# Bidiagonal pairs, Tridiagonal pairs, Lie algebras, and Quantum Groups

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1 Bidiagonal pairs, Tridiagonal pairs, Lie algebras, and Quantum Groups Darren Funk-Neubauer Department of Mathematics and Physics Colorado State University - Pueblo Pueblo, Colorado, USA 1

2 Definition Let V denote a finite dimensional vector space. Let A : V V and A : V V denote linear transformations. We say A, A is a bidiagonal pair on V whenever (1) (3) hold. 1. Each of A, A is diagonalizable. 2. There exists an ordering V 0, V 1,..., V d (resp. V0, V1,..., Vd ) of the eigenspaces of A (resp. A ) such that (A θ i I)V i V i+1 (0 i d) (A θ i I)V i V i+1 (0 i d) where θ i (resp. θi ) is the eigenvalue of A (resp. A ) associated with V i (resp. Vi ) and V d+1 = 0, Vd+1 = For 0 i d/2 the restrictions (A θ d i 1 I) (A θ i+1 I)(A θ i I) V i : V i V d i (A θ d i 1I) (A θ i+1i)(a θ i I) Vi : V i V d i are bijections. 2

3 Definition Let V denote a finite dimensional vector space. Let A : V V and A : V V denote linear transformations. We say A, A is a tridiagonal pair on V whenever (1) (4) hold. 1. Each of A, A is diagonalizable. 2. There exists an ordering V 0, V 1,..., V d of the eigenspaces of A such that A V i V i 1 + V i + V i+1 where V 1 = 0, V d+1 = 0. (0 i d), 3. There exists an ordering V0, V1,..., Vd of A such that AV i Vi 1 + Vi where V 1 = 0, V d+1 = 0. of the eigenspaces + V i+1 (0 i d), 4. There does not exist a subspace W of V such that AW W, A W W, W 0, W V. 3

4 The eigenvalues of bidiagonal and tridiagonal pairs Let A, A denote a bidiagonal pair on V. For 0 i d, let θ i (resp. θi ) denote the eigenvalue of A (resp. A ) associated with V i (resp. Vi ). Theorem (F. N.): The expressions θ i 1 θ i θ i θ i+1, θ i 1 θ i θ i θ i+1 are equal and independent of i for 1 i d 1. Let A, A be a tridiagonal pair on V. For 0 i d, let θ i (resp. θi ) denote the eigenvalue of A (resp. A ) associated with V i (resp. Vi ). Theorem (Ito, Tanabe, Terwilliger): The expressions θ i 2 θ i+1 θ i 1 θ i, θ i 2 θ i+1 θ i 1 θ i are equal and independent of i for 2 i d 1. 4

5 Solving the bidiagonal eigenvalue recurrence Solving the recurrence relation for the eigenvalues of a bidiagonal pair we find that the sequences θ 0, θ 1,..., θ d and θ 0, θ 1,..., θ d have one of the following types. Type I: There exist scalars a 1, a 2, b 1, b 2 such that for 0 i d θ i = a 1 + a 2 (2i d), θ i = b 1 + b 2 (d 2i). Type II: There exist scalars q, a 1, a 2, b 1, b 2 such that for 0 i d θ i = a 1 + a 2 q 2i d, θ i = b 1 + b 2 q d 2i. 5

6 Solving the tridiagonal eigenvalue recurrence Solving the recurrence relation for the eigenvalues of a tridiagonal pair we find that the sequences θ 0, θ 1,..., θ d and θ0, θ1,..., θd have one of the following types. Type I: There exist scalars a 1, a 2, a 3, b 1, b 2, b 3 such that for 0 i d θ i = a 1 + a 2 (2i d) + a 3 (2i d) 2, θ i = b 1 + b 2 (d 2i) + b 3 (d 2i) 2. Type II: There exist scalars q, a 1, a 2, a 3, b 1, b 2, b 3 such that for 0 i d θ i = a 1 + a 2 q 2i d + a 3 q d 2i, θ i = b 1 + b 2 q d 2i + b 3 q 2i d. Type III: There exist scalars a 1, a 2, a 3, b 1, b 2, b 3 such that for 0 i d θ i = a 1 + a 2 ( 1) i + a 3 (2i d) ( 1) i, θ i = b 1 + b 2 ( 1) i + b 3 (d 2i) ( 1) i. 6

7 An alternative presentation of the Lie algebra sl 2 Definition: Let sl 2 denote the Lie algebra that has basis h, e, f and Lie bracket [h, e] = 2e, [h, f] = 2f, [e, f] = h. Theorem: sl 2 is isomorphic to the Lie algebra that has basis X, Y, Z and Lie bracket [X, Y ] = 2X + 2Y, [Y, Z] = 2Y + 2Z, [Z, X] = 2Z + 2X. We call X, Y, Z the equitable generators of sl 2. 7

8 The quantum group U q (sl 2 ) and its alternate presentation Definition: Let q denote a nonzero scalar which is not a root of unity. U q (sl 2 ) is the unital associative algebra generated by k, k 1, e, f subject to the relations kk 1 = k 1 k = 1, ke = q 2 ek, kf = q 2 fk, ef fe = k k 1 q q 1. Theorem: The algebra U q (sl 2 ) is isomorphic to the unital associative algebra generated by x, x 1, y, z subject to the relations xx 1 = x 1 x = 1, q xy q 1 yx q q 1 = 1, q yz q 1 zy q q 1 = 1, q zx q 1 xz q q 1 = 1. We call x, x 1, y, z the equitable generators of U q (sl 2 ). 8

9 The quantum group U q (ŝl 2) Definition: The quantum affine algebra U q (ŝl 2) is the unital associative algebra with generators e ± i, K±1 i, i {0, 1} which satisfy the following relations: K i K 1 i = K 1 i K i = 1, K 0 K 1 = K 1 K 0, K i e ± i K 1 i = q ±2 e ± i, K i e ± j K 1 i = q 2 e ± j, i j, e + i e i e i e+ i = K i Ki 1, q q 1 e ± 0 e 1 = e 1 e± 0, (e ± i )3 e ± j [3](e± i )2 e ± j e± i + [3]e ± i e± j (e± i )2 e ± j (e± i )3 = 0, i j, where [3] = (q 3 q 3 )/(q q 1 ). 9

10 An alternative presentation for the quantum group U q (ŝl 2) Theorem: The algebra U q (ŝl 2) is isomorphic to the unital associative algebra with generators x i, y i, z i, i {0, 1} and the following relations: x 0 x 1 = x 1 x 0 = 1, qx i y i q 1 y i x i q q 1 = 1, qy i z i q 1 z i y i q q 1 = 1, qz i x i q 1 x i z i q q 1 = 1, qz i y j q 1 y j z i q q 1 = 1, i j, y 3 i y j [3]y 2 i y j y i + [3]y i y j y 2 i y j y 3 i = 0, i j, z 3 i z j [3]z 2 i z j z i + [3]z i z j z 2 i z j z 3 i = 0, i j. We call x i, y i, z i the equitable generators of U q (ŝl 2). 10

11 From bidiagonal pairs to representations of sl 2 and U q (sl 2 ) Theorem (F. N.): Let V denote a finite dimensional vector space. Let A, A denote a bidiagonal pair on V and assume the eigenvalues of A, A are of Type I. Then there exists a unique sl 2 -module structure on V such that (A X)V = 0, (A Y )V = 0, where X, Y are equitable generators of sl 2. Theorem (F. N.) Let V denote a finite dimensional vector space. Let A, A denote a bidiagonal pair on V and assume the eigenvalues of A, A are of Type II. Then there exists a unique U q (sl 2 )-module structure on V such that (A x)v = 0, (A y)v = 0, where x, y are equitable generators of U q (sl 2 ). Since the finite dimensional representations of sl 2 and U q (sl 2 ) are known these two theorems give a classification of all bidiagonal pairs. 11

12 From tridiagonal pairs to representations of U q (ŝl 2) Theorem (Ito, Terwilliger): Let V denote a finite dimensional vector space. Let A, A denote a tridiagonal pair on V and let {θ i } d i=0 (resp. {θ i }d i=0 ) be an ordering of the eigenvalues of A (resp. A ). Assume there exist nonzero scalars q, a, b such that θ i = aq 2i d and θi = bq d 2i. Then there exists a unique irreducible U q (ŝl 2)-module structure on V such that (A ay 0 )V = 0, (A by 1 )V = 0, where y 0, y 1 are equitable generators of U q (ŝl 2). Moreover, there exists a unique irreducible U q (ŝl 2)-module structure on V such that (A az 0 )V = 0, (A bz 1 )V = 0, where z 0, z 1 are equitable generators of U q (ŝl 2). The assumption on the eigenvalues in the above theorem says that the eigenvalues of A, A are (a special case) of Type II. Since the finite dimensional irreducible U q (ŝl 2)-modules are known the above theorem can be viewed as a first step toward the classification of tridiagonal pairs. 12

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