# The Universe. But first, let s talk about light! 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

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1 The Universe But first, let s talk about light!

2 Light is fast! The study of light All forms of radiation travel at 300,000,000 meters (186,000 miles) per second Since objects in space are so far away, it takes a while for light to get to Earth. Studying light from stars and galaxies is like looking into the past! Examples: It takes 8 minutes for sunlight to reach earth Light we get from Andromeda, the closest galaxy to us, left there 2.5 million years ago!

3 The study of light Electromagnetic radiation Visible light (a.k.a. white light ) is only one small part of an array of energy

4 The study of light Most waves are either too short or too long for our eyes to detect. Our eyes can only see visible light, white light White light consists of an array of various visible wavelengths. As white light passes through a prism, the color with the shortest wavelength is bent the most, etc., dispersing its component colors.

5

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7 Higher energy; hotter side Lower energy; colder side The electromagnetic spectrum is an array of energy

8 The Universe is HUGE! Bigger than we can imagine Hundreds of billions of galaxies (each with hundreds of billions if stars) Ex: there are about a million galaxies in the cup of the Big Dipper More stars than grains of sand in all the beaches on Earth

9 Distances in Space Units of measurement Kilometers and miles too cumbersome to use Astronomical Unit: the distance from the Earth to the Sun Light-year: the distance light travels in a year One light-year is 9.5 trillion kilometers (5.8 trillion miles)

10 Astronomical Unit (A.U.) Q: What did the Earth say to the Sun to get it s attention? A: A.U., over there!

11 Light-year: the DISTANCE light travels in a year

12 Universe The universe is everything that exists in space and time. Consists of all matter and energy that exists now, in the past, and in the future. Are there other universes?

13 Which of these is part of the Universe?

14 Galaxies Galaxies are collections interstellar matter, stars, and stellar remnants bound together by gravity. Galaxies are classified by their shape.

15 Three Types of Galaxies: Spiral Elliptical Irregular 4. Within these categories there are many variations.

16 Spiral Galaxy Messier 83

17 Spiral Galaxies Flat, disk-shaped objects with a central bulge Have arms (usually two) extending from the center Central bulge contains older stars, often giving it a yellowing color, while younger, hotter stars make up the arms. Often appear bluish due to an abundance of young stars Contain a lot of interstellar matter (gas and dust) that provides material for new stars to form.

18 Spiral Galaxies

19 Elliptical Galaxy

20 Elliptical Galaxies Ellipsoidal shape (spherical shape) Don t have spiral arms Have only a little interstellar matter Low rates of star formation Often appear yellow to red in color due to an abundance of older stars

21 Elliptical Galaxy

22 Irregular Galaxies No symmetry; do not have a well developed shape or structure. Stars are spread unevenly Many were once spiral or elliptical galaxies that were distorted by the gravity of a larger neighbor.

23

24 The Milky Way Galaxy

25 The Milky Way Galaxy 100,000 LY in diameter Artist s picture

26 The Milky Way Galaxy

27 The Milky Way Galaxy

28 Which galaxy is our solar system inside? Called: The Milky Way Spiral galaxy -Thin disk with a central bulge Diameter of Milky Way is 100,000 light years. Thickness of Milky Way is 10,000 light years.

29 Galactic Clusters Galaxies are not spread out evenly through the universe. They are grouped together. Gravity holds many galaxies together in groups called galactic clusters The cluster our galaxy is in is called the local group, made of more than 40 galaxies.

30 The Local Group Andromeda galaxy and Milky Way galaxy are the largest galaxies in our cluster of more than 40 galaxies.

31 The Origin of the Universe The Universe is expanding! How do we know? By studying light!

32 Electromagnetic Spectrum

33 The Doppler effect

34

35 When an object is moving away from us, waves coming from that object get stretched out. When an object is moving towards us, waves coming from that object get compressed.

36 Red shifts Doppler effect The apparent change in the wavelength of light emitted by an object due to motion Movement away stretches the wavelength Longer wavelength Light appears redder Movement toward squeezes the wavelength Shorter wavelength Light shifted toward the blue

37 Red Shifts When a source of light is moving away from an observer, the spectral lines shift toward the red end of the spectrum (longer wavelengths). The red shift in light from galaxies shows that all galaxies (except those in the Local Group) are moving away from Earth. Therefore, the universe is expanding

38 Red shifts Doppler effect Amount of the Doppler shift indicates the rate of movement Large Doppler shift indicates a high velocity Small Doppler shift indicates a lower velocity

39 The most distant galaxies are receding fastest Hubble s Law: galaxies recede at speeds proportional to their distances from the observer The further away, the faster they are moving away from you

40 Raisin Bread Analogy of an Expanding Universe As the dough rises, raisins originally farthest apart travel greater distances than those located closer together.

41 Distant galaxies are more red-shifted

42 Therefore 1. Galaxies are moving away from each other. 2. The Universe is expanding. 3. The Universe was once smaller. So, compared to today, how big was the universe yesterday?

43 Big Bang Theory Most complete and most widely accepted model. The universe began with a gigantic explosion 13.7 billion years ago. The explosion released all of the matter and energy that still exists in the universe today.

44 Big Bang Theory All energy and matter was compressed into a hot and dense state. About 13.7 billion years ago there was a huge explosion, which continued to expand, cool, and evolve to its current state. As it cooled, electrons and protons combined to form hydrogen and helium atoms, which collected to form the first nebulae, stars, and galaxies.

45 Big Bang Theory The light from the explosion would have been extremely high energy and short wavelengths. The explosion would have been very hot! We should be able to detect the remnant of that heat. Continued expansion would have stretched the waves so that by now they should be long wavelength radio waves called microwave radiation.

46 Big Bang Theory Scientists began searching for this cosmic microwave background radiation Discovered it in 1965

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48 In 1965, Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson in N.J. were adjusting a radio antenna. Found a steady, dim signal from the sky as microwave radiation. The universe kept cooling until the radiation reached very long, invisible wavelengths such as microwaves.

49 Penzias and Wilson White Noise Publish First

50 Stars

51 Properties of stars Stellar brightness Controlled by three factors Size Temperature Distance Magnitude Measure of a star s brightness

52 Properties of stars Stellar brightness Magnitude Two types of measurement Apparent magnitude Brightness when a star is viewed from Earth Decreases with distance

53 Properties of stars Stellar brightness Magnitude Two types of measurement Absolute magnitude True or intrinsic brightness of a star Brightness at a standard distance of 32.6 light-years Most stars absolute magnitudes are between 5 and +15

54 Interstellar matter Between the stars is the vacuum of space Nebula Cloud of interstellar matter (dust and gases) About 90% hydrogen, 9% helium, 1% dust (heavier elements Two major types of nebulae Bright nebula Glows if it is close to a very hot star Two types of bright nebulae Emission nebula Reflection nebula

55 Bright nebula Glows if it is close to a very hot star Two types of bright nebulae Emission nebula Gets its visible light from fluorescence of ultraviolet light from a star in or near the nebula Fluorescence is the conversion of ultraviolet light to visible light Reflection nebula Reflect light of nearby stars because they are more dense have more dust (usually carbon compounds)

56 Emission Nebula (LagoonNebulae)

57 A faint blue reflection nebula in the Pleiades star cluster

58 Dark Nebula Dark nebulae Too far from any bright stars appear dark because not illuminated Contain the same material that forms bright nebulae

59 Dark Nebula (Horsehead Nebula in the constellation Orion)

60 Flame and Horsehead Nebulae

61 North American and Pelican Nebulas

62 Idealized Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

63 Hertzsprung-Russell diagram Shows the relation between stellar Brightness (absolute magnitude/luminosity) and Temperature Diagram is made by plotting (graphing) each star s Brightness (absolute magnitude/luminosity) and Temperature

64 Hertzsprung-Russell diagram Parts of an H-R diagram Main-sequence stars 90 percent of all stars Form a band through the center of the H-R diagram Stars spend most of their active years as these Sun is in the main-sequence Giants (or red giants) Large Very luminous Upper-right on the H-R diagram

65 Hertzsprung-Russell diagram Parts of an H-R diagram Giants (or red giants) Very large giants are called supergiants Only a few percent of all stars White dwarfs Fainter than most main-sequence stars Small (approximate the size of Earth) Lower-central area on the H-R diagram Perhaps 10 percent of all stars

66 Idealized Hertzsprung-Russell diagram

67 Stellar Evolution (Life Cycle of Stars)

68 Stellar evolution Stars exist because of gravity Two opposing forces in a star are Gravity contracts Thermal nuclear energy expands The mass of the star will determine what it will end up as

69 Protostar Black Dwarf Protostar Main Sequence Stars

70 Life Cycle of an Average Star Protostar Main Sequence Star Black Dwarf Main Sequence Stars

71 Life Cycle of a Massive (BIG) Star Black Dwarf Protostar Main Sequence Star

72 Stellar Evolution of an Average Star

73 Stages Nebula Stellar evolution Gravity contracts cloud temperature rises Begin to radiate long-wavelength (red) light Not a star yet! Instead, a protostar is forming in the nebula!

74 Stages Protostar Stellar evolution Gravitational contraction of gas cloud continues to heat Core reaches 10 million K Hydrogen nuclei fuse to make helium nuclei Process is called hydrogen fusion (or hydrogen burning) Energy is released! Now a star! A main sequence star! Outward pressure increases due to heat Eventual the outward pressure is balanced by gravity pulling in Star becomes a stable main-sequence star

75 Fusion: combining of lighter nuclei to form a heavier nucleus, releasing energy. Only happens in the cores of stars.

76 Dr. Octopus Spiderman 2

77 Stellar evolution Stages Main-sequence stage Star fusing hydrogen into helium In a balanced state where the pull of gravity inward is balanced with the gas pressure outward Stars age at different rates Massive stars use fuel faster and exist for only a few million years Small stars use fuel slowly and exist for perhaps hundreds of billions of years 90 percent of a star s life is in the main sequence

78 Stages Red giant stage Stellar evolution Hydrogen in the core is consumed, leaving a helium rich core The core contracts due to gravity winning the fight with gas pressure This makes more heat as gravitational energy is converted to heat energy Hydrogen fusion continues in the shell surrounding the core at a faster rate Star s outer area expands becoming a red giant Surface cools Surface becomes red

79 Stellar evolution Still red giant stage: Core is collapsing, becoming hotter helium is converted to carbon (and oxygen) Eventually all nuclear fuel is used The star is not massive enough to continue fusion of heavier elements Gravity squeezes the star, forming a very dense core The outer layers continue to expand and it enters the planetary nebula stage

80 Red Giants

81 Supergiants Betelgeuse (in the constellation Orion) is a red supergiant! It is HUGE!

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83

84 Stellar evolution Planetary nebula stage Outer layers continue to expand outward, forming a cloud of gas At the center is the core, or the white dwarf White dwarf stage Has nearly exhausted its nuclear fuel Collapsed to a small size Outer gases have expanded away Black dwarf stage All energy is exhausted No longer emits energy

85 Planetary Nebula (Helix Nebula closest to our solar system)

86 Planetary Nebulas

87 Life Cycle of an Average Star Protostar Main Sequence Star Black Dwarf Main Sequence Stars

88 Stellar Evolution of a Massive Star

89 Life Cycle of a Massive (BIG) Star Black Dwarf Protostar Main Sequence Star

90 Stellar evolution massive star All previous stages and processes are the same except for when it reaches the red giant stage. Instead, it will become a red supergiant

91 Stellar evolution massive star Red supergiant stage Large enough to continue fusion reactions up to and including iron Supernova stage Violent burst or explosion of light Occurs when all nuclear fuel is gone and the core implodes due to strong gravitational field A shock wave results, blasting the star s outer shell into space Produce a hot, dense object that is either a neutron star or a 2012 black Pearson Education, hole Inc.

92 Supernovas Supernovas are the only event in nature that is energetic enough to cause fusion of elements heavier than iron on the periodic table!

93 Stellar evolution massive star Either neutron star or black hole If the remains of the supernova are three times the mass of the sun or less, there will be a neutron star. Three is the magic number! If more massive, gravity wins and collapse occurs, forming a black hole A black hole s surface gravity is so great that even light cannot escape

94 Stellar evolution massive star Neutron star Remnant of a supernova Gravitational force collapses atoms Electrons combine with protons to produce neutrons Small size, very dense! Strong magnetic field First one discovered in early 1970s In Crab Nebula (remnant of an A.D supernova)

95 Remains of Supernova of A.D Crab Nebula in the constellation Taurus

96 Remains of Supernova of A.D Crab Pulsar in Crab Nebula

97 Stellar evolution massive star Black hole More dense than a neutron star Intense surface gravity lets no light escape As matter is pulled into it Becomes very hot Emits X-rays First one to be identified was Cygnus X-1, a strong X-ray source

98 Stellar evolution low mass stars What about tiny stars (less than 1/2 the mass of the sun) Remember, final stage depends on mass Red giant collapses No planetary nebula stage Becomes a white dwarf

99 Evolution of stars with various masses

100

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