3 Middle Inside Top Vocabulary 1. ATP 2. ADP 3. Product 4. Reactant 5. Chloroplast 6. Mitochondria 7. Heterotroph 8. Autotroph On a separate sheet of paper: Pg 96 Formative Assessment Questions 1-6 Pg 383 Formative Assessment Questions 1-5
4 Directly or indirectly, almost all of the energy in living systems needed for metabolism comes from the sun.
5 Building Molecules that Store Energy METABOLISM involves either using energy to build molecules or breaking down molecules in which energy is stored. PHOTOSYNTHESIS is the process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy. Organisms that use energy from sunlight or from chemical bonds in inorganic substances to make organic compounds are called AUTOTROPHS.
6 Breaking down food for energy The ENERGY in organic compounds can be transferred to other organic compounds or to organisms that consume food. Organisms that must get energy from food instead of directly from sunlight or inorganic substances are called HETEROTROPHS. CELLULAR RESPIRATION is a metabolic process similar to burning fuel.
7 Transfer of Energy to ATP When cells break down food molecules, some of the energy in the molecules is released as heat. Much of the remaining energy is stored temporarily in molecules of ATP. ATP is ENERGY A CELL CAN USE Energy is released when the bonds that hold the phosphate groups together are broken. Bozeman Video (9 min)
8 Page 95 Figure 1.2 under notes
9 1. Refer to page 98 of your textbook to fill out the boxes and the chloroplast diagram. 2. Color the chloroplast diagram the appropriate color
10 Photosynthesis: process of capturing sunlight energy and making sugar that stores chemical energy in the chloroplast of plant cells 1. Chloroplast 2. Sunlight 3. Water (H 2 O) 4. Thylakoid membrane contains chlorophyll 5. Oxygen (O 2 ) 6. Electron Transport Chain 7. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) 8. Calvin Cycle 9. Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 )
11 Light Dependent reactions capture energy from sunlight take place in thylakoids of chloroplast water and sunlight are needed 1. chlorophyll absorbs energy 2. energy is transferred along thylakoid membrane then to light-independent reactions (ETC) oxygen is released
12 3. Light independent reactions make sugars take place in stroma of chloroplast needs carbon dioxide from atmosphere use energy to build a sugar in a cycle of chemical reactions
13 Steps of Photosynthesis (under chloroplast) I. Light dependent reactions = Light NECESSARY 1. Sunlight is captured by chlorophyll pigments in chloroplast 2. Electron Transport Chain electrons pumped to make energy carriers II. Light independent reactions = Light or Dark 3. Calvin Cycle energy carriers and carbon dioxide join to form sugar Reactants Products Water Carbon Dioxide Oxygen Sugar
14 Photosynthesis: process of capturing sunlight energy and making sugar that stores chemical energy in the chloroplast of plant cells 1. Chloroplast 2. Sunlight 3. Water (H 2 O) 4. Thylakoid membrane contains chlorophyll 5. Oxygen (O 2 ) 6. Electron Transport Chain 7. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) 8. Calvin Cycle 9. Glucose (C 6 H 12 O 6 )
15 1. Refer to page 98 of your textbook to fill out the boxes and the chloroplast diagram. 2. Color the chloroplast diagram the appropriate color 3. Define the following terms above the diagram of the chloroplast 9. Photosynthesis 10. Chlorophyll 11. Thylakoid 12. Light dependent reactions 13. Light independent reactions
16 Write About Topic: Photosynthesis Draw a SIMPLE DIAGRAM to represent the process of photosynthesis Key Terms: -chlorophyll -chloroplast -sunlight -reactants -products -Sugar Paragraph write a paragraph summarizing the three stages of photosynthesis and how the reactants and products are relevant to EACH.
17 Sage & Scribe What is the purpose of photosynthesis? What type of cells photosynthesize? What organelle in the cell photosynthesizes? What are the reactants of photosynthesis? What are the products of photosynthesis? Does photosynthesis release or store energy? What type of energy does photosynthesis use to make food?
19 Cellular Respiration: process that releases chemical energy from sugars and oxygen to make ATP in ALL eukaryotic cells (plants, animals, fungus, protist 1. Mitochondria 2. 3 Carbon Pyruvate 3. Kreb s cycle takes place in cristae 4. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) 5. Electron Transport Chain 6. Oxygen (O 2 ) 7. Water (H 2 O)
20 1. Glycolysis must take place first anaerobic process (does not require oxygen) takes place in cytoplasm splits glucose into two three-carbon molecules produces two ATP molecules
21 Cellular respiration is like a mirror image of photosynthesis 2. The Krebs cycle transfers energy to an electron transport chain. takes place in mitochondrial matrix breaks down three-carbon molecules from glycolysis makes a small amount of ATP releases carbon dioxide transfers energy-carrying molecules 3 1 energy from glycolysis and 6O 2 mitochondrion matrix (area enclosed by inner membrane) energy 2 inner membrane and 6CO 2 ATP ATP and 6H 2 O 4
22 3. The electron transport chain produces a large amount of ATP takes place in inner membrane energy transferred to electron transport chain oxygen enters process ATP produced water released as a waste product 3 1 energy from glycolysis and 6O 2 mitochondrion matrix (area enclosed by inner membrane) energy 2 inner membrane and 6CO 2 ATP ATP and 6H 2 O 4
23 Cellular Respiration: process that uses oxygen to release chemical energy from sugars in the form of ATP. (under mitochondria) Aerobic = requires Oxygen 1. Glycolysis sugar broken in half (yields 2 ATP) 2. Kreb s cycle energy carriers made 3. Electron Transport Chain ATP made (yields 34 ATP) Anaerobic = no oxygen 1. Glycolysis sugar broken in half (yields 2 ATP) 2. Fermentation energy carriers recycled
25 Write About Topic: Cellular Respiration Draw a SIMPLE VISUAL AID to represent the DIFFERENCE between aerobic and anaerobic respiration Key Terms: -mitochondria -oxygen -reactants -products -sugar -carbon dioxide Paragraph write a paragraph summarizing the purpose of aerobic respiration. Include which stages of cellular respiration use reactants and make products
26 Sage & Scribe What is the purpose of of cellular respiration? What type of cells undergo respiration? What organelle in the cell undergoes respiration? What are the reactants of cellular respiration? What are the products of cellular respiration? Does cellular respiration release or store energy? What type of energy does cellular respiration make?
27 The reactants in photosynthesis are the same as the products of cellular respiration (and vice versa)
29 Photosynthesis & cellular respiration are metabolic chemical reactions. They use enzymes = proteins that catalyze chemical reactions Factors that affect the rates of photosynthesis and cellular respiration: 1. Amount of reactantsn direct correlation 2. Availability of enzymes direct correlation Factors that denature (change the shape) enymes 3. Temperature optimal 4. ph -- optimal
30 Conclusion/Summary of Graph:
31 Conclusion/Summary of Graph:
32 Sage & Scribe Would an increase in carbon dioxide increase or decrease the rate of respiration? Would an decrease in sunlight increase or decrease the rate of photosynthesis? What are two other factors that can change the rates of photosynthesis or cellular respiration?
33 Which of the following about photosynthesis is true? A. The reactants for photosynthesis are glucose and oxygen B. The reactants for photosynthesis are water and carbon dioxide C. The products of photosynthesis are ATP, carbon dioxide and water D. The products of photosynthesis are carbon dioxide and glucose B. The reactants for photosynthesis are water and carbon dioxide
34 Plant #1 is placed under a strong light source, while plant #2 is placed in a dark cabinet. The two plants were observed for 3 hours, and data was recorded. Which statement best describes the most likely data results? A. Plant #1 had little O 2 production, while plant #2 had higher amounts of O 2 production B. Plant #2 had little O 2 production, while plant #1 had higher amounts of O 2 production C. Plant #1 and #2 were identical in their O 2 production D. Not enough information is given to draw a reliable conclusion B. Plant #2 had little O 2 production, while plant #1 had higher amounts of O 2 production
35 Which of the following is a product of cellular respiration? Oxygen Light Carbon Dioxide Glucose Carbon Dioxide
36 The energy molecule produced from Cellular Respiration is: Glucose Carbon Dioxide Water ATP ATP
37 Which of the following does NOT affect the rate of cellular respiration? a. amount of glucose b. amount of carbon dioxide c. amount of oxygen d. temperature B. Amount of carbon dioxide
38 Which of the following does NOT affect the rate of photosynthesis? a. light intensity b. amount of carbon dioxide c. amount of oxygen d. temperature C. Amount of oxygen
39 How are cellular respiration and photosynthesis related? a. Photosynthesis releases energy, and cellular respiration stores energy. b. Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and cellular respiration puts it back. c. Photosynthesis uses oxygen from the atmosphere, and cellular respiration puts it back. d. Photosynthesis only occurs in plants, and cellular respiration only occurs in animals. b. Photosynthesis uses carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, and cellular respiration puts it back.
40 Which of these best explains the difference between the way animals and plants exchange gases with their environments? a. Animals use only photosynthesis, while plants use both photosynthesis and respiration. b. Animals use only respiration, while plants use both photosynthesis and respiration. c. Animals use both photosynthesis and respiration, while plants use only respiration. d. Animals use both photosynthesis and respiration, while plants use only photosynthesis. b. Animals use only respiration, while plants use both photosynthesis and respiration.
41 How would a drop in temperature most likely affect the process of cellular respiration and photosynthesis? a. The rates of both cellular respiration and photosynthesis would decrease. b. The rates of both cellular respiration and photosynthesis would remain constant. c. The rate of photosynthesis would increase, and the rate of cellular respiration would decrease. d. The rate of photosynthesis would decrease, and the rate of cellular respiration would increase. a. The rates of both cellular respiration and photosynthesis would decrease.
42 Cellular respiration transfers energy by breaking down to form ATP energy, Whereas photosynthesis transforms energy into food (glucose) energy. Glucose -- sunlight
43 What would happen to plants if chloroplasts disappeared from all eukaryotic cells?
44 What would happen to animals if chloroplasts disappeared from all eukaryotic cells?
46 Sunlight energy Chloroplast Carbon Dioxide & Water Sugar & Oxygen Mitochondria ATP Heat energy lost
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