# An overview of D-modules: holonomic D-modules, b-functions, and V -filtrations

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1 An overview of D-modules: holonomic D-modules, b-functions, and V -filtrations Mircea Mustaţă University of Michigan Mainz July 9, 2018 Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

2 The sheaf of differential operators Let X be a smooth complex algebraic variety, with dim(x ) = n. The sheaf of differential operators D X on X is the subsheaf of C-algebras of End C (O X ) generated by O X and T X = Der C (O X ). Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

3 The sheaf of differential operators Let X be a smooth complex algebraic variety, with dim(x ) = n. The sheaf of differential operators D X on X is the subsheaf of C-algebras of End C (O X ) generated by O X and T X = Der C (O X ). If x 1,..., x n are algebraic coordinates on an open subset U X, then we have derivations 1,..., n on U such that i (x j ) = δ i,j, and D X U is a locally free (left or right) O X -module with basis β = β 1 1 βn n, β N n. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

4 The sheaf of differential operators Let X be a smooth complex algebraic variety, with dim(x ) = n. The sheaf of differential operators D X on X is the subsheaf of C-algebras of End C (O X ) generated by O X and T X = Der C (O X ). If x 1,..., x n are algebraic coordinates on an open subset U X, then we have derivations 1,..., n on U such that i (x j ) = δ i,j, and D X U is a locally free (left or right) O X -module with basis β = β 1 1 βn n, β N n. Example. If X = A n, then we have the Weyl algebra A n (C) = Γ(X, D X ) = C x 1,..., x n, 1,..., n [x i, x j ] = 0, [ i, j ] = 0, [ i, x j ] = δ i,j. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

5 The order filtration D X carries a filtration by order of differential operators: F p D X is the locally free submodule of D X generated by those β with β = i β i p. For example, we have F 0 D X = O X and F 1 D X = O X + Der C (O X ). Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

6 The order filtration D X carries a filtration by order of differential operators: F p D X is the locally free submodule of D X generated by those β with β = i β i p. For example, we have F 0 D X = O X and F 1 D X = O X + Der C (O X ). Easy properties: 1 F p D X F q D X F p+q D X for all p, q 0. 2 [F p D X, F q D X ] F p+q 1 D X for all p, q 0. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

7 The order filtration D X carries a filtration by order of differential operators: F p D X is the locally free submodule of D X generated by those β with β = i β i p. For example, we have F 0 D X = O X and F 1 D X = O X + Der C (O X ). Easy properties: 1 F p D X F q D X F p+q D X for all p, q 0. 2 [F p D X, F q D X ] F p+q 1 D X for all p, q 0. This implies that the corresponding graded object gr F (D X ) := p 0 F p D X /F p 1 D X is a sheaf of graded commutative rings. We thus have a morphism π (O T X ) = Sym O X (T X ) gr F (D X ) and the local description shows that this is an isomorphism. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

8 Left D X -modules Giving a left D X -module is the same as an O X -module M with an action that satisfies: Der C (O X ) M M 1 D (fm) f (D m) = D(f )m for all f O X. 2 D 1 (D 2 m) D 2 (D 1 m) = [D 1, D 2 ] m. Equivalently, this can be reformulated as a C-linear map : M Ω X OX M. First condition: this is a connection, second condition: the connection is integrable. The De Rham complex of M, situated in degrees n,..., 0 is 0 M Ω X OX M Ω 2 X O X M... Ω n X O X M 0. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

9 Left D X -modules, cont d All D X modules we will consider will be quasi-coherent as O X -modules. Fact: Every D X -module which is coherent as an O X -module is locally free. These are the nice objects in the category of D X -modules. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

10 Left D X -modules, cont d All D X modules we will consider will be quasi-coherent as O X -modules. Fact: Every D X -module which is coherent as an O X -module is locally free. These are the nice objects in the category of D X -modules. Example 1. The structure sheaf O X has a tautological left D X -action. The corresponding connection is the De Rham differential d : O X Ω X. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

11 Left D X -modules, cont d All D X modules we will consider will be quasi-coherent as O X -modules. Fact: Every D X -module which is coherent as an O X -module is locally free. These are the nice objects in the category of D X -modules. Example 1. The structure sheaf O X has a tautological left D X -action. The corresponding connection is the De Rham differential d : O X Ω X. Example 2. The sheaf D X has a canonical structure of left D X -module. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

12 Left D X -modules, cont d All D X modules we will consider will be quasi-coherent as O X -modules. Fact: Every D X -module which is coherent as an O X -module is locally free. These are the nice objects in the category of D X -modules. Example 1. The structure sheaf O X has a tautological left D X -action. The corresponding connection is the De Rham differential d : O X Ω X. Example 2. The sheaf D X has a canonical structure of left D X -module. Example 3. If Z is a hypersurface in X, then O X ( Z) = m 1 O X (mz) has a left D X -module structure induced by the one on O X, via the quotient rule. If Z = (f = 0), then O X ( Z) = O X [1/f ]. Note: this is not coherent as an O X -module. This will be a key example for us. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

13 Filtrations on coherent D X -modules A D X -module is coherent if locally finitely generated over D X. Such a module M is studied by choosing an (increasing, exhaustive) good filtration F M on M: 1 F p M M coherent O X -submodule for all p, and it is 0 for p 0. 2 F p D X F q M F p+q M for all p and q, with equality for all p if q 0 (then say the filtration is determined at level q). Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

14 Filtrations on coherent D X -modules A D X -module is coherent if locally finitely generated over D X. Such a module M is studied by choosing an (increasing, exhaustive) good filtration F M on M: 1 F p M M coherent O X -submodule for all p, and it is 0 for p 0. 2 F p D X F q M F p+q M for all p and q, with equality for all p if q 0 (then say the filtration is determined at level q). It is easy to construct such a filtration: e.g. choose a coherent O X -submodule M 0 in M such that D X M 0 = M and let F p M = F p D X M 0 for all p 0. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

15 Filtrations on coherent D X -modules A D X -module is coherent if locally finitely generated over D X. Such a module M is studied by choosing an (increasing, exhaustive) good filtration F M on M: 1 F p M M coherent O X -submodule for all p, and it is 0 for p 0. 2 F p D X F q M F p+q M for all p and q, with equality for all p if q 0 (then say the filtration is determined at level q). It is easy to construct such a filtration: e.g. choose a coherent O X -submodule M 0 in M such that D X M 0 = M and let F p M = F p D X M 0 for all p 0. Clearly: such a good filtration is far from unique. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

16 Filtrations on coherent D X -modules, cont d The definition of a good filtration implies that gr F (M) := p Z F p M/F p 1 M is locally finitely generated over gr F (D X ): it is generated in degree q if the filtration is determined at level q. Hence this can be considered a coherent sheaf on T X. Its support is the characteristic variety Char(M). Key point: this is independent of the choice of filtration. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

17 Filtrations on coherent D X -modules, cont d The definition of a good filtration implies that gr F (M) := p Z F p M/F p 1 M is locally finitely generated over gr F (D X ): it is generated in degree q if the filtration is determined at level q. Hence this can be considered a coherent sheaf on T X. Its support is the characteristic variety Char(M). Key point: this is independent of the choice of filtration. The dimension dim(m) of M is the dimension of Char(M) T X. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

18 Holonomic D X -modules We have the following miracle : Theorem 1 (Bernstein, Sato-Kawai-Kashiwara). For every nonzero coherent D X -module M, we have dim(m) n. For a sketch of proof in the case X = A n : see slides at the end. Definition. A coherent D X -module is holonomic if M = 0 or dim(m) = n. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

19 Holonomic D X -modules We have the following miracle : Theorem 1 (Bernstein, Sato-Kawai-Kashiwara). For every nonzero coherent D X -module M, we have dim(m) n. For a sketch of proof in the case X = A n : see slides at the end. Definition. A coherent D X -module is holonomic if M = 0 or dim(m) = n. Example 1. If M = D X, then Char(M) = T X, hence dim(d X ) = 2n. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

20 Holonomic D X -modules We have the following miracle : Theorem 1 (Bernstein, Sato-Kawai-Kashiwara). For every nonzero coherent D X -module M, we have dim(m) n. For a sketch of proof in the case X = A n : see slides at the end. Definition. A coherent D X -module is holonomic if M = 0 or dim(m) = n. Example 1. If M = D X, then Char(M) = T X, hence dim(d X ) = 2n. Example 2. If E is a vector bundle with integrable connection, we can take F p E = 0 for p < 0 and F p E = E for p 0, hence Char(E) is the 0-section of T X. Therefore E is a holonomic D X -module. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

21 Holonomic D X -modules We have the following miracle : Theorem 1 (Bernstein, Sato-Kawai-Kashiwara). For every nonzero coherent D X -module M, we have dim(m) n. For a sketch of proof in the case X = A n : see slides at the end. Definition. A coherent D X -module is holonomic if M = 0 or dim(m) = n. Example 1. If M = D X, then Char(M) = T X, hence dim(d X ) = 2n. Example 2. If E is a vector bundle with integrable connection, we can take F p E = 0 for p < 0 and F p E = E for p 0, hence Char(E) is the 0-section of T X. Therefore E is a holonomic D X -module. Example 3. If Z is a hypersurface in X, then O X ( Z) is holonomic (note: even coherence is not clear). For a sketch of proof when X = A n, see slides at the end. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

22 Holonomic D X -modules, cont d For a short exact sequence of coherent D X -modules 0 M M M 0, we choose a good filtration on M and then the induced filtrations on M and M. We get a short exact sequence 0 gr F (M ) gr F (M) gr F (M ) 0, and thus Char(M) = Char(M ) Char(M ). Theorem 1 implies that M is holonomic iff both M and M are holonomic. In particular, holonomic D X -modules form an Abelian subcategory of all D X -modules. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

23 Holonomic D X -modules, cont d Using the graded structure, one defines a notion of multiplicity e(m) for a coherent D X -module M (analogue of degree of coherent sheaf on P n ). This is a non-negative integer and it is 0 if and only if M = 0. For a version of the definition for X = A n : see the last slides. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

24 Holonomic D X -modules, cont d Using the graded structure, one defines a notion of multiplicity e(m) for a coherent D X -module M (analogue of degree of coherent sheaf on P n ). This is a non-negative integer and it is 0 if and only if M = 0. For a version of the definition for X = A n : see the last slides. For an exact sequence of holonomic D X -modules as on the previous slide, we have e(m) = e(m ) + e(m ). Consequence: all objects in the category of holonomic D X -modules have finite length. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

25 Holonomic D X -modules, cont d Using the graded structure, one defines a notion of multiplicity e(m) for a coherent D X -module M (analogue of degree of coherent sheaf on P n ). This is a non-negative integer and it is 0 if and only if M = 0. For a version of the definition for X = A n : see the last slides. For an exact sequence of holonomic D X -modules as on the previous slide, we have e(m) = e(m ) + e(m ). Consequence: all objects in the category of holonomic D X -modules have finite length. Another reason holonomic D X -modules are good: they are preserved by pull-back and push-forward of D X -modules (not true for coherent D X -modules). Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

26 Left vs. right D X -modules There is a canonical equivalence of categories between left D X -modules and right D X -modules. This is useful, in practice, since the push-forward functor is naturally defined for right D-modules. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

27 Left vs. right D X -modules There is a canonical equivalence of categories between left D X -modules and right D X -modules. This is useful, in practice, since the push-forward functor is naturally defined for right D-modules. Key point: The sheaf ω X = Ω n X has a natural structure of right D X -module given for an n-form ω and a derivation D by ω D = Lie(D)ω, that maps (D 1,..., D n ) to D ( ω(d 1,..., D n ) ) n ω ( ) D 1,..., [D, D i ],..., D n. i=1 Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

28 Left vs. right D X -modules There is a canonical equivalence of categories between left D X -modules and right D X -modules. This is useful, in practice, since the push-forward functor is naturally defined for right D-modules. Key point: The sheaf ω X = Ω n X has a natural structure of right D X -module given for an n-form ω and a derivation D by ω D = Lie(D)ω, that maps (D 1,..., D n ) to D ( ω(d 1,..., D n ) ) If x 1,..., x n are local coordinates, then n ω ( ) D 1,..., [D, D i ],..., D n. i=1 (fdx 1... dx n ) i = f x i dx 1... dx n. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

29 Left vs. right D X -modules, cont d If M is a left D X -module, then ω X OX M is a right D X -module, with (ω m)d = ωd m ω Dm. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

30 Left vs. right D X -modules, cont d If M is a left D X -module, then ω X OX M is a right D X -module, with (ω m)d = ωd m ω Dm. If N is a right D X -module, then Hom OX (ω X, N ) is a left D X -module, with (Dϕ)(ω) = ϕ(ωd) ϕ(ω)d. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

31 Left vs. right D X -modules, cont d If M is a left D X -module, then ω X OX M is a right D X -module, with (ω m)d = ωd m ω Dm. If N is a right D X -module, then Hom OX (ω X, N ) is a left D X -module, with (Dϕ)(ω) = ϕ(ωd) ϕ(ω)d. The canonical isomorphisms of O X -modules M Hom OX (ω X, ω X OX M), ω X OX Hom OX (ω X, N ) N are morphisms of D X -modules, hence we get our equivalence between the categories of left and right D X -modules. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

32 Left vs. right D X -modules, cont d Description in local coordinates x 1,..., x n on U: we have a C-linear anti-commutative map τ : D X D X such that τ OX = id OX and τ( i ) = i. Note that the local coordinates induce a trivialization ω X U O U. A left D X -module M becomes a right D X -module via τ and conversely. This is the local description of the previous equivalence. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

33 Left vs. right D X -modules, cont d Description in local coordinates x 1,..., x n on U: we have a C-linear anti-commutative map τ : D X D X such that τ OX = id OX and τ( i ) = i. Note that the local coordinates induce a trivialization ω X U O U. A left D X -module M becomes a right D X -module via τ and conversely. This is the local description of the previous equivalence. It is clear that from a good filtration F M on the left D X -module M, we obtain a filtration on the corresponding right D X -module N = ω X OX M. Indexing convention: F p n N = ω X OX F p M. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

34 The Riemann-Hilbert correspondence Classical version. We work in the analytic topology, with holomorphic vector bundles. Given a rank r holomorphic vector bundle, with integrable connection (E, ), the classical result about solving ODE implies that ker( ) E is a rank r local system. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

35 The Riemann-Hilbert correspondence Classical version. We work in the analytic topology, with holomorphic vector bundles. Given a rank r holomorphic vector bundle, with integrable connection (E, ), the classical result about solving ODE implies that ker( ) E is a rank r local system. Conversely, given a local system L, we get a vector bundle E = L C O X, with integrable connection 1 L d. We thus get an equivalence of categories between the category of holomorphic vector bundles on X, with integrable connection, and the category of local systems on X. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

36 The Riemann-Hilbert correspondence Classical version. We work in the analytic topology, with holomorphic vector bundles. Given a rank r holomorphic vector bundle, with integrable connection (E, ), the classical result about solving ODE implies that ker( ) E is a rank r local system. Conversely, given a local system L, we get a vector bundle E = L C O X, with integrable connection 1 L d. We thus get an equivalence of categories between the category of holomorphic vector bundles on X, with integrable connection, and the category of local systems on X. Note: if L is a local system, then L[n] is quasi-isomorphic to the (holomorphic) De Rham complex of E = L C O X. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

37 The Riemann-Hilbert correspondence Classical version. We work in the analytic topology, with holomorphic vector bundles. Given a rank r holomorphic vector bundle, with integrable connection (E, ), the classical result about solving ODE implies that ker( ) E is a rank r local system. Conversely, given a local system L, we get a vector bundle E = L C O X, with integrable connection 1 L d. We thus get an equivalence of categories between the category of holomorphic vector bundles on X, with integrable connection, and the category of local systems on X. Note: if L is a local system, then L[n] is quasi-isomorphic to the (holomorphic) De Rham complex of E = L C O X. If X is compact, then GAGA implies that algebraic vector bundles with integrable connection are the same as holomorphic vector bundles with integrable connection. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

38 The Riemann-Hilbert correspondence, cont d Non-compact case: version due to Deligne describing local systems via algebraic vector bundles with integrable connection, and having regular singularities. For curves, this means that the connection satisfies the Fuchs condition at the points in the boundary of X. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

39 The Riemann-Hilbert correspondence, cont d Non-compact case: version due to Deligne describing local systems via algebraic vector bundles with integrable connection, and having regular singularities. For curves, this means that the connection satisfies the Fuchs condition at the points in the boundary of X. One can define the notion of regular singularities for arbitrary holonomic D X -modules (for example, by pulling back via morphisms from smooth curves), but we do not go into any details. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

40 The Riemann-Hilbert correspondence, cont d Non-compact case: version due to Deligne describing local systems via algebraic vector bundles with integrable connection, and having regular singularities. For curves, this means that the connection satisfies the Fuchs condition at the points in the boundary of X. One can define the notion of regular singularities for arbitrary holonomic D X -modules (for example, by pulling back via morphisms from smooth curves), but we do not go into any details. Theorem 2 (Kashiwara, Mebkhout, Beilinson-Bernstein) For every smooth algebraic variety X, the De Rham functor DR X extends to an equivalence of triangulated categories D b rh (D X ) D b constr(x ), where D b rh (D X ): bounded derived category of complexes of D X -modules, with regular holonomic cohomology, and D b constr(x ): the bounded derived category of complexes with constructible cohomology. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

41 The Riemann-Hilbert correspondence, cont d The Riemann-Hilbert correspondence induces an equivalence of Abelian categories between the category of holonomic D X -modules, with regular singularities, and perverse sheaves (with C coefficients). Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

42 The Riemann-Hilbert correspondence, cont d The Riemann-Hilbert correspondence induces an equivalence of Abelian categories between the category of holonomic D X -modules, with regular singularities, and perverse sheaves (with C coefficients). The correspondence is compatible with the functors (push-forward, pull-back, etc) defined on both sides. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

43 The Bernstein-Sato polynomial The following result was a key motivation in the development of the algebraic theory of D-modules. Theorem 3 (Bernstein). If X is a smooth algebraic variety and f O(X ) nonzero, then there is a nonzero b(s) C[s] such that b(s)f s = P(s) f s+1, for some P(s) D X [s]. Here we consider the left D X -module O X [s, 1/f ]f s, where D f s = sd(f ) f s for every D Der C (O X ). f The set of those b(s) for which there is P(s) as above is an ideal. The monic generator of this ideal is the Bernstein-Sato polynomial b f (s) of f. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

44 The Bernstein-Sato polynomial, cont d Example 1. If f = x 1 C[x 1,..., x n ], then (s + 1)f s = 1 f s+1 ; in fact b f (s) = s + 1. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

45 The Bernstein-Sato polynomial, cont d Example 1. If f = x 1 C[x 1,..., x n ], then (s + 1)f s = 1 f s+1 ; in fact b f (s) = s + 1. Example 2. If f = x x 2 n C[x 1,..., x n ], then (s + 1)(4s + 2n)f s = ( n) f s+1. In fact, we have b f (s) = (s + 1)(s + n 2 ). Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

46 The Bernstein-Sato polynomial, cont d Example 1. If f = x 1 C[x 1,..., x n ], then (s + 1)f s = 1 f s+1 ; in fact b f (s) = s + 1. Example 2. If f = x x n 2 C[x 1,..., x n ], then (s + 1)(4s + 2n)f s = ( n) 2 f s+1. In fact, we have b f (s) = (s + 1)(s + n 2 ). Example 3. For every f, by making s = 1, we have b f ( 1) 1 f = P( 1) 1 O(X ). Hence if f is non-invertible, then (s + 1) divides b f (s). Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

47 The Bernstein-Sato polynomial, cont d Example 4. For every positive integer m, we have Hence 1 f m 1 b f ( m 1) f m+1 D 1 X f m generates O X [1/f ] over D X if b f has no integer roots < m. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

48 The Bernstein-Sato polynomial, cont d Example 4. For every positive integer m, we have Hence 1 f m 1 b f ( m 1) f m+1 D 1 X f m generates O X [1/f ] over D X if b f has no integer roots < m. Theorem 4 (Kashiwara). All roots of b f (s) are in Q <0. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

49 The Bernstein-Sato polynomial, cont d Example 4. For every positive integer m, we have Hence 1 f m 1 b f ( m 1) f m+1 D 1 X f m generates O X [1/f ] over D X if b f has no integer roots < m. Theorem 4 (Kashiwara). All roots of b f (s) are in Q <0. In general, the roots of b f (s) are subtle invariants of the singularities of f, related to several other such invariants. For example, the largest root of b f (s) is lct(f ), by a result of Lichtin and Kollár. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

50 The Bernstein-Sato polynomial, cont d Sketch of proof for the existence of the Bernstein-Sato polynomial: Suppose, for simplicity, X = A n. Consider M = C(s)[x 1,..., x n ] f f s as a module over A n ( C(s) ). M is a holonomic D-module (this is proved in the same way that one shows that C[x 1,..., x n ] f is holonomic over A n (C)). Therefore the following decreasing sequence of submodules is stationary A n ( C(s) ) f s A n ( C(s) ) f s+1 A n ( C(s) ) f s+2... Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

51 The Bernstein-Sato polynomial, cont d Sketch of proof for the existence of the Bernstein-Sato polynomial: Suppose, for simplicity, X = A n. Consider M = C(s)[x 1,..., x n ] f f s as a module over A n ( C(s) ). M is a holonomic D-module (this is proved in the same way that one shows that C[x 1,..., x n ] f is holonomic over A n (C)). Therefore the following decreasing sequence of submodules is stationary A n ( C(s) ) f s A n ( C(s) ) f s+1 A n ( C(s) ) f s+2... We obtain a relation f m+s = P(s, x, x ) f m+s+1. The theorem follows using the automorphism s s m and clearing the denominators. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

52 The V -filtration The V -filtration was introduced by Malgrange (and extended by Kashiwara) in order to describe the nearby cycles functor at the level of holonomic D-modules. Setting: Let f O(X ) nonzero. Consider ι: X X A 1, ι(x) = ( x, f (x) ) Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

53 The V -filtration The V -filtration was introduced by Malgrange (and extended by Kashiwara) in order to describe the nearby cycles functor at the level of holonomic D-modules. Setting: Let f O(X ) nonzero. Consider ι: X X A 1, ι(x) = ( x, f (x) ) If M is a D X -module, then the D-module theoretic push-forward ι + M is described as follows: Case 1. If M = O X, then ι + M = O X [t] f t /O X [t] = j 0 O X j tδ, where δ = [1/(f t)]. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

54 The V -filtration The V -filtration was introduced by Malgrange (and extended by Kashiwara) in order to describe the nearby cycles functor at the level of holonomic D-modules. Setting: Let f O(X ) nonzero. Consider ι: X X A 1, ι(x) = ( x, f (x) ) If M is a D X -module, then the D-module theoretic push-forward ι + M is described as follows: Case 1. If M = O X, then ι + M = O X [t] f t /O X [t] = j 0 O X j tδ, where δ = [1/(f t)]. Case 2. For any M, we have ι + M = M OX ι + O X. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

55 The V -filtration, cont d Goal of V -filtration: put action of t t on ι + M in upper-triangular form. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

56 The V -filtration, cont d Goal of V -filtration: put action of t t on ι + M in upper-triangular form. It is a decreasing, exhaustive, rational, discrete, left-continuous filtration (V α = V α ι + M) α Q on ι + M that satisfies: i) Each V α is finitely generated over D X [t, t t] ii) t V α V α+1, with equality if α > 0 iii) t V α V α 1 iv) t t + α is nilpotent on V α /V >α. These properties uniquely characterize the V -filtration. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

57 The V -filtration, cont d Goal of V -filtration: put action of t t on ι + M in upper-triangular form. It is a decreasing, exhaustive, rational, discrete, left-continuous filtration (V α = V α ι + M) α Q on ι + M that satisfies: i) Each V α is finitely generated over D X [t, t t] ii) t V α V α+1, with equality if α > 0 iii) t V α V α 1 iv) t t + α is nilpotent on V α /V >α. These properties uniquely characterize the V -filtration. Key observation: if M = O X, then ι + O X [1/f ] O X [1/f, s]f s, δ f s where s acts on the left-hand side by t t and t acts on the right-hand side by P(s)f s P(s + 1)f s+1. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

58 The V -filtration, cont d We thus see that the Bernstein-Sato polynomial b f is the monic polynomial of smallest degree such that b f ( t t)δ D X [ t t] tδ Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

59 The V -filtration, cont d We thus see that the Bernstein-Sato polynomial b f is the monic polynomial of smallest degree such that b f ( t t)δ D X [ t t] tδ Using this, and the rationality of the roots of b f, Malgrange showed the existence of V -filtration for M = O X. He also showed that DR X (V >0 /V >1 )[1] gives the nearby cycles of f, with the monodromy action corresponding to the action of exp( 2πi t t). Consequence: the eigenvalues of the monodromy action on the cohomology of the Milnor fiber of f are the exp(2πiα), where α is a root of b f. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

60 Appendix: some proofs in the case X = A n When X = A n, some of the basic results are easier to prove. The reason: we can consider on A n = A n (k) (where k is any field of characteristic 0) the Bernstein filtration: As before, we have B p A n = α +β n kx α β. gr B A n S := Sym R Der k(r) k[x 1,..., x n, y 1,..., y n ], where R = k[x 1,..., x n ]. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

61 Appendix: some proofs in the case X = A n When X = A n, some of the basic results are easier to prove. The reason: we can consider on A n = A n (k) (where k is any field of characteristic 0) the Bernstein filtration: As before, we have B p A n = α +β n kx α β. gr B A n S := Sym R Der k(r) k[x 1,..., x n, y 1,..., y n ], where R = k[x 1,..., x n ]. If M is a finitely generated module over A n, we consider a filtration F M on M that is compatible with the Bernstein filtration on A n (and is good, as before). We get a notion of dimension as before and a notion of multiplicity (the fact that the two notions of dimension agree can be proved using a homological characterization of dimension). Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

62 Appendix: some proofs in the case X = A n, cont d Given M, choose F M and put dim(m) := dim ( gr F (M ) ) and e(m) := deg ( gr F (M) ). Hence dim(m) = r iff dim k F p M p r and r! dim k F p M e(m) = lim p p r, where r = dim(m). Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

63 Appendix: some proofs in the case X = A n, cont d Given M, choose F M and put dim(m) := dim ( gr F (M ) ) and e(m) := deg ( gr F (M) ). Hence dim(m) = r iff dim k F p M p r and r! dim k F p M e(m) = lim p p r, where r = dim(m). Sketch of proof of Bernstein s dimension inequality: May assume F 0 M 0. One shows by induction on p that the map B p A n Hom k (F p M, F 2p M), Q (m Qm) is injective. Since dim k B p A n grows like p 2n and both dim k F p M and dim k F 2p M grow like p dim(m), we get dim(m) n. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

64 Appendix: some proofs in the case X = A n, cont d Sketch of proof for the fact that R f is holonomic: Let d = deg(f ). Consider on R f the filtration given by { g } F p R f = f p deg(g) p(d + 1). One checks: if ɛ > 0, then dim k F p R f (1 + ɛ) (d + 1)n p n for p 0. n! Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

65 Appendix: some proofs in the case X = A n, cont d Sketch of proof for the fact that R f is holonomic: Let d = deg(f ). Consider on R f the filtration given by { g } F p R f = f p deg(g) p(d + 1). One checks: if ɛ > 0, then dim k F p R f (1 + ɛ) (d + 1)n p n for p 0. n! The Bernstein inequality implies that every finitely generated submodule of R f is holonomic, of multiplicity (d + 1) n. Hence every increasing sequence of finitely generated submodules of R f has length (d + 1) n. Therefore R f is finitely generated, and thus holonomic. Mircea Mustaţă () An overview of D-modules Mainz July 9,

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