Bio 2 Plant and Animal Biology

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1 Bio 2 Plant and Animal Biology

2 Evolution Evolution as the explanation for life s unity and diversity

3 Darwinian Revolution Two main Points Descent with Modification Natural Selection

4 Biological Species A group of populations whose members have the potential to interbreed in nature and produce viable, fertile offspring

5 Two Patterns of Evolutionary Change Anagenesis Cladogenesis

6

7 Allopatric Speciation

8 Evidence of Allopatric Speciation

9 Allopatric Speciation

10 Allopatric Speciation 1. Small Population 2. Isolation 3. Different Environmental Conditions

11 Sympatric Speciation Autopolyploidy Examples: Maidenhair Fern Bufo pewzowi 2n 2n=6 Cell division error Tetraploid Cell 4n=12 2n Gametes produced by Tetraploid New Species (4n)

12 Sympatric Speciation Allopolyploidy Examples: Triticum aestivum Gray Treefrog

13 Hybrid Zone

14 Hybrid Zone

15 Hybrid Zone Over time Reinforcement Strengthening of reproductive barriers Fusion Weakening of reproductive barriers Stability Continued production of hybrid individuals

16 Adaptive Radiation The emergence of numerous species from a common ancestor introduced into an environment, presenting a diversity of new opportunities and problems

17 Adaptive Radiation (Silversword Alliance - Tarweed)

18 Punctuated Equilibrium Macroevolution: Evolutionary Change on a Grand Scale Time Gradualism

19 Also called Neodarwinism Small changes over time Supporter: Ernst Mayr Gradualism

20 Punctuated Equilibrium Supporters: Niles Eldredge & Stephen J. Gould Speciation occurs in episodic events large periods of time with little change and short periods of time with large changes

21 Macroevolution through many Speciation Events

22 Macroevolution through many Speciation Events Evolutionary Novelties Evolution of Genes that control development Changes in Spatial Pattern Changes in Rate and Timing

23 Origin of Evolutionary Most novelties are modified versions of older structures Exaptation - preadaptation Novelty

24 Evolution of Genes that Control Development Julian Huxley - Modern Synthesis Gradual evolution can be explained by small genetic changes that produce variation which is acted upon by natural selection

25 Evolution of Genes that Control Development Julian Huxley - Modern Synthesis The evolution at higher taxonomic levels and of greater magnitude can be explained by long periods of time

26 Evolution of Genes that control Forms change Natural Selection is the force driving change How did it occur? Development

27 Evolution of Genes that control Development Evo-devo How does it occur?

28 Evolution of Genes that control Evo-devo - Tool-kit of master genes Development

29 Changes in Spatial Pattern Homeotic Genes (Hox Genes) position information

30 Changes in Spatial Pattern

31 Changes in Spatial Pattern Homeobox

32 Changes in Spatial Pattern Changes in expression patterns of four Hox genes over time

33 Changes in Rate and Timing Allometric Growth the variation in the relative rates of growth of various parts of the body

34 Changes in rate and timing Heterochrony - evolutionary change in the timing or rate of development

35 Changes in rate and timing Paedeomorphosis - retention of juvenile features in an adult

36 Changes in rate and timing Paedeogenesis - sexual maturity in a larval form

37 Evolutionary trends are not goal oriented Evolutionary Trends

38 The Tree of Life Biological Diversity

39 The Fossil Record

40 The Fossil Record

41 The Fossil Record Sedimentary Rocks Hard Parts

42 The Fossil Record Minerals replacing organic material Organic Material

43 The Fossil Record Casts Trace Fossils

44 The Fossil Record Entire Organisms

45 Dating Fossils Absolute Dating (half-life)

46 Relative Dating Precambrian (Archaean) Origin of Earth (4.6 bya) Oldest known rocks on Earth s surface (3.8 bya)

47 History of the Earth Precambrian (Archaean) Oldest Prokaryotes (3.5 bya)

48 History of the Earth Precambrian (Archaean) Oxygen (2.7 bya)

49 Precambrian (Proterozoic) Oldest Eukaryotes (1.8 bya) Diversification of Multicellular Eukaryotes ( mya)

50 Paleozoic Era - Cambrian Period ( mya) Cambrian Explosion - Origin of most modern animal phyla

51 Paleozoic Era - Ordovician Period ( mya) Origin of land plants First arthropods on land First jawless fish First Fungi

52 Paleozoic Era - Silurian Period ( ) First jawed fish First vascular plants Diversity of early vascular plants

53 Paleozoic Era - Devonian Period ( mya) Age of Fishes First Amphibians First Insects

54 Paleozoic Era - Carboniferous Period ( mya) Vascular Forests First Seed Plants Amphibians Abundant First Reptiles

55 Paleozoic Era - Permian Period ( mya) Radiation of Reptiles Origin of mammallike Reptiles Most modern orders of insects Largest Extinction

56 Mesozoic Era - Triassic Period ( mya) Gymnosperms dominant Radiation of Dinosaurs First Mammals and Birds

57 Mesozoic Era - Jurassic Period ( mya) Dinosaurs Dominate Gymnosperms Dominate

58 Mesozoic Era - Cretaceous Period ( mya) Flowering Plants Appear Dinosaurs Disappear at End of Period

59 Cenozoic Era (Age of Mammals) Quaternary Period (2.6 mya Present) Neogene Period ( mya) Paleogene Period ( mya)

60 Paleogene Period - Paleocene Epoch Adaptive Radiation of Mammals, Birds, and Insects

61 Paleogene Period - Eocene Epoch Angiosperm Dominance Most Modern Mammal Orders

62 Paleogene Period - Oligocene Epoch First Primates

63 Neogene Period - Miocene Epoch Continued Radiation of Mammals and Flowering Plants Earliest direct human ancestors

64 Neogene Period - Pliocene Epoch Bipedal human ancestors appear

65 Quaternary Period Pleistocene Epoch Ice Ages Homo genus appears

66 Quaternary Period Recent (Holocene) Epoch Historic Time

67 Continental Drift and Plate Tectonics

68 Plate Tectonics

69 Plate Tectonics

70 Earth s History Pangaea (245 mya) Pangaea began to break up (180 mya) Laurasia Gondwana

71 Mass Extinctions Ordovician (440) Devonian (365) Permian (245) Triassic (210) Cretaceous (65)

72 K-T Boundary Chicxulub Crater - Caribbean Sea near the Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico

73 Tree of Life

74 Systematics The study of biological diversity in an evolutionary context

75 Systematic Tools Molecular Comparisons usually (rrna or mtdna) DNA-DNA Hybridization Restriction maps DNA Sequence analysis

76 Phylogenetic Groupings Monophyletic ancestor and all its descendants

77 Phylogenetic Groupings Paraphyletic ancestor with some but not all its descendants

78 Phylogenetic Groupings Polyphyletic two different ancestors

79 Phylogenetic Groupings

80 Similarities Homology likeness attributed to shared ancestry

81 Similarities Analogy likeness due to similar ecological roles and natural selection due to convergent evolution

82 Molecular Homoplasy Analogous species that have similar DNA sequences that evolved independently in two species

83 Ontogeny Recapitulates Phylogeny (Ernst Haeckel) Ontogeny individual development Recapitulates repeats Phylogeny evolutionary descent

84 The Science of Systematics Phenetics based on a number of similarities and differences does not take into account homology or analogy all groupings

85 Classical Evolutionary Systematics George Gaylord Simpson

86 The Science of Phylogenetic Systematics Classical Evolutionary Systematics most commonly used up until recently based on shared homologous structures takes into account the amount of adaptive evolutionary change (novelties) Monophyletic and paraphyletic groupings

87 The Science of Systematics Cladistics (Phylogenetic Systematics) based on shared homologous structures only monophyletic groupings Will Hennig

88 The Science of Phylogenetic Systematics Cladistic Assumptions 1. Monophyletic 2. Descent follows a bifurcating pattern 3. Changes in characteristics occur in lineages over time

89 Cladistics Synapomorphies: Shared derived characters Plesiomorphies: Shared Ancestral or Primitive characters

90 Phylograms

91 Ultrametric Trees

92 Cladistics

93 Cladistics

94 Cladistics

95

96

97

98 Molecular Clock

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