1 Cellular Energetics Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration and Fermentation
2 TEKS B.4 Science concepts. The student knows that cells are the basic structures of all living things with specialized parts that perform specific functions and that viruses are different from cells. The student is expected to: B.4B investigate and explain cellular processes, including homeostasis, energy conversions, transport of molecules, and synthesis of new molecules B.9 Science concepts. The student knows the significance of various molecules involved in metabolic processes and energy conversions that occur in living organisms. The student is expected to: B.9B compare the reactants and products of photosynthesis and cellular respiration in terms of energy and matter;
4 Essential Question How do energy and matter flow through the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration?
5 How organisms get energy 1. Autotrophs: able to produce own glucose Ex: plants, algae, cyanobacteria Also called: producers 2. Heterotrophs: must take in glucose from outside source Ex: animals, fungus, most bacteria, protozoans Also called: consumers
6 Why is food so important? The energy from carbon based molecules (food) is needed to re-charge ADP (adenosine di-phosphate) to ATP (adenosine tri-phosphate) molecules ATP provides energy for ALL metabolic reactions. Adenine Ribose 3 Phosphate groups Adenosine
7 ADP and ATP To get energy out of ATP, the bond between the last two phosphate groups is broken. ADP ATP Energy Adenosine diphosphate (ADP) + Phosphate Energy Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Partially charged battery Fully charged battery
8 Importance of energy Cells need energy to be able to carry out important metabolic functions to sustain life. Ex: Active transport, cell division, movement of flagella or cilia, and the production, transport, and storage of proteins
9 Photosynthesis The process autotrophs use to make glucose sugars from carbon dioxide, water, and light energy
10 Photosynthesis and Respiration are Energy in Sunlight complementary cycles Enzymes 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Enzymes C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O Energy out ATP
11 Where and how are sugars made? Light Energy Chloroplast CO 2 + H 2 O Sugars + O 2
12 Pigments Absorption of Light by Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b Chlorophyll b Chlorophyll a Chlorophyll is a pigment, a molecule that can absorb light energy. Unused light is reflected. What is the color of the wavelength least used by chlorophyll? V B G YO R
13 Photosynthesis is an endergonic reaction energy in 1. Light dependent reaction 2. Calvin cycle Chloroplast Light H 2 0 Light- Dependent Reactions NADP + ADP + P ATP NADPH CO 2 Calvin Cycle Chloroplast O 2 Sugars
14 Step 1: Light dependent reaction Photosystem II Hydrogen Ion Movement ATP synthase Chloroplast Inner Thylakoid Space Thylakoid Membrane Stroma Electron Transport Chain Photosystem I ATP Formation
15 STROMA (low H concentration) Photosystem II Light 4 H + Cytochrome complex Light Photosystem I Fd NADP reductase 3 NADP + H Pq NADPH H 2 O 1 THYLAKOID SPACE (high H concentration) 1 / 2 O 2 +2 H H + Pc To Calvin Cycle STROMA (low H concentration) Thylakoid membrane ATP synthase ADP + P i H + ATP
16 Light dependent reaction Pigments (chlorophyll) inside of the chloroplasts are arranged into photosystems (PS II and PS I). Photosystems absorb sunlight. Electrons become energized and help to produce ATP & NADPH.
17 Step 1: Light Dependent reactions location: grana of chloroplast Photosystem II: energized chlorophyll splits water into Oxygen (released) and Hydrogen (carried by NADP to be used later) Photosystem I: energized chlorophyll makes ATP (to be used later)
18 Light Dependent reactions The products of the light reactions will move on to the Calvin cycle: ATP NADPH
19 Step 2: Calvin cycle CO 2 Enters the Cycle Energy Input ChloropIast 5-Carbon Molecules Regenerated 6-Carbon Sugar Produced Sugars and other compounds
20 Calvin Cycle Location: stroma (fluid) of chloroplast CO 2 is fixed meaning it is attached to other molecules in the stroma. Eventually sugar molecules are released from the cycle. Products: Glucose (sugar/food) is made (from 6 turns of cycle) 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2
21 Calvin cycle ATP and NADPH supply the energy needed to change the CO 2 taken in by plants into a 6 carbon sugar molecule. glucose
23 What happens to the sugar? Plants can store the sugar in roots or stems (ex: potatoes, turnips, carrots, sugar cane) Heterotrophs such as humans must eat or consume foods (ex. Carrots, potatoes, etc.) in order to make ATP by cellular respiration. Sugars & starches are used to make ATP by cellular respiration as needed.
24 ALL living organisms need and use energy. Therefore ALL organisms need ATP ALL organisms (plants and animals, fungi, bacteria and protists) re-charge their ADP into ATP through respiration
25 Cellular Respiration The process autotrophs and heterotrophs use to break down glucose (energetic molecules) to make ATP
26 Photosynthesis and Respiration are Energy in Sunlight complementary cycles Enzymes 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Enzymes C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O Energy out ATP
27 Two types of respiration Aerobic respiration: Organisms that require oxygen use aerobic respiration to make ATP but switch to fermentation when oxygen is not available. Anaerobic respiration: Organisms that live without oxygen use anaerobic respiration to make ATP and die in the presence of oxygen.
28 Where cell respiration takes place Prokaryotes: cell membrane (don t have mitochondria) Eukaryotes: mitochondria organelle
29 Steps of aerobic respiration 1. Glycolysis 2. Krebs cycle 3.1 Electron transport chain 3.2 ATP synthase (Oxidative Phosphorylation)
30 Step 1: Glycolysis Glucose molecules are broken down into two molecules of pyruvic acid. Glucose 2 Pyruvic acid To the electron transport chain
31 GLYCOLYSIS Location: cytoplasm (outside mitochondria) Anaerobic stage (occurs without oxygen) Glucose (6C) is split into two Pyruvates (3C) by the force of 2 ATP molecules Products: Hydrogen is saved by NAD + to be used later & 4 ATP (net gain of 2) are produced
32 Step 2: Krebs or Citric Acid cycle Pyruvates are altered to produce NADH and FADH 2, electron carriers. Citric Acid Production CO 2 is created here
33 Krebs Cycle Location: mitochondria (fluid matrix) Carbon compounds join & break apart several times during the cycle, releasing lots of CO 2 Products: small amount of ATP & large amount of NADH and FADH 2 (used later)
34 Step 3: Oxidative Phosphorylation Electron Transport Hydrogen Ion Movement Channel Intermembrane Space ATP synthase Inner Membrane Matrix ATP Production
35 H H Protein complex of electron carriers H Cyt c H I II Q FADH 2 FAD III IV 2 H + 1 / 2 O 2 H 2 O ATP synthase NADH NAD (carrying electrons from food) ADP P i H ATP 1 Electron transport chain 2 Chemiosmosis Oxidative phosphorylation
36 Electron transport chain (ETC) & Oxidative Phosphorylation Location: mitochondria (cristae, inner membrane) Energy from Hydrogen atom s electrons is utilized to change ADP into ATP Hydrogen ions (H + ) ultimately joins oxygen to make water as a waste product
37 Electron transport chain NADH and FADH 2 supplies the electron needed to start the ETC. Hydrogen ions (protons) are pumped into the inner membrane space. The protons flow through the ATP-making enzyme (ATP synthase), activating the enzyme to add a phosphate group to ADP to make ATP.
38 What happens if there is no oxygen available and the organism is aerobic? 1. Glycolysis 2. Fermentation: lactic acid or alcohol Glucose Pyruvic acid
39 Fermentation The process of making a little ATP without the presence of Oxygen.
40 Alcoholic Fermentation (anaerobic respiration) Without enough oxygen present, an alternate route is taken, producing other products & much less ATP In yeast: Alcohol and CO 2 are produced Ex: in bread-making & the alcohol industry
41 Alcohol industry Yeast undergo alcohol fermentation when they do not have oxygen to make ATP. The alcohol industry uses specific yeast to convert fruit sugars into alcohol.
42 Lactic Acid Fermentation (anaerobic respiration) Without enough oxygen present, an alternate route is taken, producing other products & much less ATP In muscles: lactate is produced Causes sore muscles
43 Sore muscles When a person exercises, the muscle cells use up oxygen faster than a person can breathe in. The muscle cells need O 2 to make ATP. US Swim Team members 2004 The cells perform lactic acid fermentation instead producing lactic acid in the cells and when in higher concentrations, makes muscles feel sore.
46 Endosymbiotic Theory Lynn Margulis proposed that certain organelles evolved from a symbiotic relationship between a host cell and early prokaryotes. This is supported by observation & data. Mitochondria were chemosynthetic aerobic prokaryotes Chloroplasts were photosynthetic prokaryotes
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