Endomorphism Rings of Abelian Varieties and their Representations


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1 Endomorphism Rings of Abelian Varieties and their Representations Chloe Martindale 30 October 2013 These notes are based on the notes written by Peter Bruin for his talks in the Complex Multiplication Seminar in Leiden in Introduction This lecture aims to give a basic understanding of the structure of the endomorphism ring on an abelian variety A and its representations on certain linear objects associated to A. I will first give the reader a reminder of the definitions that will be particularly helpful for this lecture. Definition 1.1. Let k be a field. An Abelian variety (AV) A over k is a connected, complete (proper) algebraic variety together with a point O A(k) and morphisms of algebraic varieties m : A A A, s : A A such that A forms a group with multiplication m and inversion s. Definition 1.2. An Abelian variety is simple if it has no proper Abelian subvarieties. Definition 1.3. An isogeny of Abelian varieties is a surjective morphism with finite kernel. Definition 1.4. A Lie group is a smooth manifold M together with smooth maps m : M M M, s : M M which define a group structure on M with multiplication m and inversion s. Fact 1.5. A an Abelian variety over C. Then A can be viewed as a compact, connected, complex Lie group. 1
2 2 The Category Q A(k) Let A(k) be the category of Abelian varieties over the field k. This is an additive category, i.e. Hom A(k) (A, B) has the structure of an Abelian group composition is bilinear A(k) has finite direct products which also function as finite direct sums. Definition 2.1. The category Q A(k) is the same category as A(k), but for all objects A, B of A(k), Hom(A, B) is replaced by Q Hom(A, B) (and the Zbilinear composition maps Hom(B, C) Hom(A, B) are extended to Qbilinear maps). Hom(A, C) Definition 2.2. The universal functor of A(k) into a Qlinear category is the canonical functor A(k) Q A(k) A Q A Hom(A, B) Q Hom(A, B). We will write Q End( ) for endomorphism rings in Q A(k). Remark 2.3. This functor sends isogenies to isomorphisms. To see this, consider an isogeny of Abelian varieties g : A B. Then there exists N Z >0 and an isogeny such that Hence you can define an isomorphism h : B A g h = h g = [N]. Q End(A) Q End(B) f 1 N (g f h). Fact 2.4. Every Abelian variety is isogenous to a direct product of simple Abelian varieties, and Q A(k) is a semisimple Abelian category, i.e. every object is the direct sum of simple objects. This will be discussed in more detail in Remark
3 3 Linear objects associated to an Abelian variety Consider first complex Abelian varieties. By Fact 1.5, a complex Abelian variety A can be viewed as a complex Lie group. Then it is natural to consider the following:  T 0 A  the tangent space at the identity  T 0 (A)  the cotangent space at the identity  H 1 (A, Z)  the first homology group  H 1 (A, Z)  the first cohomology group. Here we are considering the homology and cohomology as topological groups, so intuitively H 1 (A, Z) can be thought of as loops on A modulo homotopy. In fact there is a more explicit description for H 1 (A, Z). Lie group theory gives us a surjective map exp : T 0 (A) A v [γ v (1)], where γ v (1) is a smooth curve on A (for those comfortable with Lie groups, this is the flowline of v through 1), and [ ] denotes homotopy class. In particular, the kernel can be identified with smooth closed curves on A modulo homotopy, so H 1 (A, Z) = ker(exp : T 0 (A) A). We also have the following properties of our canonical linear objects: We have a functor dim C (T 0 (A)) = dim C (T 0 (A)) = dim(a) rank(h 1 (A, Z)) = rank(h 1 (A, Z)) = 2dim(A). H 1 (, Z) : A(C) {finite free Abelian groups}. We could also take the homology with rational coefficients: H 1 (, Q) : A(C) {finite dimensional Qvector spaces}, which extends uniquely to the Qlinear functor H 1 (, Q) : Q A(k) {finite dimensional Qvector spaces}. Now consider Abelian varieties over a general field k. T 0 (A) and T0 (A) are still defined, they are now kvector spaces of dimension dim(k). However, H 1 (A, Z) and H 1 (A, Z) are no longer defined, so we attempt to define an analogue. There is not a unique analogue, but we will consider the Tate module. Definition 3.1. The Tate module of an Abelian variety A over a field k is defined to be T l (A) = lim n A[l n ](k), 3
4 where k is some fixed algebraic closure, and the projective limit is taken with respect to the maps l : A[l n+1 ](k) A[l n ](k). If char(k)=0, then the functor defined by T 0 extends uniquely to a Qlinear functor T 0 : Q A(k) {finite dimensional kvector spaces}. Note that this gives T 0 : Q End(A) End k (T 0 A). Now consider l > 0, l prime, prime to the characteristic of k. Compose the functor with the canonical functor T l : A(k) {finite free Z l modules} {finite free Z l modules} {finite dimensional Q l vector spaces} M Q l Zl M to get the functor φ : A(k) {finite dimensional Q l vector spaces} End(A) Q l Zl End(T l A) Now we have the following commutative diagram Q l Zl End(T l A) V l Q l Zl End(A) End(A) Q Z where V l : Q l Zl End(A) Q l Zl End(T l A) is the unique Q l algebra homomorphism induced by the universal property of the tensor product in the category of finite dimensional Q l vector spaces. 4
5 Definition 3.2. For a Q End(A), let χ(a) be the characteristic polynomial of the endomorphism T l a of V l A. Fact 3.3. χ has coefficients in Z and is independent of the choice of l. Definition 3.4. Let K be a field. An algebra over K is a ring R with a homomorphism K Z(R), where Z(R) denotes the centre of R. From now on we will be considering algebras which are finite dimensional over K. A Kalgebra is simple if it has exactly 2 2sided ideals, and semisimple if it is the product of simple Kalgebras. A Kalgebra R is central if the map is an isomorphism. K Z(R) For example, Mat n (K) is a central simple Kalgebra. An important example is the following: If R a simple algebra over K. Then R is a central simple Z(R)algebra. Fact 3.5. If R is a semisimple Kalgebra and L is a separable extension of K, then L K R is a semisimple Lalgebra. Fact 3.6. If R is a central simple Kalgebra and K sep a separable closure of K, then there exists an isomorphism ι : K sep K R Mat n (K sep ) of K sep algebras for some n Z >0. In particular, Further, n 2 = [Mat n (K sep ) : K sep ] = [K sep K R : K sep ] = [R : K]. K sep K R {monic polynomials of degree = n over K sep } r χ(ι(r)) is independent of the choice of ι and induces a function R/K : R {monic polynomials of degree = n over K}. We will take this to be the definition of R/K for R a central simple Kalgebra. We now extend this definition. If R is a simple algebra over K, define [R : K] red := [R : Z(R)] 1/2 [Z(R) : K] and for r R, R/K (r) := N Z(R)[X]/K[X]( R/Z(R) (r)). 5
6 If R is a semisimple algebra over K, say R = R 1... R s, where the R i are simple Kalgebras, define [R : K] red := i [R i : K] red and for r R, r = (r 1,..., r s ), R/K (r) = i R/K (r i). Definition 3.7. [R : K] red is the reduced degree of R, and for all r R, R/K (r) is the reduced characteristic polynomial of r. Note that if R is commutative, then [R : K] red = [R : K], R/K (r) = χ R/K(r). Remark 3.8. If A/k an Abelian variety, then there exists a decomposition (up to isogeny) of A into simple Abelian varieties: A A h Ahs s, where the A i are nonpairwise isogenous. Now by using Remark 2.3 and that there do not exist any nontrivial homomorphisms between nonisogenous simple Abelian varieties, it can be seen that Q End k A = Mat h1 (Q EndA 1 )... Mat hs (Q EndA s ). Further, each Mat hi (Q EndA i ) is in fact a simple Qalgebra, since Q End(A i ) is a division algebra over Q. (Exercise: verify this!) Therefore, Q End k A is a semisimple Qalgebra. In what follows we will look at commutative semisimple subalgebras of semisimple Qalgebras. This set is partially ordered under inclusion, and contains maximal elements. Fact 3.9. Let K be a field, R a semisimple Kalgebra and E a commutative semisimple subalgebra of R. Then with equality iff E is maximal. [E : K] [R : K] red, 6
7 4 Representations of Simple Algebras Let Q be the base field. Let R be a simple Qalgebra, K its centre, [R : K] = n 2. Let F be a field with characteristic 0. Consider an F linear representation of R, i.e. a finite dimensional F vector space V together with a Qalgebra homomorphism R End F V. Choose some algebraically closed field F F. Define V F := F F V. V F can be considered as an F linear representation of the F algebra F Q R = F Q K KR = ( j:k F F ) K R = j:k F (F j K R) = j:k F Mat n(f ), where the product is taken over the embeddings of K into F, and j K denotes that the tensor product should be taken with F as a Kalgebra by j : K F. Further, the only finite dimensional F linear representations of Mat n (F ) are finite direct sums of the standard representation F n, hence V F = (F n ) mj. j:k F V is a vector space, so it is commutative, hence χ V (r) = V (r) = (F n ) m j /K (r j) = j:k F j:k F j( R/K (r))mj. I will now state some useful lemmas and theorems for deducing representations. Proofs can be found in [1]. Lemma 4.1. Let R be a semisimple Qalgebra, V a finite dimensional faithful representation of R over a field F of characteristic 0. Then If equality holds, then r R, dim F V [R : Q] red. χ V (r) = R/Q (r). 7
8 Lemma 4.2. Let R, V, F be as above, and E a commitative semisimple subalgebra of R. Then [E : Q] [R : Q] red dim F V. If equality holds, r E, χ V (r) = χ E/Q (r) and the commutant of E inside R is equal to E. Theorem 4.3. A/k an Abelian variety, char(k) = 0. Then the following are equivalent: (1) Q EndA containes a commutative semisimple Qalgebra of degree 2dimA. (2) For each i, the division algebra Q EndA i is a field of degree 2dimA i over Q. Finally, I will state a proposition that is intended to motivate the study of CMfields, by showing a situation in which they appear. A proof can be found in [2]. Proposition 1. Let K be an algebraic number field of finite degree, σ Aut(K), σ 2 = 1. Let K 0 be a subfield of K, defined by Suppose that for all nonzero x in K K 0 := {x K σ(x) = x}. K/Q (xσ(x)) > 0. Then K 0 is totally real, and if σ id on K, then K is totally imaginary, and References τ : K C, τ(σ(x)) = τ(x). [1] P. Bruin, Endomorhpism rings of Abelian varieties and their representations, ( [2] Shimura G., Taniyama Y. Complex multiplication of abelian varieties and applications to number theory, (Math.Soc.Japan, 1961). 8
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