# Think about. Aug. 13, What is science?

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1 Think about Aug. 13, 2018 What is science?

2 Science Science is both a body of knowledge and a process for building that body of knowledge. This involves inquiry, that is, developing explanations for why things are they way they are, based on observation and experimentation Pseudoscience Information that sound science y but has not rigorous testing and data to back it up. Often, it is driven by cultural or commercial goals. For example: astrology (horoscopes), tarot cards, palm reading fad diets, diet products, etc. magnet therapy, copper therapy, etc. Scientific Method Usually means a series of steps that a scientist follows to discover how nature works.

3 Mathematics Is a valuable tool that is used in the process of science. Since mathematics has a structure and logic, it nicely "flows" with science in the collection of data during experimentation and observation. This data can be either qualitative or quantitative. Qualitative data deals with descriptions data can be observed by not measured, i.e. colors, textures, smells, tastes, appears, beauty, etc. Quantitative data deals with numbers data can be measured, i.e. length, width, area, volume, weight, time, temperature, etc.

4 Quantitative data Some of the measurements and data we will collect and utilize in class can be linear or angular. Linear data units like; m, km, m/s, km/hr, light year each unit can be broken into smaller "chunks" with similar units. Angular data primarily measured in degrees each degree is broken into 60 minutes (of arc), and each minute is similarly broken into 60 seconds (of arc). For example, is read as "63 degrees, 45 minutes, and 12 seconds of arc"

5 Conversions When working with data/numbers, we may need to convert to more practical units. For example, the distance to the nearest start, Alpha Centauri, is about 41,311,860,480,000,000 meters or about 4.1 x We can also say it is 4.37 light years. Many of the distances we will use beyond our solar system will be measured in light years. To understand this HUGE distance, lets see how far this is. Light travels about 300,000,000 m/s. Lets convert this to m/yr, which we will call a light year (the distance, in meters, light travels in a year) x 10 8 m 1 sec

6 Equations Equations are simply mathematical relationships between various measurable quantities, i.e. variables. For example, the equation gives the gravitational pulling force that two objects exert on each other. If we let m 1 be the mass of the Earth (5.97 x kg) and r be the distance from the center of the Earth to its surface, i.e. radius (6.37 x 10 6 m), and substitute in the value for G (6.67 x m 3 /kg s 2 ), our formula simplifies to and if we let we now get our familiar formula

7 Graphs and Graphing Graphs give us a visual relationship amongst data. In March 2009, NASA launched the Kepler Space Telescope to search for Earth sized planets orbiting other stars. As star's brightness dims (a very small amount) when a planet moves in front of the star. By knowing the time of transit (move across the star), the change in brightness. NOTE: The Kepler Space Telescope has run out of fuel and is currently in "nap" mode, but the TESS (launched in April 2018) is a major upgrade and is taking over the hunt.

8 Astronomy Now, we get to the primary focus of this course, astronomy, which is simply the study of the universe beyond the Earth's atmosphere. From the nearest object, the Moon, to the farthest reaches of the universe. Tomorrow, we will look at our place in the universe.

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