# 3/10/2019. What Is a Force? What Is a Force? Tactics: Drawing Force Vectors

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1 What Is a Force? A force acts on an object. A force requires an agent, something that acts on the object. If you throw a ball, your hand is the agent or cause of the force exerted on the ball. A force is a vector. To quantify a push or pull, we need to specify both magnitude and a direction. Slide 5-19 What Is a Force? Contact forces are forces that act on an object by touching it at a point of contact. The bat must touch the ball to hit it. Long-range forces are forces that act on an object without physical contact. A coffee cup released from your hand is pulled to the earth by the long-range force of gravity. Slide 5-20 Tactics: Drawing Force Vectors Slide

2 Example: Drawing a Force Vector A box is pulled to the right by a rope. Slide 5-24 Example: Drawing a Force Vector A box is pushed to the right by a spring. Slide 5-25 Example: Drawing a Force Vector A box is pulled down by gravity. Slide

3 Combining Forces A box is pulled by two ropes, as shown. When several forces are exerted on an object, they combine to form a net force given by the vector sum of all the forces: This is called a superposition of forces. Slide 5-27 The net force on an object points to the left. Two of three forces are shown. Which is the missing third force? A. B. C. D. Slide 5-28 Gravity The pull of a planet on an object near the surface is called the gravitational force. The agent for the gravitational force is the entire planet. Gravity acts on all objects, whether moving or at rest. The gravitational force vector always points vertically downward. Slide

4 Spring Force A spring can either push (when compressed) or pull (when stretched). Whenever an elastic object is flexed or deformed in some way, and then springs back to its original shape when you let it go, this is a spring force. Sometimes this is referred to as a restorative force. Slide 5-31 Tension Force When a string or rope or wire pulls on an object, it exerts a contact force called the tension force. The tension force is in the direction of the string or rope. A rope is made of atoms joined together by molecular bonds. Molecular bonds can be modeled as tiny springs holding the atoms together. Tension is a result of many molecular springs stretching ever so slightly. Slide 5-32 A steel beam hangs from a cable as a crane lifts the beam. What forces act on the beam? A. Gravity. B. Gravity and tension in the cable. C. Gravity and a force of motion. D. Gravity and tension and a force of motion. Slide

5 Normal Force When an object sits on a table, the table surface exerts an upward contact force on the object. This pushing force is directed perpendicular to the surface, and thus is called the normal force. A table is made of atoms joined together by molecular bonds which can be modeled as springs. Normal force is a result of many molecular springs being compressed ever so slightly. Slide 5-36 Examples of Normal Force Suppose you place your hand on a wall and lean against it. The wall exerts a horizontal normal force on your hand. Suppose a frog sits on an inclined surface. The surface exerts a tilted normal force on the frog. Slide 5-37 Kinetic Friction When an object slides along a surface, the surface can exert a contact force which opposes the motion. This is called kinetic friction. The kinetic friction force is directed tangent to the surface, and opposite to the velocity of the object relative to the surface. Kinetic friction tends to slow down the sliding motion of an object in contact with a surface. Slide

6 A bobsledder pushes her sled across horizontal snow to get it going, then jumps in. After she jumps in, the sled gradually slows to a halt. What forces act on the sled just after she s jumped in? A. Gravity and kinetic friction. B. Gravity and a normal force. C. Gravity, a normal force, and kinetic friction. D. Gravity, a normal force, kinetic friction, and the force of the push. Slide 5-39 Static Friction Static friction is the contact force that keeps an object stuck on a surface, and prevents relative motion. The static friction force is directed tangent to the surface. Static friction points opposite the direction in which the object would move if there were no static friction. Slide 5-41 Drag Kinetic friction is a resistive force, which opposes or resists motion. Resistive forces are also experienced by objects moving through fluids. The resistive force of a fluid is called drag. Drag points opposite the direction of motion. For heavy and compact objects in air, drag force is fairly small. You can neglect air resistance in all problems unless a problem explicitly asks you to include it. Slide

7 Thrust A jet airplane or a rocket has a thrust force pushing it forward during takeoff. Thrust occurs when an engine expels gas molecules at high speed. This exhaust gas exerts a contact force on the engine. The direction of thrust is opposite the direction in which the exhaust gas is expelled. Slide 5-43 Electric and Magnetic Forces Electricity and magnetism, like gravity, exert long-range forces. Atoms and molecules are made of electrically charged particles. Molecular bonds are due to the electric force between these particles. Most forces, such as normal force and tension, are actually caused by electric forces between the charged particles in the atoms. Slide 5-44 Symbols for Forces Slide

8 Example 1 - Force Identifications A chandelier hanging from a chain. A baseball player sliding into home plate. A car parked on a steep hill. Slide 5-46 A ball rolls down an incline and off a horizontal ramp. Ignoring air resistance, what force or forces act on the ball as it moves through the air just after leaving the horizontal ramp? A. The weight of the ball acting vertically down. B. A force whose direction changes as the direction of motion changes. C. The weight of the ball and a horizontal force. D. The weight of the ball and a force in the direction of motion. Slide 5-51 Thinking About Force Every force has an agent which causes the force. Forces exist at the point of contact between the agent and the object (except for the few special cases of long-range forces). Forces exist due to interactions happening now, not due to what happened in the past. Consider a flying arrow. A pushing force was required to accelerate the arrow as it was shot. However, no force is needed to keep the arrow moving forward as it flies. Slide

9 Why does the Earth spin on its axis? Newton s First Law Newton s first law is also known as the law of inertia. If an object is at rest, it has a tendency to stay at rest. If it is moving, it has a tendency to continue moving with the same velocity. Slide 5-66 Newton s First Law An object on which the net force is zero is said to be in mechanical equilibrium. There are two forms of mechanical equilibrium: If the object is at rest, then it is in static equilibrium. If the object is moving with constant velocity, it is in dynamic equilibrium. Slide

10 5.8 An object on a rope is lowered at constant speed. Which is true? A. The rope tension is greater than the object s weight. B. The rope tension equals the object s weight. C. The rope tension is less than the object s weight. D. The rope tension can t be compared to the object s weight. Slide An object on a rope is lowered at a steadily decreasing speed. Which is true? A. The rope tension is greater than the object s weight. B. The rope tension equals the object s weight. C. The rope tension is less than the object s weight. D. The rope tension can t be compared to the object s weight. Slide A hollow tube lies flat on a table. A ball is shot through the tube. As the ball emerges from the other end, which path does it follow? Slide

11 Newton s Second Law (N2L) Force causes an object to accelerate! The relationship between force and acceleration is ԦF net = m Ԧa The basic unit of force is the newton (N). 1 N = 1 kg m/s 2. Slide 5-57 Inertial Mass An object with twice the amount of matter accelerates only half as much in response to the same force. The more matter an object has, the more it resists accelerating in response to the same force. The tendency of an object to resist a change in its velocity is called inertia. The mass used in a = F/m is called inertial mass. Slide 5-61 Newton s Second Law (N2L) When more than one force is acting on an object, the object accelerates in the direction of the net force vector. Slide

12 A cart is pulled to the right with a constant, steady force. How will its acceleration graph look? A. B. C. Slide 5-58 Tactics: Drawing a Free-body Diagram Slide 5-78 Draw free body diagram Example 2 Draw a FBD (free body diagram) You ve just kicked a rock on the sidewalk and it is now sliding along the concrete. Slide

13 A ball has been tossed straight up. Which is the correct free-body diagram just after the ball has left the hand? Ignore air resistance. A. B. C. D. Slide 5-82 An elevator, lifted by a cable, is moving upward and slowing. Which is the correct free-body diagram? A. B. C. D. E. Slide 5-80 A ball, hanging from the ceiling by a string, is pulled back and released. Which is the correct free-body diagram just after its release? A. B. C. D. Slide

14 Examples 3 Draw a FBD (free body diagram) You ve slammed on the brakes and your car is skidding to a stop while going down a 20 hill. Slide

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