1 Chapter 19 History of Life on Earth Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
2 Chapter 19 Section 3: Evolution of Life Key Vocabulary Terms Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
3 Cyanobacteria Photosynthetic prokaryotes Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
4 Endosymbiosis A mutually beneficial relationship in which one organism lives within another
5 Content Objectives I will be able to identify: The major evolutionary developments that occurred during Precambrian time? The dominant organisms that evolved during the Paleozoic Era? The dominant organisms that evolved during the Mesozoic and the Cenozoic Era? Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
6 Chapter 19 Section 3: Evolution of Life Notes Adapted from Holt Biology 2008 Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
7 Chapter 19 Section 3: Evolution of Life Precambrian Time Adapted from Holt Biology 2008 Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
8 Precambrian Time Precambrian time spanned between about 4.5 billion and 542 million years ago.
9 Precambrian Time Single-celled prokaryotes and later, eukaryotes, evolved and flourished in Precambrian time.
10 Precambrian Time The evolution of multicellular organisms set the stage for the evolution of modern organisms.
11 YOUR TURN Active Reading Section 3 Evolution of Life Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
12 Evolution of Life The oldest fossils (3.5 billion years old) are cyanobacteria. Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
13 Formation of Oxygen Scientists think that about 2.5 billion years ago, cyanobacteria began adding oxygen to Earth s atmosphere.
14 Formation of Oxygen As ancient cyanobacteria carried out photosynthesis, they released oxygen gas into Earth s oceans.
15 Formation of Oxygen This oxygen eventually escaped into the air.
16 Formation of Oxygen Helped to form oxygen gas as a product of photosynthesis. Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
17 Formation of Oxygen The accumulation of atmospheric oxygen allowed organisms to live on land.
18 Formation of Oxygen As oxygen reached Earth s upper atmosphere, the sun s rays caused some of the oxygen gas (O 2 ) to chemically react and form molecules of ozone (O 3 ).
19 Formation of Oxygen Ozone (O 3 ) helped to block harmful UV rays. Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
20 Formation of Oxygen Organisms on the very early Earth could not survive on land because ultraviolet radiation damaged their DNA.
21 Formation of Oxygen After millions of years, enough ozone had accumulated to make land a safe place for organisms to live.
22 Eukaryotic Life Later in Precambrian time, the first eukaryotes appeared.
23 Origin of Energy-Producing Organelles Mitochondria and chloroplasts likely originated as described by the endosymbiotic theory proposed by Lynn Margulis.
24 Origin of Energy-Producing Organelles Endosymbiotic theory proposes that larger bacteria engulfed smaller bacteria, which then began to live inside larger cells.
25 Origin of Energy-Producing Organelles Endosymbiosis is a mutually beneficial relationship in which one organism lives within another.
26 Eukaryotic Life According to this theory, mitochondria are the descendants of symbiotic, aerobic (oxygen-requiring) bacteria.
27 Eukaryotic Life Chloroplasts are thought to be the descendants of symbiotic, photosynthetic bacteria.
28 Size and Structure Mitochondria are the same size as most bacteria. Chloroplasts are the same size as some cyanobacteria.
29 Eukaryotic Life They also contain their own DNA, which is similar to that of prokaryotes.
30 Genetic Material Both chloroplasts and mitochondria contain genes that are different from those found in the nucleus of the host cell. These genes are closely related to bacterial genes.
31 Ribosomes Mitochondrial and chloroplast ribosomes are similar in size and structure to bacterial ribosomes.
32 Reproduction Like bacteria, chloroplasts and mitochondria reproduce by simple fission. This replication takes place independently of the cell cycle in the host cell.
33 Multicellularity Arose from colonial organisms that developed cell specialization and cell communication (632 mya) Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
34 Mass extinctions Open up ecological niches and happen before bursts of diversification Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
35 Think, Share, Write #1 Why is the evolution of colonial organisms an important step in evolution? Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
36 Think, Share, Write #1 Why is the evolution of colonial organisms an important step in evolution? Colonial organisms developed the first example of separate functions being performed by different parts in a larger unit. Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
37 Chapter 19 Section 2: The Age of Earth Paleozoic Era Adapted from Holt Biology 2008 Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
38 Paleozoic Era The Cambrian Period, the first period in the Paleozoic Era, was a time of great evolutionary expansion.
39 Paleozoic Era ( mya) Marine invertebrates diversified and marine vertebrates evolved. Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
40 Paleozoic Era A vertebrate is an animal with a backbone.
41 Paleozoic Era ( mya) Land plants evolved. Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
42 The first multicellular organisms to live on land may have been fungi living together with plants or algae. Paleozoic Era
43 Paleozoic Era Plants and fungi began living on the surface of the land about 475 million years ago.
44 Paleozoic Era Eventually, great forests covered much of Earth s landscape.
45 Paleozoic Era Some arthropods, and then some vertebrates, left the oceans to colonize land.
46 Paleozoic Era The first land vertebrates, amphibians, came out of the sea about 370 million years ago.
47 Paleozoic Era Reptiles evolved from amphibian ancestors about 340 million years ago.
48 Mass Extinctions The fossil record indicates that mass extinctions occurred both at the end of the Ordovician Period (440 million years ago) and at the end of the Devonian Period (365 million years ago).
49 Mass Extinctions These events eliminated about 70% of all the species on Earth.
50 The most devastating of all mass extinctions occurred at the end of the Permian Period, about 245 million years ago.
51 Mass Extinctions About 96% of all animal species living at the time became extinct.
52 Chapter 19 Section 2: The Age of Earth Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras Adapted from Holt Biology 2008 Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
53 Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras Many of the dominant life-forms on our planet diverged during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras.
54 Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras ( mya) Reptiles, dinosaurs, and birds dominated the Mesozoic era. Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
55 Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras ( mya) Mammals dominated the Cenozoic era. Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
56 Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras During the Mesozoic Era, dinosaurs and other reptiles evolved to be the dominant lifeforms.
57 Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras Therapsids, which were reptilelike mammals, gave rise to modern mammals at about the same time that dinosaurs evolved, in the Triassic Period.
58 Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras The Cenozoic Era is the current era.
59 Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras During this era, mammals became the dominant lifeform.
60 Mesozoic and Cenozoic Eras Modern humans did not appear until the Quaternary Period.
61 Mass Extinction A mass extinction 65 million years ago included about two-thirds of all land species, including most of the dinosaurs.
62 Adapted from Holt Biology 2008
63 Mass Extinction Scientists think that this mass extinction was caused by a catastrophic event that had widespread effects.
64 Summary Prokaryotes and later, eukaryotes, evolved in the Precambrian. The evolution of multicellular life preceded the evolution of modern life-forms. Atmospheric oxygen allowed life to survive on land.
65 Summary During the Paleozoic Era, marine invertebrates diversified, and marine vertebrates evolved. Some arthropods, and then some vertebrates, colonized the land.
66 Summary Reptiles, dinosaurs, and birds were the dominant animals in the Mesozoic Era, and mammalian animals were dominant in the Cenozoic Era.
Name Class Date Chapter Study Guide Section 17-1 The Fossil Record (pages 417-422) Key Concepts What is the fossil record? What information do relative dating and radioactive dating provide about fossils?
Objectives 4) Outline the major developments that allowed life to exist on Earth. 5) Describe the types of organisms that arose during the four major divisions of the geologic time scale. Each layer of
CHAPTER 8 2 Eras of the Geologic Time Scale SECTION The History of Life on Earth BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What kinds of organisms evolved
Chapter 17 The History of Life Section 17 1 The Fossil Record (pages 417 422) This section explains how fossils form and how they can be interpreted. It also describes the geologic time scale that is used
Chapter 17 The History of Life Section 17 1 The Fossil Record (pages 417 422) Key Concepts What is the fossil record? What information do relative dating and radioactive dating provide about fossils? What
Evolution I. History of Life on Earth I. History of Life A. Early History of Earth I. Early earth was inhospitable hot, with many volcanoes little free oxygen and lots of carbon dioxide other gases present:
Chapter 17 The History of Life Chapter Vocabulary Review Crossword Puzzle Use the clues below to complete the puzzle. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Across 2. time span shorter than an era, such as Quaternary
Earth s History Video Clip Earth s History Earth s history can be broken up into 4 time periods: Precambrian Paleozoic Era Mesozoic Era Cenozoic Era Scientists have put together a timeline of Earth s history
sparked by just the right combination of physical events & chemical processes Life s Origin & Early Evolution (Ch. 20) 2007-2008 ARCHEAN Millions of years ago PRECAMBRIAN PROTEROZOIC 0 500 1000 Cenozoic
2 of 40 Fossils and Ancient Life What is the fossil record? 3 of 40 Fossils and Ancient Life Fossils and Ancient Life Paleontologists are scientists who collect and study fossils. All information about
sparked by just the right combination of physical events & chemical processes Origin of Life 500 Paleozoic 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 ARCHEAN Millions of years ago 1000 PROTEROZOIC Cenozoic Mesozoic 4000
1 of 40 Fossils and Ancient Life Fossils and Ancient Life Paleontologists are scientists who collect and study fossils. All information about past life is called the fossil record. The fossil record includes
Name Class Date Chapter 17 Summary The History of Life 17 1 The Fossil Record Fossils are preserved traces and remains of ancient life. Scientists who study fossils are called paleontologists. They use
Skills Worksheet Directed Reading B Section: Eras of the Geologic Time Scale 1. What are the four biggest eras in geologic history? a. Precambrian, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic b. Precambrian, Prehistoric,
Unit 1B Lesson 4 History of Life on Earth How do we learn about ancient life? Paleontologists scientists that studies fossils Fossil- a trace or imprint of a living thing that is preserved by geological
Name Class Date Chapter 17 The History of Life Section 17 1 The Fossil Record (pages 417 422) This section explains how fossils form and how they can be interpreted. It also describes the geologic time
sparked by just the right combination of physical events & chemical processes Origin of Life 2010-2011 ARCHEAN Millions of years ago PRECAMBRIAN PROTEROZOIC 0 500 1000 Cenozoic Mesozoic Paleozoic Colonization
Section 1: Fossil Evidence of Change Section 2: The Origin of Life Click on a lesson name to select. 14.1 Fossil Evidence of Change Land Environments Earth formed about 4.6 billion years ago. Gravity pulled
Skills Worksheet Directed Reading Section: Precambrian Time and the Paleozoic Era 1. Where is the geologic history of Earth recorded? 2. What kind of information can scientists get from the types of rock
CHAPTER 9 VOCABULARY & NOTES WORKSHEET The History of Life on Earth By studying the Vocabulary and Notes listed for each section below, you can gain a better understanding of this chapter. SECTION 1 Vocabulary
Phylogeny & Systematics Phylogeny & Systematics An unexpected family tree. What are the evolutionary relationships among a human, a mushroom, and a tulip? Molecular systematics has revealed that despite
The geologic time scale holds secrets to the life that has existed on Earth since the beginning of time. It is time for you to take a journey through the history of Earth. 1 Click on each of the segments
History of Life on Earth The Geological Time- Scale Agenda or Summary Layout The Geological Time-Scale 1 2 3 The Geological Time-Scale The Beginning of Life Cambrian Explosion The Geological Time-Scale
12.1 THE FOSSIL RECORD KEY CONCEPT Fossils are a record of life that existed in the past. Fossils can form in several different ways: Permineralization occurs when water surrounds a hard structure such
Chapter 25: The Origin and Evolutionary History of Life on Earth Chemical conditions of the early Earth A model for the first cells First life Life changes the planet: oxygenating Earth s oceans and atmosphere
Fossils & The Geologic Time Scale Fossils Preserved remains or traces of an organism that lived in the past. Fossils are formed when organisms die and are buried in sediment. Eventually the sediment builds
Revision Based on Chapter 19 Grade 11 Biology Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Most fossils are found in rusty water. volcanic rock. sedimentary
Chapter 1: Life on Earth R E V I E W Q U E S T I O N S Chapter 1: Review Name three characteristics that define something as Alive. Chapter 1: Review Name three characteristics that define something as
Spring 2015 8 th Grade The geologic time scale is a record of the major events and diversity of life forms present in Earth s history. The geologic time scale began when Earth was formed and goes on until
Earth s Formation: 4.6 Billion Years ago Formed from interstellar gas & dust into molten planet Earth s early atmosphere was hostile, made of carbon monoxide, methane, ammonia, nitrogen, nitrogen, sulfur,
Biology 1 of 40 2 of 40 Fossils and Ancient Life What is the fossil record? 3 of 40 Fossils and Ancient Life The fossil record provides evidence about the history of life on Earth. It also shows how different
Evolution and diversity of organisms Competency Levels - 7 3.1.1 Uses the theories of origin of life and natural selection to analyze the process of evolution of life 3.2.1 Constructs hierarchy of taxa
Chapters 25 and 26 The Origin of Life as we know it. Phylogeny traces evolutionary history of taxa Systematics- analyzes relationships (modern and past) of organisms Figure 25.1 A gallery of fossils The
Origins of Life and Extinction What is evolution? What is evolution? The change in the genetic makeup of a population over time Evolution accounts for the diversity of life on Earth Natural selection is
Origins of Life The Tree of Life Cell is the basic unit of life Today all cells come from pre-existing cells Earth formed ~4.5 billion years ago (BYA) Chapter 26 As it cooled, chemically-rich oceans were
UNIT 4: History Of Biological Diversity CHAPTER 14: The History of Life PAST NOW FUTURE? What is this? Earth s Early history Approximately 4.6 billion years ago, the Earth was formed when many pieces of
Early apes are found. Savannas expand ~22.5 MYA Photosynthesis by blue-green bacteria. Oxygen forms in the atmosphere but immediately reacts with molecules in the ocean and crust of the Earth. The actual
Lesson 4 The History of Life on Earth ESSENTIAL QUESTION How has life on Earth changed over time? By the end of this lesson, you should be able to describe the evolution of life on Earth over time, using
Evolution Problem Drill 09: The Tree of Life Question No. 1 of 10 Question 1. The age of the Earth is estimated to be about 4.0 to 4.5 billion years old. All of the following methods may be used to estimate
Chapter 14 The History of the Earth and the Beginning of Life Hypothesis of early Earth Very hot surface from colliding meteorites Very hot planet core from radioactive materials Volcanoes spewing lava
Name: Date: Period: UNDERSTANDING GEOLOGIC TIME The earth is 4.6 billion years old. That s a long time! The scale of geologic time is so different from what human beings experience that it s often quite
HISTORY OF LIFE ON EARTH EARTH S HISTORY Earth s age: - about 4.6 billion years old (big bang) First life forms appeared ~3.5 billion years ago How did life arise? 1. Small organic molecules were synthesized
The Earth is 4.6 billion years old! Earth History Mrs. Burkey ESS Cy Creek HS 17-18 If the Earth formed at midnight 6:00 am First life appears 10:00 pm First animals/plants on land 11:59 pm First humans
The Geologic Time Scale (pp. 286 297) This section tells why the geologic time scale is used to show Earth s history, and what the organisms were like and the major events that happened in the different
Visualizing Earth Science By Z. Merali and B. F. Skinner Chapter 11 A Brief History of Life on Earth Chapter Overview The Ever-Changing Earth Early Life Evolution and the Fossil Record Life in the Phanerozoic
Bio 112 Handout for Evolution 8 This handout contains: Today s iclicker Questions Handouts for today s lecture iclicker Question #5A - before lecture Consider the hypothetical creatures on the last page
Class: Date:.Biology Chapter 14 Test: The History of Life True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. 1. On the geologic time scale, an eon is longer than an era. 2. The oblong shape of
Eras of Earth's History Lesson 6 May 24 8:42 PM What happened in the Paleozoic Era? What happened in the Mesozoic Era? What happened in the Cenozoic Era? May 24 8:55 PM 1 I. What happened in the Paleozoic
You have to know: How do we know? Origins How Life Began Chapter 18 Sun was Born: 5 BYA Earth was born: 4.6 BYA >Big Bang 13.7BYA >Math of expansion of the Universe >Radio telescopes detecting radio waves
0.002 0.6 1.0 1.9 2.8 Ancestral humans Diversification of mammals Invasion of the land Diversification of animals Origin of the major eukaryotic groups Eukaryotic cells abundant Atmospheric oxygen plentiful
Unit 14.1: Introduction to Protists This organism consists of a single cell with several flagella. Is it a prokaryote, such as a bacterium? Actually, it s larger than a prokaryotic cell, and it also has
Earth History What is the Earth s time scale? The Geological time scale is a record of the life forms and geological events in Earth s history. Scientists developed the time scale by fossils world wide.
Biology 1 of 36 2 of 36 Formation of Earth Formation of Earth Hypotheses about Earth s early history are based on a relatively small amount of evidence. Gaps and uncertainties make it likely that scientific
The history of Life Section 19.1: The fossil record Fossils and Ancient Life Fossils provide information about extinct species Fossils can vary greatly Different sizes, types and degrees of preservation
BL1102 Essay The Cells Behind The Cells Matriculation Number: 120019783 19 April 2013 1 The Cells Behind The Cells For the first 3,000 million years on the early planet, bacteria were largely dominant.
14 The History of Life section 1 Fossil Evidence of Change Before You Read Throughout Earth s history, many species have become extinct. On the lines below, name some organisms that have become extinct.
Section 2: Evidence indicates that a sequence of chemical events preceded the origin of life on Earth and that life has evolved continuously since that time. K What I Know W What I Want to Find Out L What
Evolution & Biodiversity: Origins, Niches, & Adaptation tutorial by Paul Rich Outline 1. Life on Earth prokaryotes vs. eukaryotes; six kingdoms 2. Origins of Life chemical evolution, early life, fossils
MACROEVOLUTION Student Packet SUMMARY EVOLUTION IS A CHANGE IN THE GENETIC MAKEUP OF A POPULATION OVER TIME Macroevolution refers to large-scale evolutionary changes such as speciation events, origin of
Clues to the Past Grades 6-8 Educational Program Guide OAS Science Practices: 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 Program Overview The Clues to the Past program will introduce students to several 300 million years old
Biology 10 Chapter 19-3 p 553-558 Earth s Early History Objectives Describe the hypotheses scientists have about early Earth, and the origin of life. Describe the theory of how eukaryotic cells formed.
Tracing Evolutionary History (Outline) Four stages leading to emergence of living cells Geophysical conditions impact on biodiversity: - continental drift and volcanism, earthquakes and meteorites Living
Name Date Class Study Guide CHAPTER 14 Section 1: Fossil Evidence of Change In your textbook, read about Earth s early history. For each statement below, write true or false. 1. Solid Earth formed about
Name Date Class A Trip Through Geologic Time Section Summary Fossils Guide for Reading How do fossils form? What are the different kinds of fossils? What does the fossil record tell about organisms and
The History of Life on Earth Chapter 25 Objectives Define radiometric dating, serial endosymbiosis, Pangaea, snowball Earth, exaptation, heterochrony, and paedomorphosis Describe the contributions made
HISTORY OF LIFE WRITTEN IN THE ROCKS (geological record): notice how at first no life, very simple if for billions of years, complex life only recently 600 mya In these chapters, two primary themes: History
Slide 1 CHAPTER 15 The Evolution of Microbial Life PowerPoint Lecture Slides for Essential Biology, Second Edition & Essential Biology with Physiology Presentation prepared by Chris C. Romero Neil Campbell,
Text Readings Chapter # 17 in Audesirk, Audesirk and Byers: The History of Life Pg. # 332-145. Geologic Time........ Geological Sources - 4.5 Billion Years Atmospheric Gases: Nitrogen (N 2 ) Water Vapor
14 The History of Life section 1 Fossil Evidence of Change Before You Read Throughout Earth s history, many species have become extinct. On the lines below, name some organisms that have become extinct.
1 Fundamentals of Biology Valencia College BSC1010C 1 Studying Life Chapter objectives: What Is Biology? Is All Life on Earth Related? How Do Biologists Investigate Life? How Does Biology Influence Public
Skills Worksheet Chapter Review USING KEY TERMS Complete each of the following sentences by choosing the correct term from the word bank. Precambrian time Paleozoic era Mesozoic era Cenozoic era 1. During,
NAME PERIOD DATE STUDY GUIDE CHAPTERS 12 & 13 GEOLOGIC TIME CHAPTER 12 SECTION 12.1 1. WHAT IS THE PRINCIPLE OF UNIFORMITARIANISM PUT FORWARD BY JAMES HUTTON IN THE LATE 1700 s? 2. HOW DID UNIFORMITARIANISM
Biology 504 Mid-Year Exam Review Name: Spontaneous Generation Ch. 2 Heath Biology 1. What is meant by spontaneous generation? Give 3 examples of the appearance of living things that people believed were
Evolution and Diversification of Life Frogfish OCN 201 Science of the Sea Biology Lecture 2 Grieg Steward (Oceanography) Office: CMORE Hale 121 Phone: x6-6775 Evolution Nothing in biology makes sense except
Match the period with the corresponding biological events. a. Cambrian 542mya b. Carboniferous 359 mya c. Devonian 488 mya d. Jurassic 200mya e. Quaternary 2.6 mya 1. Gymnosperms common, large dinosaurs
PTYS 214 Spring 2018 Announcements Midterm #4: two weeks from today! 1 Previously Radiometric Dating Compare parent / daughter to determine # of half lives 14C, 40K, 238U, 232Th, 87Ru Evidence for Early
Earth Science Unit 3- History of the Earth Knowledge Packet Learning Target 3B: Have you ever thought about the history of the Earth? No, well you should have because it s pretty cool. Things like mountain
Geologic and Biologic Scaled Time-Line Integrated Science 2 Name: Date: Pd: Background The Earth solidified 4.6 billion years ago. Life has been evolving on Earth for more than 3.5 billion years. These
IV. Major events in biological development on Earth Cambrian explosion We are trying to fill in some of the biological details in the timelines shown here. Meiosis UV shield Snowball Earth XX Horizontal
The History of Life Before You Read Use the What I Know column to list the things you know about the history of life. Then list the questions you have about the history of life in the What I Want to Find
Geologic Time on a Strip of Paper Introduction The Earth is 4,600,000,000 years old. That s 4.6 billion years! But what does this mean? This activity is designed to help you get a feel for the age of the
The Origins and evolution of life The Origins and evolution of life Geologic time scale The geologic time scale provides a system of chronologic measurement used by geologists, paleontologists and other
chapter 10 3 Geologic Time section 2 Early Earth History Before You Read Think of a picture of a volcano you have seen. Describe what Earth would be like if the land were almost completely covered with
1. Evolution and Classification 1.1 Origin of Life and Plants 1.2 Animal Evolution 1.3 Human Evolution 1.4 Mechanisms of Evolution 1.5 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium 1.6 Mechanisms of Speciation 1.7 Classification
The Theory of Evolution Matthew Ferry Evolution The process by which different kinds of living organisms are thought to have developed and diversified from earlier forms during the history of the Earth.
CORNELL NOTES Directions: You must create a minimum of 5 questions in this column per page (average). Use these to study your notes and prepare for tests and quizzes. Notes will be stamped after each assigned
Unit 1 A. The early life and the Diversification of Prokaryotes (Ch24) B. Origin and Diversification of Eukaryotes (Ch25) C. Broad Patterns of Evolution (Ch23) D. Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles (Ch 10)