2 Origin of the Universe Big Bang Theory about bya all matter in the universe existed in a hot dense state about the size of an atom (tiny). That matter sort of exploded and began expanding a great speeds. The expansion speed slowed down (is still expanding) and temperatures cooled and stars and galaxies were formed.
3 Evidence of Big Bang In 1929 astronomer Edwin Hubble found redshifts evidence galaxies are moving away from each other. In 1964 radio astronomers Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson discovered radiation (cosmic background radiation) left over from the big bang. (Detected this in infrared and radio telescopes so we can hear it buzzing through radiowaves).
4 Spectral Analysis We can t always get a sample of a piece of the Universe. So we depend on light!
5 Spectral Analysis Light is a form of Electromagnetic Radiation. Electromagnetic radiation = energy that travels in waves (radiowaves, x-rays, etc) Length of the waves determine the characteristics of the electromagnetic radiation. The types of electromagnetic radiation can be arranged in a continuum called the Electromagnetic Spectrum (longest wavelengths at one end and shortest wavelengths at the other end)
6 Electromagnetic Spectrum Visible white light is actually made up of light of various colors, each with a different wavelength. (colors seen in rainbow or when light passes through a triangular prism.) Red light has the longest wavelength, violet has the shortest wavelength. Electromagnetic waves emitted by an object provide information about elements within it or its motion. (use this to learn about distant stars)
7 The intensity of the electrons bouncing around in their levels makes those wavelengths, and therefore shows us colors (bigger jump = longer wavelength and shows as red light).
8 Spectroscope Spectroscope tool astronomers use to separate starlight into its colors (uses a prism to split light, gathered by a telescope, into a spectrum) Break light into 3 different types of spectra: Continuous Spectrum Emission Spectrum Absorption Spectrum
9 Types of Visible Spectra Continuous Spectrum unbroken band of colors, which shows that its source is emitting light of all visible wavelengths. Emitted by: Glowing solids, such as the hot filament of an electric light Glowing liquids, such as molten iron The hot, compressed gases inside stars
10 Types of Visible Spectra Emission Spectrum series of unevenly spaced lines of different colors and brightnesses. The bright lines show the source is emitting light of only certain wavelengths. Emitted by: Glowing thin gases (every element has its own color signature)
11 Types of Visible Spectra Absorption Spectrum a continuous spectrum crossed by dark lines. Dark lines form when light from a glowing object passes through a cooler gas, which absorbs some of the wavelengths. Elements absorb the same wavelengths that they would emit if they were in the form of glowing gases. A stars absorption spectrum indicates the composition of the star s outer layer.
12 Spectral Analysis Each element has a unique spectral signature: Determined by arrangement of electrons. Lines of emission or absorption arise from re-arrangement of electrons into different energy levels. Hydrogen
13 (Developed by Shirley Burris, Nova Scotia) Spread a rainbow of color across a piano keyboard Then, play an element Hydrogen
14 More Musical Elements Now play another element Helium And Another Carbon
15 Getting a Handle on Water Oxygen Hydrogen All together now... Water
16 Doppler Effect Evidence of a star s motion relative to Earth. If lines on the spectrum are shifted toward the red side then object is moving away = Red Shift If lines on the spectrum are shifted toward the blue side then the object is moving toward you = Blue Shift
17 Spectral Analysis Explains what is going on in Space! Astronomers use spectral analysis to identify what is going on in space. How fast stars are moving away from us. What life stage a star is in. The chemical makeup of a star or a planet.
18 Now that we can tell if a star is moving toward or away from us lets learn more about stars measuring their brightness, their distances, their life cycles
19 If we imagined that the distance from the Earth to the Sun was 1 Centimeter.. Sun Earth 1 Centimeter
20 How far away do you think the next nearest star would be???? 2.5 Kilometers 1.5 miles
21 In real distance, the next closest star would be 300,000 times the distance from the Earth to the Sun, or Earth Sun Proxima Centauri 39 Trillion miles (that s 4.24 Light Years!)
22 What does 39 trillion miles look like???? Objects in Space are so far apart that units of measurement used on Earth are not useful.
23 The distance to the next nearest big galaxy, the Andromeda Galaxy, is 21,000,000,000,000,000,000 km. This is a number so large that it becomes hard to write and hard to interpret. So astronomers use other units of distance. Earth 21,000,000,000, 000,000,000 kms Andromeda Spiral Galaxy
24 The basic unit of measurement of distance inside of our solar system is the
25 An Astronomic Unit (1 A.U.) is equal to the distance from the Sun to the Earth, which is about 93 million miles. Sun 93 million miles Earth
26 Planets inside Earth s orbit have distances from the Sun of less than 1 AU. (Mercury is.4 AU s from the Sun.) Sun.4 AU s Mercury
27 Planets outside the orbit of the Earth have distances from the Sun of greater than 1 AU. (Mars is 1.5 AU s and Pluto is 39 AU s from the Sun.)
28 But, Astronomic Units are too small for measuring distances outside of our own Solar System.
29 The closest star to the Sun, Proxima Centauri, would be more than 300,000 AU s from our star, and that s the closest!
30 Astronomers use to measure distances outside our Solar System.
31 A Light-Year is a unit of Distance. A Light Year is equal to the distance that light can travel in one Earth year. A Light Year is equal to 5.3 trillion miles. Use of Light Years makes the units used in measuring distances in Space smaller, but small is pushing it!
32 The Speed of Light is 186,000 miles per second. Peeoooummmmmmm!!! That is almost 8 times around the Earth in 1 second!
33 The Crab supernova remnant is about 4,000 light-years away.
34 The Andromeda Galaxy (next closest galaxy) is 2.3 million light-years away.
35 Our Milky Way Galaxy is about 150,000 light-years across.
36 The Virgo Galaxy Cluster is 45 million light- years away.
37 The most distant Supernova is 10 billion light-years away.
38 The most distant Galaxy Cluster is 12 billion Light-years away.
39 The most distant Galaxy is 13 billion light- years away.
40 The background radiation from the big-bang is 14 billion lightyears away.
41 Types of Stars and Their Organization in Space
42 How are Stars and Planets different? Stars emit light, due to nuclear fusion in their center, while planets only reflect light.
43 Binary Systems Solar systems contain at least one star, and can contain two or more 2 1 3
44 Six Star Binary System
45 Star Cluster contain from tens and hundreds to millions of stars. Pleiades Seven- Sisters
46 Open Cluster-Galactic center behind
47 Large Globular cluster-millions of stars
48 Center of Globular cluster-note star density
49 Spiral Galaxies contain billions of stars. Globular Clusters of old Stars Open Clusters of new Stars
50 Elliptical Galaxy- Many billions All old Globular Clusters
52 A Star is a self-luminous (it is giving off light as opposed to reflecting it) sphere of gas that is undergoing Nuclear Fusion in its center.
53 Not all stars are the same. In fact, they vary in many ways.
54 Stars Vary in Brightness. Magnitude -How bright an object in Space is, or appears to be. (The brighter the star the lower the magnitude). Magnitude sequence for stars starting with the brightest is -1, then as stars get dimmer their number/magnitude will increase 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 magnitude,... etc. Luminosity - the true brightness of an Individual unit of a star. The Luminosity of a Star depends on a star s temperature and size/radius. (how much energy it puts out). A hotter star is more luminous than a cooler one of the same radius. A bigger star is more luminous than a smaller one of the same temperature. Which star is brighter? (hint: look at temperature) A. Temp is 5,000 B. Temp is 3,000
55 Absolute Magnitude- is a measurement of the true brightness of stars as if all stars were viewed from the same distance. The Absolute Magnitude of a star depends on its Volume and Luminosity.
56 Apparent Magnitude- Apparent Magnitude is a how bright a star appears to be from Earth. The Apparent Magnitude of a star is affected by Absolute Magnitude (Volume x Luminosity) and Distance from Observer. Betelgeuse, one of the brightest stars in the Universe, does not appear to be as bright as our Sun, because of its distance from us compared to the Sun s distance.
57 The Pink star appears to be the brightest to us from here on Earth, and the Yellow star appears to be the 2 nd brightest. But the Pink and Yellow stars are actually less bright than the other stars. (they only appeared brighter because they are closer to us on Earth).
58 Stars also vary in their: Mass density Volume interior and surface temperature rate of fuel-consumption Color Main Sequence life-span what they do when they die and what they become after they die.
59 Stellar Mass When comparing the masses of different stars, we will use the mass of our star, the Sun, as the standard. A star that is identical to ours would be a star of 1 Solar Mass.
60 Stars vary in mass from a fraction of 1 solar mass, up to 50 times the mass of our Sun, or 50 Solar Masses. Red Dwarf star 50 solar mass star The Sun
61 Stars vary even more in their volume/density
62 Number represents xsun volume
66 Earth White Dwarf
68 Star Density
69 Stars vary in their Main Sequence and Giant life-span So bigger stars tend to burn out faster/have a shorter life span than smaller stars.
70 Stars vary in what they become when they are no longer fusing Hydrogen. Blue Supergiant
71 Red Supergiant Betelgeuse Orion Nebula Orion s Belt Rigel
72 Supernova explosion Stars vary in how they die
80 Native American Petroglyph recording Supernova explosion
81 Planetary Nebula
91 White Dwarf in Binary System Stars vary in what they become when they die (Run out of material that can be fused to create outward pressure).
92 White Dwarfs
96 White Dwarf in Binary System
98 White Dwarfs in Globular Cluster
99 Neutron Stars
101 Neutron Star
103 Almost like a very dim lighthouse, pulses light.
105 Pulsar Cone
108 Black Holes
116 Temperature Life-Span Volume Density A star s mass determines every other characteristic of the star that we mentioned earlier. Rate of Fuel consumption How it dies Luminosity
117 Life Cycles of Stars
118 The universe started with the Big Bang! Everything continued to expand, clouds of dust started to gravitate towards each other forming stars.
119 A star s life begins in a Nebula! A cloud of gas and dust, consisting mostly of Hydrogen
120 A star s life begins Gas and dust begin to clump together to form a Protostar (a baby star).
121 A star s life begins The smaller a star is the longer it will live. Larger stars have more fuel, but they have to burn (fuse) it faster in order to maintain equilibrium. Because fusion occurs at a faster rate in massive stars, large stars use all their fuel in a shorter length of time. So A smaller star has less fuel, but its rate of fusion is not as fast. Therefore, smaller stars live longer than larger stars because their rate of fuel consumption is not as rapid.
122 A star s life begins The star s main goal in life is to achieve stability, or equilibrium, where pressure from fusion within the core is equal to the force of gravity pushing down on it (this keeps the star alive ). G G G E G G G
123 A star s life begins Continuous steps occur inside the core of a main sequence star, until there is no more Hydrogen. Step 1 - Nuclear fusion (hydrogen turning to helium). Gravity = gas pressure (equilibrium) Step 2 - Out of fuel Step 3 - Fusion stops, temperature drops Step 4 - Core contracts (gravity pulling atoms in) Step 5 - Increased temperature (more atoms, more collisions) and density in the core reinitiates nuclear fusion, equilibrium is achieved, and the cycle begins again at Step 1. This entire process (repeating steps 1 5) continues until there is no more Hydrogen left in the star. Then the star will start fusing other elements until it has burnt up all the elements.
124 Life Cycle of a Star like our Sun Nebula Protostar Main Sequence Star Red Giant Planetary Nebula White Dwarf
125 Life Cycle of a Star like our Sun Our sun is at the Main Sequence stage in its life. When the hydrogen in the core has been used up, the core shrinks and hydrogen fusion begins in the outer layers, which then expands the entire star, turning it into a Red Giant. The sun begins to die when helium is fusing into other elements, then the gases at the sun s surface start to blow away in bursts, called a Planetary Nebula (or halo of gases, Resulting in a hot carbon-oxygen core called a White Dwarf.
126 Life Cycle of a Star With Greater Mass Than Our Sun Nebula Protostar Main Sequence Star Red Supergiant Supernova Black Hole or Neutron Star
127 Life Cycle of a Star With Greater Mass Than Our Sun Massive stars go through the same life stages as our sun (just on a larger scale) upto the Main Sequence stage, Then the massive stars expand into a Red Supergiant, Explode into a Supernova, Then turn into a Black Hole or a Neutron Star.
128 Life Cycle of Stars
129 Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) Diagram
130 HR Diagram The Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) Diagram is a tool that shows relationships and differences between stars (temperatures, brightness, colors, etc.) It is something of a "family portrait." It shows stars of different ages and in different stages, all at the same time. A star in the upper left corner of the diagram would be hot and bright. A star in the upper right corner of the diagram would be cool and bright. The Sun rests approximately in the middle of the diagram, and it is the star which we use for comparison. A star in the lower left corner of the diagram would be hot and dim. A star in the lower right corner of the diagram would be cold and dim.
131 Hot and Bright Cool and Bright Hot and Dim Cool and Dim
132 HR Diagram
137 Main Sequence Main Sequence Line; Core Fusion of H at constant rate; Volume directly related to mass
138 M sun Masses/Luminosity of Main Sequence Stars
139 Giants Core fusion of He
140 Supergiants... Supergiants
142 White Dwarfs White Dwarfs Dead Star; High temps. Due to compression
143 Black Holes, Pulsars and Neutron- Stars are not identified on the HR Diagram because they are either very dim or do not give off energy in the visible wavelengths.
144 Star Life Cycles
145 As we have discussed, stars are not all the same. All of the characteristics of a star are determined by their mass. Stars with different masses have different life cycles.
146 Based upon their masses, stars can follow three main pathways and fit into three candidate groups during the course of their lives.
147 These groups include: White Dwarf Candidates (less than one solar mass to 15 solar masses) Neutron Star and Pulsar Candidates (16 to 30 solar masses) Black Hole Candidates (Greater than 30 Solar Masses)
Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24 PROPERTIES OF STARS Distance Measuring a star's distance can be very difficult Stellar parallax Used for measuring distance to a star Apparent shift in a star's position
Stars and Galaxies 1 Characteristics of Stars 2 Star - body of gases that gives off great amounts of radiant energy as light and heat 3 Most stars look white but are actually different colors Antares -
CHAPTER 28 STARS AND GALAXIES 28.1 A CLOSER LOOK AT LIGHT Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation, which is energy that travels in waves. Waves of energy travel at 300,000 km/sec (speed of light Ex:
Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens Beyond Our Solar System Earth Science, 13e Chapter 24 Stanley C. Hatfield Southwestern Illinois College Properties of stars Distance Distances to the stars are very
Stars & Galaxies Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science Chapter 27, Section 1 27.1 Characteristics of Stars How do astronomers determine the composition and surface temperature of a star? Composition & Temperature
I. Stars have color, brightness, mass, temperature and size. II. Distances to stars are measured using stellar parallax a. The further away, the less offset b. Parallax angles are extremely small c. Measured
Prentice Hall EARTH SCIENCE Tarbuck Lutgens Chapter 25 Beyond Our Solar System 25.1 Properties of Stars Characteristics of Stars A constellation is an apparent group of stars originally named for mythical
Cosmology, Galaxies, and Stars OUR VISIBLE UNIVERSE Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the universe; its nature, origin and evolution. General Relativity is the mathematical basis of cosmology from which
Classifying Stars In the early 1900s, Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Russell made some important observations. They noticed that, in general, stars with higher temperatures also have brighter absolute magnitudes.
Stars Studying Stars Astronomers use a spectroscope to study the movement of stars Blue shift towards earth Red shift away from earth Change in a wavelength moving toward or away from earth is the Doppler
Stars & Galaxies Chapter 27 Modern Earth Science Chapter 27, Section 1 27.1 Characteristics of Stars Composition & Temperature Scientists use the following tools to study stars Telescope Observation Spectral
CHAPTER 4 STARS, GALAXIES & THE UNIVERSE LESSON 1: TELESCOPES ALL TYPES OF ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION TRAVEL AT THE SPEED OF LIGHT 186,000 miles per second!! Electromagnetic Radiation = energy that travels
The Night Sky The Universe Chapter 14 Homework: All the multiple choice questions in Applying the Concepts and Group A questions in Parallel Exercises. Celestial observation dates to ancient civilizations
NSCI 314 LIFE IN THE COSMOS 2 BASIC ASTRONOMY, AND STARS AND THEIR EVOLUTION Dr. Karen Kolehmainen Department of Physics CSUSB COURSE WEBPAGE: http://physics.csusb.edu/~karen MOTIONS IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM
Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe Chapter Test A Multiple Choice Write the letter of the correct answer on the line at the left. 1. What is a giant ball of hot gases that undergo nuclear fusion? a. a planet
25.2 Stellar Evolution By studying stars of different ages, astronomers have been able to piece together the evolution of a star. Star Birth The birthplaces of stars are dark, cool interstellar clouds,
Branches of Earth Science Chapter 21: Stars Notes Astronomy: The study of planets, stars, and other objects in space. Lithosphere: the land masses of earth o Litho means rock Hydrosphere: waters of the
Section: Stars Pages 32-38 Study Guide Chapter 2 Circle the letter of the best answer for each question. 1. What do scientists study to learn about stars? a. gravity c. space b. starlight d. colors COLOR
Review Questions for the new topics that will be on the Final Exam Be sure to review the lecture-tutorials and the material we covered on the first three exams. How does speed differ from velocity? Give
Textbook Chapters 24 - Stars Textbook Chapter 25 - Universe Regents Earth Science with Ms. Connery SPECTROSCOPY is the study of light. Read to learn - textbook pages 674-677 STAR LIGHT gives us characteristics
Directions: For numbers 1-30 please choose the letter that best fits the description. 1. The main force responsible for the formation of the universe is: a. Gravity b. Frictional force c. Magnetic force
240 points CHAPTER 29 STARS SECTION 29.1 The Sun (40 points this page) In your textbook, read about the properties of the Sun and the Sun s atmosphere. Use each of the terms below just once to complete
THE UNIVERSE CHAPTER 20 THE UNIVERSE UNIVERSE everything physical in and Includes all space, matter, and energy that has existed, now exists, and will exist in the future. How did our universe form, how
The Universe is space and everything in it. Galaxies A galaxy is a supercluster of stars, gas, and dust that are held together by gravity. There are three main types of galaxies: Irregular Elliptical Spiral
GALAXIES AND STARS 1. Compared with our Sun, the star Betelgeuse is A smaller, hotter, and less luminous B smaller, cooler, and more luminous C larger, hotter, and less luminous D larger, cooler, and more
Stars Star- large ball of gas held together by gravity that produces tremendous amounts of energy and shines Sun- our closest star Star Formation A cloud of gas and dust, called a nebula, begins spinning
A. Solar system: stability of orbital motions; satellites (physics only) 1. Put these astronomical objects in order of size from largest to smallest. (3) Fill in the boxes in the correct order. the Moon
Light Transverse electromagnetic wave, or electromagnetic radiation Includes radio waves, microwaves, infra-red, visible, UV, X-rays, and gamma rays The type of light is determined purely by wavelength.
chapter 31 Stars and Galaxies Day 1:Technology and the Big Bang Studying the Stars A. Telescopes - Electromagnetic radiation emitted by stars and other objects include light, radio, and X-ray Space telescopes
Section 1 Stars A. Patterns of stars - constellations 1. Ancient cultures used mythology or everyday items to name constellations 2. Modern astronomy studies 88 constellations 3. Some constellations are
Stars Stars A star is a ball of different elements in the form of gases The elements and gases give off electromagnetic radiation (from nuclear fusion) in the form of light Scientists study the light coming
Notes Astronomy What is the solar system? 11.1 Structure of the Solar System Our solar system includes planets and dwarf planets, their moons, a star called the Sun, asteroids and comets. Planets, dwarf
A star is a massive sphere of gases with a core like a thermonuclear reactor. They are the most common celestial bodies in the universe are stars. They radiate energy (electromagnetic radiation) from a
the nature of the universe, galaxies, and stars can be determined by observations over time by using telescopes The spectral lines of stars tell us their approximate composition Remember last year in Physics?
Regents Earth Science Unit 5: Astronomy Models of the Universe Earliest models of the universe were based on the idea that the Sun, Moon, and planets all orbit the Earth models needed to explain how the
Skills Worksheet Directed Reading A Section: The Life Cycle of Stars TYPES OF STARS (pp. 444 449) 1. Besides by mass, size, brightness, color, temperature, and composition, how are stars classified? a.
Astronomy 104: Second Exam Stephen Lepp October 29, 2014 Each question is worth 2 points. Write your name on this exam and on the scantron. Short Answer A The Sun is powered by converting hydrogen to what?
What is this? Recall what you know about the Big Bang. Most of the normal matter in the universe is made of what elements? Where do we find most of this normal matter? Interstellar medium (ISM) The universe
Modern Astronomy Review #1 1. The red-shift of light from distant galaxies provides evidence that the universe is (1) shrinking, only (3) shrinking and expanding in a cyclic pattern (2) expanding, only
STARS Instructions Students will underline the portions of the PowerPoint that are underlined. Nuclear Furnace 1. A star is like a gigantic nuclear furnace. 2. The nuclear reactions inside convert hydrogen
Lecture 4 Stars The physics of stars A star begins simply as a roughly spherical ball of (mostly) hydrogen gas, responding only to gravity and it s own pressure. X-ray ultraviolet infrared radio To understand
29:50 Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe Final Exam December 13, 2010 Form A There are 40 questions. Read each question and all of the choices before choosing. Budget your time. No whining. Walk with Ursus!
Star Deaths Why Do Stars Leave the Main Sequence? Running out of fuel Observing Stellar Evolution by studying Globular Cluster HR diagrams Plot stars in globular clusters in Hertzsprung-Russell diagram
Edwin Hubble Discovered galaxies other than the milky way. Galaxy: A collection of stars, planets, gas, and dust that are held together by gravity. Our sun and planets are in the Milky Way He noticed that
Lecture PowerPoints Chapter 33 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7 th edition Giancoli This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching
Astronomy Universe: all of space and everything in it Most (90%) of the universe is made up of: dark matter: stuff we think is there due to amount of mass we think is there but is not detected by the instruments
Name: Block: Stellar Evolution Notes Stars mature, grow old and die. The more massive a star is, the shorter its life will be. Our Sun will live about 10 billion years. It is already 5 billion years old,
Chapter Introduction Lesson 1 The View from Earth Lesson 2 The Sun and Other Stars Lesson 3 Evolution of Stars Lesson 4 Galaxies and the Universe Chapter Wrap-Up What makes up the universe and how does
stars The night sky is filled with stars that shine at different levels of brightness. The brightness of the stars we observe can be related to the size of the star or its distance from Earth. In order
Astronomy Notes LESSON 1 Solar System 11.1 Structure of the Solar System axis of rotation period of rotation period of revolution ellipse astronomical unit What is the solar system? 11.1 Structure of the
Stellar Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 4 Chapter 15 1. Emission nebulas emit light because a) they absorb high energy radiation (mostly UV) from nearby bright hot stars and re-emit it in visible wavelengths.
Hewitt/Lyons/Suchocki/Yeh Conceptual Integrated Science Constellations are groups of stars named over antiquity. A familiar constellation is Ursa Major, the Great Bear. Chapter 29 THE UNIVERSE The monthly
Astro 21 first lecture The H-R H R Diagram helps us study how stars are born but also helps us study how they die. Stars spend most of their lives as main sequence stars. The core does change from hydrogen
Earth Space Systems Semester 1 Exam Astronomy Vocabulary Astronomical Unit- Aurora- Big Bang- Black Hole- 1AU is the average distance between the Earth and the Sun (93 million miles). This unit of measurement
Multiple choice test questions 2, Winter Semester 2015. Based on parts covered after mid term. Essentially on Ch. 12-2.3,13.1-3,14,16.1-2,17,18.1-2,4,19.5. You may use a calculator and the useful formulae
Properties of Stars Characteristics of Stars A constellation is an apparent group of stars originally named for mythical characters. The sky contains 88 constellations. Star Color and Temperature Color
Galaxies and Stars 1. To an observer on Earth, the Sun appears brighter than the star Rigel because the Sun is A) hotter than Rigel B) more luminous than Rigel C) closer than Rigel D) larger than Rigel
Exam # 3 Tue 12/06/2011 Astronomy 100/190Y Exploring the Universe Fall 11 Instructor: Daniela Calzetti INSTRUCTIONS: Please, use the `bubble sheet and a pencil # 2 to answer the exam questions, by marking
Stars Star birth and kinds Elemental furnaces Star death and heavy elements Matter was not uniformly distributed as the universe expanded after the Big Bang. This lumpy universe coalesced under the force
Regents Questions 1. The Sun revolves around the center of A) Polaris B) Aldebaran C) Earth D) the Milky Way Galaxy 4. In which sequence are the items listed from least total mass to greatest total mass?
Name: Period: Date: Astronomy Ch. 21 Stellar Explosions MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A surface explosion on a white dwarf, caused
THE SUN & THE STARS CONTENT EXPECTATIONS STARS What are stars? Are they all the same? What makes them different? What is our nearest star? THE SUN Why is it important? provides heat and light that we need
ACTIVITIES for Grades 9-12 BEFORE YOUR VISIT Online Video: Journey to the Stars Trailer and Prelude To prepare for your Museum visit, watch the trailer and the prelude with your students. Class Discussion:
19.3 Galaxies and the Universe Early civilizations thought that Earth was the center of the universe. In the sixteenth century, we became aware that Earth is a small planet orbiting a medium-sized star.
ASTRONOMY QUIZ NUMBER. Suppose you measure the parallax of a star and find 0. arsecond. The distance to this star is A) 0 light-years B) 0 parsecs C) 0. light-year D) 0. parsec 2. A star is moving toward
Stars, Galaxies, Use Target Reading Skills Check student definitions for accuracy. 1. Electromagnetic radiation is energy that can travel through space in the form of waves. 2. visible light 3. wavelength
10/26/16 Lecture Outline 13.1 Star Birth Chapter 13: Star Stuff How do stars form? Our goals for learning: How do stars form? How massive are newborn stars? Star-Forming Clouds Stars form in dark clouds
ASTRONOMY 1 FINAL EXAM 1 Name Multiple Choice (2 pts each) 1. Sullivan Star is an F spectral class star that is part of a binary star system. It has a MS lifetime of 5 billion years. Its life will eventually
Stellar Evolution Review: HR Diagram Label A, B, C respectively A C B a) A: White dwarfs, B: Giants, C: Main sequence b) A: Main sequence, B: Giants, C: White dwarfs c) A: Main sequence, B: White Dwarfs,
The Electromagnetic Spectrum Three Kinds of Spectra Sun: The Nearest Star Radius 696,000 km 109 Re Mass 2 x 10^30 kg 300,000 Me Density 1400 kg/m^3 Luminosity 3.8x10^26 Watts (board calc.) Comp. 70% H,
Chapter 29 and 30 Explain how the sun converts matter into energy in its core. Describe the three layers of the sun s atmosphere. Explain how sunspots are related to powerful magnetic fields on the sun.
Notepack 23 12/19/2014 Stellar Evolution: Aim: The Life Cycle of a Star Do Now: Where do stars come from? What are they made of? What is a Star? What is a Star? A star is a massive ball of gas that has
Hubble Photos Credit: NASA, The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA) Heading for death. q q q q q q Leaving the main sequence End of the Sunlike star The helium core The Red-Giant Branch Helium Fusion Helium
TEACHER BACKGROUND INFORMATION (The Universe) A. THE UNIVERSE: The universe encompasses all matter in existence. According to the Big Bang Theory, the universe was formed 10-20 billion years ago from a
Stars and Galaxies Evolution of Stars What do you think? Read the two statements below and decide whether you agree or disagree with them. Place an A in the Before column if you agree with the statement
PHYS103 Sec 901 Hour Exam No. 3 Page: 1 PHYS103 Sec 901 Hour Exam No. 3 Page: 2 1 The star alpha-centauri C has moved across the sky by 3853 seconds of arc during the last thousand years - slightly more
CHAPTER 29: STARS BELL RINGER: Where does the energy of the Sun come from? Compare the size of the Sun to the size of Earth. 1 CHAPTER 29.1: THE SUN What are the properties of the Sun? What are the layers
A Star is born: The Sun SNC1D7-Space Exploring the Sun Our Sun, a star, is the most important celestial object for life on Earth. The solar nebula theory is the current theory used to explain the formation
ASTRONOMY Universe- Includes all known matter (everything). Celestial Object Any object outside or above Earth s atmosphere. Galaxy- A large group (billions) of stars (held together by gravity). Our galaxy
Phys 0 Astronomy (Dr. Ilias Fernini) Review Questions for Chapter 9 MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. We know that giant stars are larger in diameter than the sun because * a. they are more luminous but have about the
Name: Universe Review Period: 1. Which type of telescope uses mirrors to focus visible light? A. reflecting telescope B. radio telescope C. infrared telescope D. refracting telescope 2. Which type of telescope