions 1. Is the Moon completely covered with craters? 2. Has there been any exploration of the Moon since the Apollo program in the 1970s? 3. Does the Moon s interior have a
Chapter 9 Planetary Geology: Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds 9.1 Connecting Planetary Interiors and Surfaces Our goals for learning What are terrestrial planets like on the inside? What causes geological
ASTR 1050: Survey of Astronomy Fall 2012 PRACTICE Exam #2 Instructor: Michael Brotherton Covers Solar System and Exoplanet Topics Instructions This exam is closed book and closed notes, although you may
Chapter 4 - Group Homework Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Density is defined as A) mass times weight. B) mass per unit volume.
FCAT Review Space Science The Law of Universal Gravitation The law of universal gravitation states that ALL matter in the universe attracts each other. Gravity is greatly impacted by both mass and distance
Our Planetary System Chapter 7 Key Concepts for Chapter 7 and 8 Inventory of the Solar System Origin of the Solar System What does the Solar System consist of? The Sun: It has 99.85% of the mass of the
Mercury = Hermes Mythology Planet Mercury, Element, Mercredi God of Commerce, Messenger God, guide to Hades Winged sandals and staff Mercury s Orbit Mercury never seen more than 28 from the sun Revolves/orbits
Making a Solar System Learning Objectives! What are our Solar System s broad features? Where are asteroids, comets and each type of planet? Where is most of the mass? In what direction do planets orbit
DATE DUE: Name: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 Section: Evolution of the Solar System Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer or option. Use GEOLOGIC vocabulary where
Introduction to Astronomy AST0111-3 (Astronomía) Semester 2014B Prof. Thomas H. Puzia Venus Venus The atmosphere of Venus is very dense and an opaque layer of clouds covers the planet, such that we cannot
Today Solar System Formation a few more bits and pieces Homework due Pluto Charon 3000 km Asteroids small irregular rocky bodies Comets icy bodies Formation of the Solar System How did these things come
The Solar System 1star 1 star 9 8 planets 63 (major) moons asteroids, comets, meteoroids The distances to planets are known from Kepler s Laws (once calibrated with radar ranging to Venus) How are planet
Formation of the Solar System Chapter 8 To understand the formation of the solar system one has to apply concepts such as: Conservation of angular momentum Conservation of energy The theory of the formation
Moons of Sol Lecture 13 3/5/2018 Tidal locking We always see the same face of the Moon. This means: period of orbit = period of spin Top view of Moon orbiting Earth Earth Why? The tidal bulge in the solid
The Jovian Satellites Satellites are common around Jovian planets Some are as large as Mercury, & thus are like planets Some have atmospheres Discovery of the first Jovian satellites In 1610, Galileo discovered
Asteroids February 23 Test 2 Mon, Feb 28 Covers 6 questions from Test 1. Added to score of Test 1 Telescopes Solar system Format similar to Test 1 Missouri Club Fri 9:00 1415 Fri, last 10 minutes of class
The Universe The Milky Way Galaxy, one of billions of other galaxies in the universe, contains about 400 billion stars and countless other objects. Why is it called the Milky Way? Welcome to your Solar
Name: Period: Date: Astronomy Ch. 8 The Moon and Mercury MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The best way to find the exact distance
The Fathers of the Gods: Jupiter and Saturn Learning Objectives! Order all the planets by size and distance from the Sun! How are clouds on Jupiter (and Saturn) different to the Earth? What 2 factors drive
This lecture will help you understand: Hewitt/Lyons/Suchocki/Yeh Conceptual Integrated Science Chapter 28 THE SOLAR SYSTEM Overview of the Solar System The Nebular Theory The Sun Asteroids, Comets, and
Descriptive Astronomy (ASTR 108) Exam 2A March 29, 2010 Name: In each of the following multiple choice questions, select the best possible answer. First circle the answer on this exam, then in the line
Chapter 7 The Moon Copyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. The Earth s Moon Earth s nearest neighbor is space Once the frontier of direct human exploration
DATE DUE: Ms. Terry J. Boroughs Geology 305 Name: Section: The Planets, Asteroids, Moons, etc. Instructions: Read each question carefully before selecting the BEST answer or option. Use GEOLOGIC vocabulary
CHAPTER 16 4 Moons SECTION Our Solar System California Science Standards 8.2.g, 8.4.d, 8.4.e BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How did Earth s moon
U238>Pb206 Halflife: 4.5 billion years Oldest earth rocks 3.96 billion years Meteors and Moon rocks 4.6 billion years This is the time they solidified The solar system is older than this. Radioactive Dating
9/22/17 Lecture Outline 6.1 A Brief Tour of the Solar System Chapter 6: Formation of the Solar System What does the solar system look like? Our goals for learning: What does the solar system look like?