1 The Universe What is it? What is in it? How did it form? How will it end? How do we know?
2 What is your place in the Universe?
3 What is the universe? a. The study of the universe its nature, origins, and evolution is called cosmology. b. The Universe is all space and time (spacetime) and everything in it. i) Includes everything all galaxies, stars, planets, moons, you, etc. all matter and energy.
4 ii) Age: The universe is 13.8 billion years old. - Time light from the sun takes about 8 minutes to reach the earth, so when you observe the sun, you see it as it was 8 minutes ago. The farther back in space you look, the farther back in time you see. - When the Hubble Space Telescope looks as far as it can, it observes galaxies that are 13.8 billion light years away. Thus, the observable universe is 13.8 billion years old.
5 iii) Size: The universe is currently expanding and accelerating. - The observable universe is 28 billion light years across. - The entire universe is much larger 92 billion light years? 7 trillion light years? Infinite?
6 iv) Structure: the size of the universe depends on its geometry: - Open universe Expansion > gravity Accelerated expansion forever - Closed universe Gravity > expansion Expansion stops, universe collapse - Flat universe Expansion = gravity Expansion slows, universe remains the same forever
7 C. What is the universe made of? a. Cosmologists estimate that the universe is comprised of: i. 4.9% ordinary matter ii. 26.8% dark matter -never observed, needed to explain bending light and curious star motion? iii. 68.3% dark energy -never observed, thought to explain the accelerating expansion.
8 Contents of the Universe
9 i. Galaxies = a very large group of stars and material bound gravitationally. - the universe contains gravitationally bound clusters and groups of galaxies. - Types of galaxies Spiral/barred spiral, elliptical, and irregular
11 Our Milky Way Galaxy YOU ARE HERE
12 - Scientists now believe that there is a supermassive black hole at the galactic center of every galaxy, providing the source of gravity for the stars to revolve around. - The galaxy we exist in is the Milky Way Galaxy, located in the Local Group, which itself is located in the Virgo Supercluster.
13 Our Cosmic Address
14 ii. Stars = large sphere of plasma hydrogen undergoing fusion, held together by gravity. - Classification: stars are classified by two factors: - Temperature: estimated by a star s colour (blue = 50,000K to red = 2000K) - Luminosity: the brightness of a star (amount of energy output per second.)
15 - Stars fall into several classes on a H-R diagram: 1. Main sequence 1. Giants 2. Supergiants 3. Dwarf stars
17 - Stars pass though a predictable life cycle, from nebula to supernova
18 -Our Sun is a medium-size star 100 million km in diameter, 109 Earths wide, a main sequence star with a temperature of 5800K.
19 Solar Eclipse 2017 (Moon in front of the Sun)
20 iii. Planets and Moons - Planets, dwarf planet, and rogue planets - Exoplanets planets orbiting other stars - Moons rocky, frozen ice, volcanic - Comets, asteroids, and meteoroids
21 Our solar system - Terrestrial Objects: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars - Asteroid belt & Ceres - Gas Giants: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, - Kuiper belt with Pluto, Eris, Makemake, etc
22 iv. Other objects in the universe - Nebula = large cloud of interstellar gas (H2) and dust, that contract to form stars.
23 - Pulsars = spinning neutron star that emits a beam of radiation, which pulse if it points towards Earth. - Cepheid variables = supergiant stars that pulsate in brightness with a day period, used to calculate astronomical distances.
24 - Black holes = infinitely-small, infinitely-dense object that even light cannot escape.
25 - Quasars = massive and remote object ejecting massive amounts of energy.
26 The Hubble Deep Field Photograph The Hubble Space Telescope observed a tiny patch of empty space (imagine liking through a straw) for a week. This is the image it took. Each point of light is not a star. They are GALAXIES! Imagine the trillions of planets orbiting the trillions of stars in each galaxy How did the universe form? How will it end? How do we know?
27 D. How do we know this? Tools of Astronomy i. Radiation (light) bodies in space emit or reflect electromagnetic radiation as waves. Radiation, arranged on the electromagnetic spectrum, can allow scientists to study the universe.
29 Visible Light Infrared Microwave Radio Mix of all light X-Ray
30 ii. Ground-based Telescopes - used to observe wavelengths beyond what humans can detect. a) Refracting telescopes uses lenses to refract and focus visible light. b) Reflecting telescopes uses mirrors to reflect and focus visible light.
31 c) Radio telescopes collects the longer wavelengths, reflecting and focusing radio waves with a large dish.
32 iii. Space Telescopes positioned above the atmosphere allows for much clearer collection of waves. Removes the twinkle of stars caused by fluctuations in the atmosphere. Hubble Space Telescope launched in 1990, providing clear images in visible light, infrared and ultraviolet wavelengths. James Webb Space Telescope to be launched in March 2021, the JWST will look further and clearer than Hubble in infrared wavelength. Others: Kepler (visible light), Spitzer (IR), Chandra (x-ray), WMAP (microwave)
33 Primary mirrors: Hubble Webb The James Webb Space Telescope
34 Parallax - To determine distances of stars from Earth, astronomers use parallax - the apparent shift in star position due to the observer orbiting around the sun. - Using trigonometry, the distance can be calculated from the change in angle.
35 How did the universe form? 1. If we take the expanding universe and rewind time, it would have to have started from a single point (a singularity) this is called the Big Bang Theory. 2. The Big Bang Theory The idea that the universe began as a point and has been expanding ever since. -The universe began as an infinitely hot, dense, and small gravitational singularity. -This initial singularity contained all the mass, energy, and spacetime of the universe. -Then, 13.8 billion years ago, inflation began rapidly What did the universe inflate into? Nothing, the universe is everything. There is no outside
36 MISCONCEPTION: the Big Bang was not an explosion. It was inflation/expansion. Evidence for the Big Bang theory: 1. Doppler Effect: - Objects emit radiation/sound as waves. - If the object moves away or towards the viewer, the waves elongate or compress resulting in a shift in their spectra, either towards blue (shorter waves) or red (longer waves)
37 - Blueshift = if a star or galaxy is moving towards the observer, the light wavelengths are shortened, shifting to the blue end of the spectrum. - Redshift = if a star or galaxy is moving away from the observer, the light wavelengths are lengthened, shifting to the red end of the spectrum.
38 - In all directions around the Earth, when astronomers observe the distant stars and galaxies, they all show redshift. - Redshift helps explains the expansion of the universe. Spectra lines are shifted towards the red direction.
40 Cosmic Background Radiation - In 1965, scientists discovered a persistent background noise in the radio antenna, called cosmic background radiation, coming from all directions. Weird - Investigation discovered that this cosmic background radiation matched predicted properties of leftover radiation from the early hot phase of the Big Bang.
41 - In 2001, NASA launched the WMAP probe to map the radiation. - The radiation has a wavelength of approximately 1 mm, making it microwave radiation in the radio portion of the EM spectrum. - Small temperature discrepancies of one-millionth of a degree in the cosmic background radiation may indicate the earliest major structures of the universe.
42 WMAP, 2012
43 Planck, 2013
44 Artist imagining the universe, looking away from the Earth... Present time in the middle, move back in time toward the edge. CMB is the red circle. Big Bang is the outside yellow circle.
45 The Evolution of the Universe through Time
47 How did the universe evolve? 1. Age: milliseconds size: infinitesimal to golf ball 1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 C - Inflation: In less than a nanosecond, a repulsive energy field inflates space and fills it with a soup of subatomic particles quarks. 2. Age: 0.01 milliseconds size: 0.1-trillionth present size 10,000,000,000,000 C - Universe expands, cools. Quarks clump into protons and neutrons. Dark matter forms? 3. Age: 0.01 to 200 seconds size: 1-billionth present size 100,000,000 C - Universe continues to cool, hydrogen & helium nuclei forms. Too hot for atoms. No light. 4. Age: 380,000 years old size: 0.09% present size 10,000 C - First atoms: electrons begin orbiting nuclei. Cosmic background radiation begins. - Dark ages.
48 5. Age: 300 million years old size 10% present size -200 C - First stars: Dense clouds collapse due to gravity, and nuclear fusion occurs. The first stars emit the first visible light. Galaxies, solar systems, and planets form. 6. Age: 10 billion years old size: 77% present size -270 C - Universe expansion begins to accelerate again due to dark energy. First stars die, sending heavier elements into the universe. 7. Age: 13.8 billion years old size: 100% present size -270 C - Today: the universe continues to expand, becoming less dense. Fewer stars form now. You are born.
49 What is the future of the Universe?
50 How will the universe end? - How the universe will end depends on which force ends up being greater: gravity or dark energy Possible futures - Big Rip - Big Crunch - Big Freeze
51 Big Rip gravity < dark energy expansion - Expansion accelerates even more, eventually becoming infinite. Atoms would separate, until galaxies, stars, and planets tear apart, leaving a universe of disconnected particles.
52 Big Crunch gravity > dark energy expansion - Expansion slows down, and gravity pulls all matter together. The universe would shrink, causing stars, planets, and galaxies to crash into each other, until the universe collapses into another gravitational singularity. - Big Bounce is a theoretical model where the singularity creates a new universe, and this Big Bang and Big Crunch have repeated at infinitum.
53 Big Freeze gravity = dark energy expansion - Expansion leads to maximum ENTROPY, a state of maximum disorder. - Heat Death: eventually, all stars will die; with gas will be distributed so evenly that no new stars are born. All that will be left will be black holes, until they fade away (through Hawking radiation), leaving no energy (heat) and nothing to record time. - Time would cease to exist. - This is the most likely end according to cosmology.
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