# Chapter: States of Matter

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Table of Contents Chapter: States of Matter Section 1: Matter Section 2: Changes of State Section 3: Behavior of Fluids

2 1 What is matter? Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Matter Matter doesn t have to be visible even air is matter. Everything in this photo is matter.

3 1 Matter States of Matter All matter is made up of tiny particles, such as atoms, molecules, or ions. Each particle attracts other particles. These particles also are constantly moving. The motion of the particles and the strength of attraction between the particles determine a material s state of matter.

4 1 Matter States of Matter There are three familiar states of matter solid, liquid, and gas. A fourth state of matter known as plasma occurs at extremely high temperatures. Plasma is found in stars, lightning, and neon lights. Click image to view movie.

5 1 Solids A solid is matter with a definite shape and volume. A solid does not take the shape of a container in which it is placed. This is because the particles of a solid are packed closely together. Matter

6 1 Matter Particles in Motion The particles that make up all types of matter are in constant motion. Although you can t see them, a solid s particles are vibrating in place. These particles do not have enough energy to move out of their fixed positions.

7 1 Matter Crystalline Solids In some solids, the particles are arranged in a repeating, three-dimensional pattern called a crystal. These solids are called crystalline solids.

8 1 Matter Crystalline Solids The particles in a crystal of sodium chloride (NaCl) are arranged in an orderly pattern.

9 1 Matter Amorphous Solids Some solids come together without forming crystal structures. Instead, the particles are found in a random arrangement. These solids are called amorphous (uh MOR fuhs) solids. Rubber, plastic, and glass are examples of amorphous solids.

10 1 Liquids Matter A liquid is matter that has a definite volume but no definite shape. Liquid takes the shape of the container. The volume of a liquid, however, is the same no matter what the shape of the container.

11 1 Free to Move Matter The particles in a liquid move more freely than the particles in a solid. The particles in a liquid have enough energy to move out of their fixed positions but not enough energy to move far apart.

12 1 Viscosity Matter Some liquids flow more easily than others. A liquid s resistance to flow is known as the liquid s viscosity. The slower a liquid flows, the higher its viscosity is. For many liquids, viscosity increases as the liquid becomes colder.

13 1 Matter Surface Tension The uneven forces acting on the particles on the surface of a liquid are called surface tension. Surface tension causes the liquid to act as if a thin film were stretched across its surface.

14 1 Gases Matter Gas is matter that does not have a definite shape or volume. The particles in gas are much farther apart than those in a liquid or solid. Gas particles move at high speeds in all directions.

15 1 Vapor Matter Matter that exists in the gas state but is generally a liquid or solid at room temperature is called vapor. Water, for example, is a liquid at room temperature. Thus, water vapor is the term for the gas state of water.

16 1 Question 1 Section Check What state of matter is shown in this illustration? A. gas B. liquid C. plasma D. solid

17 1 Answer Section Check The answer is A. Particles in a gas are much farther apart than those in a liquid or solid.

18 1 Question 2 Section Check Some solids are composed of particles that fall into a pattern; they have a repeating, threedimensional shape. What do you call these kinds of solids? Answer The answer is crystalline solids. A common example of a crystalline solid is table salt.

19 1 Question 3 Section Check Which is composed of particles that have enough energy to move past each other but not enough to break away from each other? A. ice cube B. lemonade C. oxygen D. water vapor

20 1 Answer Section Check The answer is B. Lemonade is a liquid. Particles in a liquid stay close together although they are free to move past each other.

21 2 Changes of State Thermal Energy and Heat Energy Simply stated, energy is the ability to do work or cause change. The energy of motion is called kinetic energy.

22 2 Changes of State Thermal Energy and Heat Energy The total kinetic energy of all the particles in a sample of matter is called thermal energy. Thermal energy, an extensive property, depends on the number of particles in a substance as well as the amount of energy each particle has.

23 2 Temperature Changes of State Not all of the particles in a sample of matter have the same amount of energy. The average kinetic energy of the individual particles is the temperature, an intensive property of the substance. Temperature is different from thermal energy because thermal energy is a total and temperature is an average.

24 Changes of State 2 Heat The movement of thermal energy from a substance at a higher temperature to one at a lower temperature is called heat. When a substance is heated, it gains thermal energy. Therefore, its particles move faster and its temperature rises.

25 2 Specific Heat Changes of State The specific heat of a substance is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance 1 C. Substances that have a low specific heat, heat up and cool down quickly.

26 2 Specific Heat Changes of State A substance with a high specific heat, heats up and cools down slowly because a much larger quantity of heat is required to cause its temperature to rise of fall by the same amount.

27 2 Changes of State Changes Between the Solid and Liquid States Matter can change from one state to another when thermal energy is absorbed or released. This change is known as change of state.

28 Changes of State 2 Melting The change from the solid state to the liquid state is called melting. The temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid is called the melting point. The melting point of water is 0 C.

29 2 Melting Changes of State Amorphous solids, such as rubber and glass, don t melt in the same way as crystalline solids. Because they don t have crystal structures to break down, these solids get softer and softer as they are heated.

30 2 Freezing The change from the liquid state to the solid state is called freezing. The temperature at which a substance changes from the liquid state to the solid state is called the freezing point. Changes of State

31 2 Freezing Changes of State During freezing, the temperature of a substance remains constant while the particles in the liquid form a crystalline solid. Energy is released during freezing. After all of the liquid has become a solid, the temperature begins to decrease again.

32 2 Changes of State Changes Between the Liquid and Gas States Vaporization The change from a liquid to a gas is known as vaporization (vay puh ruh ZAY shun). The temperature of the substance does not change during vaporization. However, the substance absorbs thermal energy.

33 2 Changes of State Changes Between the Liquid and Gas States Vaporization Two forms of vaporization exist. Vaporization that takes place below the surface of a liquid is called boiling. The temperature at which a liquid boils is called the boiling point.

34 2 Changes of State Changes Between the Liquid and Gas States Vaporization Vaporization that takes place at the surface of a liquid is called evaporation. Evaporation, which occurs at temperatures below the boiling point, explains how puddles dry up.

35 2 Changes of State Location of Molecules It takes more than speed for water molecules to escape the liquid state. During evaporation, these faster molecules also must be near the surface, heading in the right direction, and they must avoid hitting other water molecules as they leave.

36 2 Condensation Changes of State As a gas cools, its particles slow down. When particles move slowly enough for their attractions to bring them together, droplets of liquid form. This process, which is the opposite of vaporization, is called condensation.

37 2 Condensation Changes of State In the same way, water vapor in the atmosphere condenses to form the liquid water droplets in clouds. When the droplets become large enough, the can fall to the ground as rain.

38 2 Changes of State Changes Between the Solid and Gas States Some substances can change from the solid state to the gas state without ever becoming a liquid. During this process, known as sublimation, the surface particles of the solid gain enough energy to become a gas. One example of a substance that undergoes sublimation is dry ice.

39 2 Question 1 Section Check The total kinetic energy of all the particles in a substance is known as? A. freezing B. heat C. temperature D. thermal energy

40 2 Answer Section Check The answer is D. When you heat a substance, you increase its thermal energy.

41 2 Question 2 Section Check The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 g of a substance by 1 C is known as? A. freezing B. heat C. specific heat D. temperature

42 2 Answer Section Check The answer is C. Different substances have different specific heats.

43 2 Question 3 Section Check The average kinetic energy of the individual particles in a particular substance is referred to as?

44 2 Answer Section Check The average kinetic energy of the particles in a substance is its temperature. Since different particles have different amounts of energy in any substance, temperature will be an average measurement.

45 3 Pressure Behavior of Fluids The firmness of a ball is the result of the motion of the air particles in the ball. As each particle collides with the inside walls, it exerts a force, pushing the surface of the ball outward.

46 Behavior of Fluids 3 Pressure A force is a push or a pull. Pressure is equal to the force exerted on a surface divided by the total area over which the force is exerted.

47 3 Pressure Behavior of Fluids When force is measured in newtons (N) and area is measured in square meters (m 2 ), pressure is measured in newtons per square meter (N/m 2 ). This unit of pressure is called a pascal (Pa). A more useful unit when discussing atmospheric pressure is the kilopascal (kpa), which is 1,000 pascals.

48 3 Behavior of Fluids Force and Area Pressure depends on the quantity of force exerted and the area over which the force is exerted. As the force increases over a given area, pressure increases. If the force decreases, the pressure will decrease. If the area changes, the same amount of force can result in different pressure.

49 3 Behavior of Fluids Atmospheric Pressure The pressure of air also is known as atmospheric pressure. Atmospheric pressure is kpa at sea level. This means that air exerts a force of about 101,000 N on every square meter it touches. This is approximately equal to the weight of a large truck.

50 3 Behavior of Fluids Atmospheric Pressure You often take advantage of air pressure without even realizing it. Air pressure enables you to drink from a straw. When you first suck on a straw, you remove the air from it.

51 3 Behavior of Fluids Atmospheric Pressure Air pressure pushes down on the liquid in your glass then forces liquid up into the straw.

52 3 Behavior of Fluids Balanced Pressure If air is so forceful, why don t you feel it? The reason is that the pressure exerted outward by the fluids in your body balances the pressure exerted by the atmosphere on the surface of your body.

53 3 Variations in Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric pressure changes with altitude. As altitude increases atmospheric pressure decreases. Behavior of Fluids

54 3 Behavior of Fluids Variations in Atmospheric Pressure This is because fewer air particles are found in a given volume. Fewer particles have fewer collisions, and therefore exert less pressure.

55 3 Variations in Atmospheric Pressure Notice how the balloon expands as it is carried up the mountain. The reason is that atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude. Behavior of Fluids

56 3 Air Travel Behavior of Fluids If you travel to higher altitudes you might feel a popping sensation in your ears. As the air pressure drops, the air pressure in your ears becomes greater than the air pressure outside your body. The release of some of the air trapped inside your ears is heard as a pop.

57 3 Behavior of Fluids Changes in Gas Pressure Pressure and Volume As volume decreases, pressure increases. As the piston is moved down, the gas particles have less space and collide more often. The pressure increases.

58 3 Behavior of Fluids Pressure and Temperature When the volume of a confined gas remains the same, the pressure can change as the temperature of the gas changes. Even though the volume of this container does not change, the pressure increases as the substance is heated.

59 3 Float or Sink Behavior of Fluids Just as air pressure increases as you walk down a mountain, water pressure increases as you swim deeper in water.

60 3 Float or Sink Behavior of Fluids The difference in pressure results in an upward force on an object immersed in a fluid. This force is known as the buoyant force. If the buoyant force is equal to the weight of an object, the object will float. If the buoyant force is less than the weight of an object, the object will sink.

61 3 Behavior of Fluids Archimedes Principle According to Archimedes (ar kuh MEE deez) principle, the buoyant force on an object is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the object. If you place an object in a beaker that already is filled to the brim with water, some water will spill out of the beaker. If you weigh the spilled water, you will find the buoyant force on the object.

62 3 Density Behavior of Fluids Density is mass divided by volume. An object will float in a fluid that is more dense than itself and sink in a fluid that is less dense than itself. If an object has the same density, the object will neither sink nor float but instead stay at the same level in the fluid.

63 3 Behavior of Fluids Pascal s Principle When a force is applied to a confined fluid, an increase in pressure is transmitted equally to all parts of the fluid. This relationship is known as Pascal s principle.

64 3 Behavior of Fluids Hydraulic Systems You witness Pascal s principle when a car is lifted up to have its oil changed or if you re in a dentist s chair as it is raised or lowered. These devices, known as hydraulic (hi DRAW lihk) systems, use Pascal s principle to increase force. Click image to view movie.

65 3 Behavior of Fluids Hydraulic Systems Hydraulic systems enable people to lift heavy objects using relatively small forces.

66 3 Force Pumps Behavior of Fluids If an otherwise closed container has a hole in it, any fluid in the container will be pushed out the opening when you squeeze it. This arrangement is known as a force pump.

67 3 Force Pumps Behavior of Fluids Your heart has two force pumps. One pump pushes blood to the lungs, where it picks up oxygen. The other force pump pushes the oxygenrich blood to the rest of your body.

68 3 Question 1 Section Check You can t drink juice through a straw while standing on the moon. Why not? Answer Juice rises in a straw when you suck on it only because air pressure is pushing down on the juice in the glass. On the moon there is no atmosphere and therefore no air pressure.

69 3 Question 2 Section Check Pressure is equal to the force exerted on an area divided by the total area. That means that if you decrease the area, the force. A. decreases B. increases C. stays the same D. turns around

70 3 Answer Section Check The correct answer is B. Decreased area equals increased force.

71 3 Question 3 Describe what is happening to the balloon in this figure? Section Check

72 3 Answer Section Check The balloon is expanding as the hiker carries it up the mountain. The reason is because atmospheric pressure decreases with altitude. With less pressure on the balloon, the gas particles within the balloon are free to expand.

73 Help To advance to the next item or next page click on any of the following keys: mouse, space bar, enter, down or forward arrow. Click on this icon to return to the table of contents Click on this icon to return to the previous slide Click on this icon to move to the next slide Click on this icon to open the resources file. Click on this icon to go to the end of the presentation.

74 End of Chapter Summary File

### CHAPTER 4 - STATES OF MATTER. Mr. Polard Physical Science Ingomar Middle School

CHAPTER 4 - STATES OF MATTER Mr. Polard Physical Science Ingomar Middle School SECTION 1 MATTER VOCABULARY SECTION 1 Matter : anything that takes up space and has mass (pg 72, 102) Solid : Matter with

### Chapter 2. States of Matter

Chapter 2 States of Matter 2-1 Matter Matter Matter Anything that takes up space and has mass. Is air matter? Yes. It takes up space and has mass. It has atoms. All matter is made up of atoms. ( Dalton

### Unit 4: The Nature of Matter

16 16 Table of Contents Unit 4: The Nature of Matter Chapter 16: Solids, Liquids, and Gases 16.1: Kinetic Theory 16.2: Properties and Fluids 16.3: Behavior of Gases 16.1 Kinetic Theory Kinetic Theory kinetic

### Matter and Thermal Energy

Section States of Matter Can you identify the states of matter present in the photo shown? Kinetic Theory The kinetic theory is an explanation of how particles in matter behave. Kinetic Theory The three

### Section 1 Matter and Energy

CHAPTER OUTLINE Section 1 Matter and Energy Key Idea questions > What makes up matter? > What is the difference between a solid, a liquid, and a gas? > What kind of energy do all particles of matter have?

### Chapter 3 Phases of Matter Physical Science

Chapter 3 Phases of Matter Physical Science CH 3- States of Matter 1 What makes up matter? What is the difference between a solid, a liquid, and a gas? What kind of energy do all particles of matter have?

### How Are. Bats & Tornadoes. Connected?

How Are Bats & Tornadoes Connected? 100 B ats are able to find food and avoid obstacles without using their vision. They do this by producing high-frequency sound waves which bounce off objects and return

### SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, AND GASES

CHAPTER 2 SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, AND GASES SECTION 2 1 States of Matter (pages 56-60) This section explains how shape, volume, and the motion of particles are useful in describing solids, liquids, and gases.

### Chapter 3. Preview. Section 1 Three States of Matter. Section 2 Behavior of Gases. Section 3 Changes of State. States of Matter.

States of Matter Preview Section 1 Three States of Matter Section 2 Behavior of Gases Section 3 Changes of State Concept Mapping Section 1 Three States of Matter Bellringer In the kitchen, you might find

### Chapter 8. Chapter 8. Preview. Bellringer. Chapter 8. Particles of Matter. Objectives. Chapter 8. Particles of Matter, continued

States of Matter Preview Bellringer Section 2 Behavior of Gases In the kitchen, you might find three different forms of water. What are these three forms of water, and where exactly in the kitchen would

### Kinetic Theory. States of Matter. Thermal Energy. Four States of Matter. Kinetic Energy. Solid. Liquid. Definition: How particles in matter behave

Kinetic Theory Definition: How particles in matter behave States of Matter All Matter is composed of small particles. Particles are in constant random motion. Particles collide with each other and walls

### Chapter: Heat and States

Table of Contents Chapter: Heat and States of Matter Section 1: Temperature and Thermal Energy Section 2: States of Matter Section 3: Transferring Thermal Energy Section 4: Using Thermal Energy 1 Temperature

### Matter, Atoms & Molecules

Matter, Atoms & Molecules Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. All matter is made of tiny particles called atoms, which are too small to see with the naked eye. Matter Matter is anything

### Atoms and molecules are in motion and have energy

Atoms and molecules are in motion and have energy By now you know that substances are made of atoms and molecules. These atoms and molecules are always in motion and have attractions to each other. When

### Matter. Energy- which is a property of matter!! Matter: anything that takes up space and has mass

Matter Matter: anything that takes up space and has mass Can you think of anything that is not made of matter? Energy- which is a property of matter!! Matter is made up of moving particles! Instead of

### CHEMISTRY Matter and Change. Chapter 12: States of Matter

CHEMISTRY Matter and Change Chapter 12: States of Matter CHAPTER 12 States of Matter Section 12.1 Section 12.2 Section 12.3 Section 12.4 Gases Forces of Attraction Liquids and Solids Phase Changes Click

### Physical Science Exam 3 Study Guide. Dr. Karoline Rostamiani. Chapter 3

Chapter 3 Section 1 States of Matter What is matter made of? What are the three most common states of matter? How do particles behave in each state of matter? Solids, Liquids, and Gases Materials can be

### What is a change of state? What happens during a change of state? What can happen when a substance loses or gains energy?

CHAPTER 3 3 Changes of State SECTION States of Matter BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a change of state? What happens during a change

### States of Matter Unit

Learning Target Notes Section 1: Matter and Energy What makes up matter? Matter is made of atoms and molecules that are in constant motion. Kinetic Theory of Matter A. Particles that make up matter are

### Matter & Energy. Objectives: properties and structures of the different states of matter.

Matter & Energy Objectives: 1. Use the kinetic theory to describe the properties and structures of the different states of matter. 2. Describe energy transfers involved in changes of state. 3. Describe

### Chapter 13 - States of Matter. Section 13.1 The nature of Gases

Chapter 13 - States of Matter Section 13.1 The nature of Gases Kinetic energy and gases Kinetic energy: the energy an object has because of its motion Kinetic theory: all matter is made if particles in

### Solids (cont.) Describe the movement of particles in a solid and the forces between them.

Solids A solid is matter that has a definite shape and a definite volume. The attractive forces between the particles in a solid are strong and pull them close together. Solids (cont.) Describe the movement

### Chemistry A: States of Matter Packet Name: Hour: Page!1. Chemistry A States of Matter Packet

Chemistry A: States of Matter Packet Name: Hour: Page!1 Chemistry A States of Matter Packet Chemistry A: States of Matter Packet Name: Hour: Page!2 Worksheet #1: States of Matter In this packet we will

### States of Matter. Ahhh! SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3

States of Matter The particles in solids, liquids, and gases are always in motion. SECTION 1 Matter Main Idea The state of matter depends on the motion of the particles and on the attractions between them.

### Chapter 7.1. States of Matter

Chapter 7.1 States of Matter In this chapter... we will learn about matter and different states of matter, many of which we are already familiar with! Learning about Kinetic Molecular Theory will help

### There are three phases of matter: Solid, liquid and gas

FLUIDS: Gases and Liquids Chapter 4 of text There are three phases of matter: Solid, liquid and gas Solids: Have form, constituents ( atoms and molecules) are in fixed positions (though they can vibrate

### WARM-UP. 1. What are the four states of matter? 2. What is melting point? 3. How does water change from a liquid to a gas? 4. Define viscosity.

WARM-UP 1. What are the four states of matter? 2. What is melting point? 3. How does water change from a liquid to a gas? 4. Define viscosity. STATES OF MATTER: WEB QUEST With your lab partner, you will

### Ch. 1 States of Matter

Ch. 1 States of Matter Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The surface of water can act like a sort of skin due to a property of liquids called

### Chapter 14 9/21/15. Solids, Liquids & Gasses. Essential Questions! Kinetic Theory! Gas State! Gas State!

Chapter 14 Solids, Liquids & Gasses Essential Questions What is the kinetic theory of matter? How do particles move in the different states of matter? How do particles behave at the boiling and melting

### Objectives. Inertia. Is air matter? Is Light matter? Chapter 2. Chapter 2. Table of Contents. Chapter 2. Chapter 2. Section 1 What Is Matter?

The Properties of Matter Section 1 What Is Matter? Table of Contents Section 1 What Is Matter? Section 2 Physical Properties Section 3 Chemical Properties Objectives Describe the two properties of all

### Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER. Match the correct state of matter with each description of water by writing a letter on each line.

10 STATES OF MATTER SECTION 10.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 267 272) This section describes how the kinetic theory applies to gases. It defines gas pressure and explains how temperature is related to the

### Everything in the universe can be classified as either matter or energy. Kinetic Energy Theory: All particles of matter are in constant motion.

Physical Science Everything in the universe can be classified as either matter or energy. Kinetic Energy Theory: All particles of matter are in constant motion. State of Matter Bose- Einstein Condensate

### States of Matter. What physical changes and energy changes occur as matter goes from one state to another?

Name States of Matter Date What physical changes and energy changes occur as matter goes from one state to another? Before You Read Before you read the chapter, think about what you know about states of

### Name Date Class THE NATURE OF GASES

13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES Section Review Objectives Describe the assumptions of the kinetic theory as it applies to gases Interpret gas pressure in terms of kinetic theory Define the relationship between

### * Defining Temperature * Temperature is proportional to the kinetic energy of atoms and molecules. * Temperature * Internal energy

* Defining Temperature * We associate temperature with how hot or cold an object feels. * Our sense of touch serves as a qualitative indicator of temperature. * Energy must be either added or removed from

### Chemistry A: States of Matter Packet Name: Hour: Page 1. Chemistry A States of Matter Packet

Chemistry A: States of Matter Packet Name: Hour: Page 1 Chemistry A States of Matter Packet Chemistry A: States of Matter Packet Name: Hour: Page 2 Worksheet #1: States of Matter In this packet we will

### relatively narrow range of temperature and pressure.

1) Of solids, liquids, and gases, the least common state of matter is the liquid state. a) Liquids can exist only within a relatively narrow range of temperature and pressure. 2) The kinetic-molecular

### Unit 4: Gas Laws. Matter and Phase Changes

Unit 4: Gas Laws Matter and Phase Changes ENERGY and matter What is 에너지 A fundamental property of the universe that cannot be easily defined. Energy No one knows what energy is, only what it does or has

### Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER. SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages )

Name Date Class 13 STATES OF MATTER SECTION 13.1 THE NATURE OF GASES (pages 385 389) This section introduces the kinetic theory and describes how it applies to gases. It defines gas pressure and explains

### Name Class Date. What is a change of state? What happens during a change of state? What can happen when a substance loses or gains energy?

CHAPTER 2 3 Changes of State SECTION States of Matter BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a change of state? What happens during a change

### Solids, Liquids, and Gases. Chapter 14

Solids, Liquids, and Gases Chapter 14 Matter & Thermal Energy Matter can exist as a solid, a liquid, a gas or a plasma. The Molecular Kinetic Theory of Matter explains their differences and how they can

### Solids, Liquids, and Gases

Date Class _ Solids, Liquids, and Gases Chapter Test A Multiple Choice Write the letter of the correct answer on the line at the left. _ 1. The surface of water can act like a sort of skin due to a property

### 1) Of solids, liquids, and gases, the common state of matter is the liquid state.

I. Properties of LIQUIDS: 1) Of solids, liquids, and gases, the common state of matter is the liquid state. a) can exist only within a relatively narrow range of temperature and pressure. 2) The kinetic-molecular

### Name Date Class STATES OF MATTER

13 STATES OF MATTER Chapter Test A A. Matching Match each description in Column B with the correct term in Column A. Write the letter of the correct description on the line. Column A Column B 1. amorphous

### Chapter 10 States of Matter

Chapter 10 States of Matter 1 Section 10.1 The Nature of Gases Objectives: Describe the assumptions of the kinetic theory as it applies to gases. Interpret gas pressure in terms of kinetic theory. Define

### Physical Science Chapter 5 Cont3. Temperature & Heat

Physical Science Chapter 5 Cont3 Temperature & Heat What are we going to study? Heat Transfer Phases of Matter The Kinetic Theory of Gases Thermodynamics Specific Heat (Capacity) Specific Heat Latent Heat

### If we change the quantity causing the deformation from force to force per unit area, we get a relation that does not depend on area.

2/24 Chapter 12 Solids Recall the rigid body model that we used when discussing rotation. A rigid body is composed of a particles constrained to maintain the same distances from and orientations relative

### Chapter 3. States of Matter

Chapter 3 States of Matter 1. Solid 2. Liquid 3. Gas States of Matter Two More (discuss later) Plasma Bose-Einstein condensate States of Matter Solid (definite shape and volume) Particles are tightly packed

### 4 Discuss and evaluate the 5th state of matter. 3 - Differentiate among the four states of matter in terms of energy,

Goal: Differentiate among the four states of matter in terms of energy, particle motion, and phase transitions. 4 States of Mater Sections 3.1, 3.2 4 Discuss and evaluate the 5 th state of matter. 3 -

### States of Matter: Study Guide

Name: nswer KEY States of Matter: Study Guide Period: Date: 1. Describe the volume, shape and molecular arrangement in the following states of matter: Solid Volume Shape Molecular rrangement Definite Definite

### Chemistry States of Matter Lesson 9 Lesson Plan David V. Fansler

Chemistry States of Matter Lesson 9 Lesson Plan David V. Fansler States of Matter The Nature of Gases Objectives: Describe the motion of gas particles according to the kinetic theory; Interpret gas pressure

### The physical state of a substance can be changed by increasing or decreasing its temperature.

Chemistry Lecture #63: Changes of State The physical state of a substance can be changed by increasing or decreasing its temperature. For example, a solid substance can be converted into a liquid by heating

### STATES OF MATTER. The Four States of Ma/er. Four States. Solid Liquid Gas Plasma

STATES OF MATTER The Four States of Ma/er Solid Liquid Gas Plasma Four States STATES OF MATTER Ø What makes a substance a par:cular state of ma

### LESSON 1: DESCRIBING MATTER pg.5. Chemistry = Is the study of matter & how matter changes. Liquid/Solid/Gas

Chemistry..CHAPTER 1: INTRO TO MATTER LESSON 1: DESCRIBING MATTER pg.5 Chemistry = Is the study of matter & how matter changes A. Matter = anything that has mass & takes up space à You, air, plastic, metal,

### Phase Change: solid to liquid. Melting

Phase Change: solid to liquid Melting Most solids shrink in size when frozen. What substance is an exception and actually expands? water Use the phase diagram below to answer the following question. What

### CHM Solids, Liquids, and Phase Changes (r15) Charles Taylor 1/9

CHM 111 - Solids, Liquids, and Phase Changes (r15) - 2015 Charles Taylor 1/9 Introduction In CHM 110, we used kinetic theory to explain the behavior of gases. Now, we will discuss solids and liquids. While

### Unit 1 Lesson 6 Changes of State. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

The Fact of the Matter What happens when matter changes state? The three most familiar states of matter are solid, liquid, and gas. A change of state is the change of a substance from one physical form

### Matter and Its Properties. Unit 2

Matter and Its Properties Unit 2 Lesson 1: Physical & Chemical Properties & Changes Unit 2: Matter and Its Properties Section 1: Physical Properties & Change Lesson 1: Physical & Chemical Properties &

### ch 12 acad.notebook January 12, 2016 Ch 12 States of Matter (solids, liquids, gases, plasma, Bose Einstein condensate)

Ch 12 States of Matter (solids, liquids, gases, plasma, Bose Einstein condensate) BIG IDEA The kinetic molecular theory explains the different properties of solids, liquids and gases. I CAN: 1) use the

### States of Matter. Essential Question: How does the movement of atoms and molecules relate to matter s different phases?

States of Matter Essential Question: How does the movement of atoms and molecules relate to matter s different phases? These notes come from pages 60 to 73 in your Physical Science Textbook All Matter

### Study Guide for Chapters 2, 3, and 10

Study Guide for Chapters 2, 3, and 10 1. What is matter? Where can it be found? Anything that has mass and takes up space. 2. What units are used to measure volume? Liters and meters cubed 3. How would

### 1 Three States of Matter

CHAPTER 3 1 Three States of Matter SECTION States of Matter BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is matter made of? What are the three most common

### Changing States of Matter By Cindy Grigg

By Cindy Grigg 1 On Earth, almost all matter exists in just three states. Matter is usually a solid, a liquid, or a gas. Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is rare on Earth. It sometimes can be found

### Properties of Matter

Properties of Matter Matter - anything that has mass and takes up space Chemistry - the study of the properties of matter and how matter changes Physical Property - a characteristic of a substance which

### Kinetic Theory of Matter

1 Temperature and Thermal Energy Kinetic Theory of Matter The motion of the particles in matter is described by kinetic theory of matter. Matter is composed of particles that are atoms, molecules, or ions

### Chem 1075 Chapter 13 Liquids and Solids Lecture Outline

Chem 1075 Chapter 13 Liquids and Solids Lecture Outline Slide 2-3 Properties of Liquids Unlike gases, liquids respond dramatically to temperature and pressure changes. We can study the liquid state and

### Classify each of these statements as always true, AT; sometimes true, ST; or never true, NT.

Chapter 11 THE NATURE OF GASES States of Matter Describe the motion of gas particles according to the kinetic theory Interpret gas pressure in terms of kinetic theory Key Terms: 1. kinetic energy 2. gas

### Chemistry Joke. Once you ve seen 6.02 x You ve seen a mole!

States of Matter Chemistry Joke Once you ve seen 6.02 x 10 23 atoms You ve seen a mole! Kinetic Theory Kinetic Theory explains the states of matter based on the concept that the particles in all forms

### Liquids & Solids: Section 12.3

Liquids & Solids: Section 12.3 MAIN IDEA: The particles in and have a range of motion and are not easily. Why is it more difficult to pour syrup that is stored in the refrigerator than in the cabinet?

### How Does the Sun s Energy Cause Rain?

1.2 Investigate 3.3 Read How Does the Sun s Energy Cause Rain? In the water-cycle simulation, you observed water change from a liquid to a gas, and then back to a liquid falling to the bottom of the container.

### THE PARTICLE MODEL AND PROPERTIES OF THE GASES, LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS. STATES CHANGES

THE PARTICLE MODEL AND PROPERTIES OF THE GASES, LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS. STATES CHANGES The particle model of a gas A gas has no fixed shape or volume, but always spreads out to fill any container. There are

### Science 8 Chapter 7 Section 1

Science 8 Chapter 7 Section 1 Describing Fluids (pp. 268-277) What is a fluid? Fluid: any thing that flows; a liquid or a gas While it would seem that some solids flow (sugar, salt, etc), they are not

### Chapter: The Laws of Motion

Table of Contents Chapter: The Laws of Motion Section 1: Newton s Second Law Section 2: Gravity Section 3: The Third Law of Motion 1 Newton s Second Law Force, Mass, and Acceleration Newton s first law

### Lesson 02: Physical Properties of Matter. 01 Matter

Chemistry 11, Physical Properties, Unit 02 1 Lesson 02: Physical Properties of Matter 01 Matter Almost everything in the universe is made of matter matter has volume matter has mass matter is made up of

### Unit 3: States of Matter, Heat and Gas Laws

Unit 3 - Stevens 1 Unit 3: States of Matter, Heat and Gas Laws Vocabulary: Solid Term Definition Example Liquid Gas No definite shape, but definite volume; Particles close together, but can move around

### 3.3 Phase Changes Charactaristics of Phase Changes phase change

A large iceberg contains enough fresh water to supply millions of people with water for a year. As it moves into warmer areas, the ice changes to liquid water and eventually disappears. What happens when

### Chapter 22 States of matter. Section 1 matter Section 2 Changes of State

Chapter 22 States of matter Section 1 matter Section 2 Changes of State States of Matter is a physical property ***Matter is made of atoms Atoms form chemical bonds to make matter **** Atoms vibrate constantly

### CHAPTER 13. States of Matter. Kinetic = motion. Polar vs. Nonpolar. Gases. Hon Chem 13.notebook

CHAPTER 13 States of Matter States that the tiny particles in all forms of matter are in constant motion. Kinetic = motion A gas is composed of particles, usually molecules or atoms, with negligible volume

### Liquids & Solids. Mr. Hollister Holliday Legacy High School Regular & Honors Chemistry

Liquids & Solids Mr. Hollister Holliday Legacy High School Regular & Honors Chemistry 1 Liquids 2 Properties of the States of Matter: Liquids High densities compared to gases. Fluid. The material exhibits

### Chapter 10. Lesson Starter. Why did you not smell the odor of the vapor immediately? Explain this event in terms of the motion of molecules.

Preview Lesson Starter Objectives The Kinetic-Molecular Theory of Gases The Kinetic-Molecular Theory and the Nature of Gases Deviations of Real Gases from Ideal Behavior Section 1 The Kinetic-Molecular

### Section 16.3 Phase Changes

Section 16.3 Phase Changes Solid Liquid Gas 3 Phases of Matter Density of Matter How packed matter is (The amount of matter in a given space) Solid: Liquid: Gas: High Density Medium Density Low Density

### Chapter 7: Kinetic Molecular Theory. 7.1 States of Matter

Chapter 7: Kinetic Molecular Theory 7.1 States of Matter 7.1 KMT and Changes in State Matter: anything with mass and volume Mass: quantity of matter that a substance or object contains (g or kg) Volume:

### STATES OF MATTER STATES OF MATTER. The Four States of Matter 3/5/2015. Solid. Liquid Commonly found on Gas Earth Plasma

Unit 10: States of Matter Lesson 10.1: States and Their Changes (Review) STATES OF MATTER The Four States of Matter Solid } Liquid Commonly found on Gas Earth Plasma STATES OF MATTER Based upon particle

### STATES OF MATTER STATES OF MATTER. The Four States of Matter 3/5/2015

The Four States of Matter Unit 10: States of Matter Lesson 10.1: States and Their Changes (Review) Solid } Liquid Commonly found on Gas Earth Plasma Based upon particle arrangement Based upon energy of

### CHAPTER 3 ATOMS ATOMS MATTER 10/17/2016. Matter- Anything that takes up space (volume) and has mass. Atom- basic unit of matter.

CHAPTER 3 MATTER Matter- Anything that takes up space (volume) and has mass. Matter Combining Matter States of Matter Atom- basic unit of matter. Subatomic particles- protons, neutrons, and electrons.

### Chapter 14 Temperature and Heat

Nicholas J. Giordano www.cengage.com/physics/giordano Chapter 14 Temperature and Heat Thermodynamics Starting a different area of physics called thermodynamics Thermodynamics focuses on energy rather than

### SAM Teachers Guide Phase Change Overview Learning Objectives Possible Student Pre/Misconceptions

SAM Teachers Guide Phase Change Overview Students review the atomic arrangements for each state of matter, following trajectories of individual atoms to observe their motion. Students observe and manipulate

### Ch Kinetic Theory. 1.All matter is made of atoms and molecules that act like tiny particles.

Ch. 15.1 Kinetic Theory 1.All matter is made of atoms and molecules that act like tiny particles. Kinetic Theory 2.These tiny particles are always in motion. The higher the temperature, the faster the

### Chapter Practice Test Grosser

Class: Date: Chapter 10-11 Practice Test Grosser Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. According to the kinetic-molecular theory, particles of

### What Is Air Temperature?

2.2 Read What Is Air Temperature? In Learning Set 1, you used a thermometer to measure air temperature. But what exactly was the thermometer measuring? What is different about cold air and warm air that

### States of Matter. Reviewing Vocabulary. Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B.

Name Date Class States of Matter Reviewing Vocabulary Match the definition in Column A with the term in Column B. Column A 1. A measure of the resistance of a liquid to flow 2. The energy required to increase

### 2 Changes of State KEY IDEAS READING TOOLBOX ADDING AND REMOVING ENERGY. States of Matter. As you read this section, keep these questions in mind:

CHAPTER 3 States of Matter 2 Changes of State SECTION KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What happens when a substance changes from one state of matter to another? What happens

### CHAPTER 1 Matter in our Surroundings CONCEPT DETAILS

CHAPTER 1 Matter in our Surroundings CONCEPT DETAILS KEY CONCEPTS : [ *rating as per the significance of concept] 1. Particle nature of Matter *** 2. States of Matter **** 3. Interchange in states of Matter

### Post-Show HOT AND COLD. Gases. Liquids. Solids. After the Show. Traveling Science Shows

Traveling Science Shows Post-Show HOT AND COLD After the Show We recently presented a Hot and Cold show at your school, and thought you and your students might like to continue investigating this topic.

### SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS - Here's a brief review of the atomic picture or gases, liquids, and solids GASES

30 SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS - Here's a brief review of the atomic picture or gases, liquids, and solids GASES * Gas molecules are small compared to the space between them. * Gas molecules move in straight lines

### Chemistry Day 5. Friday, August 31 st Tuesday, September 4 th, 2018

Chemistry Day 5 Friday, August 31 st Tuesday, September 4 th, 2018 Do-Now Title: BrainPOP: States of Matter 1. Write down today s FLT 2. List two examples of gases 3. List two examples of things that are

### SAM Teachers Guide Phase Change Overview Learning Objectives Possible Student Pre/Misconceptions

SAM Teachers Guide Phase Change Overview Students review the atomic arrangements for each state of matter, following trajectories of individual atoms to observe their motion and observing and manipulating

### When liquid water crystallizes it has six sides. Create a snowflake with six sides.

When liquid water crystallizes it has six sides. Create a snowflake with six sides. Purpose: To create a supersaturated solution and observe the crystal lattice of borax snowflakes. The state of matter