Table of Contents. Chapter: Atmosphere. Section 1: Earth's Atmosphere. Section 2: Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere. Section 3: Air Movement

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2 Table of Contents Chapter: Atmosphere Section 1: Earth's Atmosphere Section 2: Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Section 3: Air Movement

3 Table of Contents Chapter 4: Atmosphere Section 1: Earth's Atmosphere What you will learn and why it s important page 90

4 The importance of the atmosphere What is atmosphere? It is a thin layer of gas that forms a protective layer around the planet What is the importance of the atmosphere?

5 1- contains the oxygen that we need to survive 2- it is a radiation shield that protects us

6 3- It keeps us warm- absorbs the heat and prevents it from radiating out into space

7 Other importances 4- protects us from objects falling from space these pieces of rock burn out due to the friction of the air. 5- Carbon Dioxide from the atmosphere allows plants to do photosynthesis 6- sound travels through air, allowing us to even listen to one another

8 1 Earth s Atmosphere The Makeup of the Atmosphere over time Earth's atmosphere is a mixture of gases, solids, and liquids that surrounds the planet.

9 1 atmosphere was rich in Nitrogen and Carbon Dioxide the amount of oxygen increased mostly due to the photosynthesis from algae life was mostly under water more oxygen was formed Ozone layer appeared allowing life out of the water the atmosphere kept on changing and is still changing due to man intervention zone protects Earth from sun s harmful rays

10 Layers of the atmosphere (book pages 92 and 93)

11 What is air made of????? Atoms Matter Mass Weight Does air have weight? What do you feel when you have something heavy on your lap? Pressure

12 1 Earth s Atmosphere Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric gases have mass. We have lots of gases on top of us, lot of atoms and molecules these gases pressure down on the air below and this is Atmospheric Pressure

13 1 Earth s Atmosphere **Definition Atmospheric Pressure Pressure caused by the weight of the atmosphere. At sea level you have maximum atmospheric pressure but it reduces with increasing altitude because the molecules of the gases are further apart.

14

15 1 Earth s Atmosphere Composition of the Atmosphere Also found: Water Droplets Sand Salt Pollen

16 1 Earth s Atmosphere the composition of the atmosphere is changing in small but important ways. The constant burning of fossil fuels is increasing the levels of certain gases in the atmosphere

17 The increased amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere accentuates the greenhouse effect, affecting the climate in certain areas

18 Global Warming Throughout history, Earth has warmed and cooled several times. Nowadays, the climatic warming is occurring much faster then in the past

19 Global Warming Global warming is the unusually rapid increase in Earth s average surface temperature over the past century.

20 Causes of Global Warming(1) Natural causes: Variations in Sun's energy Subtle shifts in the Sun s orbit Fluctuation in ocean currents Volcanic eruptions

21 Causes of Global Warming (2) Global warming is primarily happening due to the greenhouse gases released by people burning fossil fuels. Methane, water vapor, carbon dioxide, fluorinated gases such as CFC (chlorofluorocarbons) are called greenhouse gases and increase the greenhouse effect

22 Effects of Global warming Not only the increase in Earth temperature, but also: Modification of rainfall patterns Amplification of coastal erosion Melting of ice caps and glaciers All these will affect the living organisms in the planet

23 You tube video Global Warming Facts - NASA Global Warming JmX73FF4

24 1 Earth s Atmosphere The Ozone Layer Ozone is made of oxygen. Located in the stratosphere

25 1 Earth s Atmosphere Your life depends on Ozone The ozone layer shields you from the Sun's harmful energy. Ozone absorbs most of the ultraviolet radiation that enters the atmosphere.

26 1 CFCs Earth s Atmosphere Evidence exists that some air pollutants, such as CFCs, are destroying the ozone layer. chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) - chemical compounds used in some refrigerators, air conditioners, and aerosol sprays, and in the production of some foam packaging.

27 1 Chlorofluorocarbon molecules destroy ozone and the products do not absorb UV rays from the Sun

28 1 Earth s Atmosphere The Ozone Hole The destruction of ozone molecules by CFCs seems to cause a seasonal reduction in ozone over Antarctica called the ozone hole. The levels of Ozone over Antarctica follows an yearly pattern and increases and decreses during the year

29 Oct Ozone hole Nasa update The 2014 Ozone hole is comparable to the size of the holes in 2010, 2012, It is a little bigger than It did not reach the biggest sizes that were observed during the period of

30 Oct Ozone hole Nasa update One factor could be influencing the higher levels of ozone in Antarctica: - Decline of CFC in the atmosphere. The level of CFC declined 9% since 2000

31 Table of Contents Chapter: Atmosphere Section 2: Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere

32 2 Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Energy from the Sun The Sun provides most of Earth's energy. This energy supports life ( sun s energy is needed for photosynthesis) The energy that the Earth receives from the sun can be absorbed or reflected.

33 2 Energy from the Sun 35% is reflected back into space 65% absorbed by the atmosphere, the land and the water.

34 2 What is Heat? Heat is energy that flows from an object with a higher temperature to an object with a lower temperature. The sun s energy reaches the Earth can be absorbed or reflected back into space. Once it is absorbed, heat can be transferred by radiation, conduction, and convection.

35 2 1) Radiation is energy that is transferred in the form of rays or waves. Radiant energy from the sun, warms the Earth.

36 2 Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere 2) Conduction is the transfer of energy that occurs when molecules bump into one another. It happens when objects are in contact. Ex: when you touch something hot or when cold air is warmed up by passing through warm land

37 2 3) Convection: is the transfer of heat by the flow of material. It can happen in the atmosphere, in your house, when you warm up water in a pan.

38 2 Convection: circulates heat throughout the atmosphere.

39 2 Convection in a liquid

40 2 Convection in gases

41 2 Energy Transfer in the Atmosphere Convection This movement of air or liquid form what we call convection currents.

42 2 What is Hydrosphere?

43 2 Hydrosphere is a term that describes all the water on Earth s surface. The constant movement of water through the atmosphere and the hydrosphere will affect climate. This constant movement is called Water Cycle

44 2 On your notebooks, describe the water cycle

45 *Climate x Weather *Weather is the state of the atmosphere at a specific time and place. Ex: today is raining *Climate average weather pattern in an area over a long period of time. Ex: Washington is humid during summer *Both are determined by: precipitation and temperature

46 Water Cycle and Climate The climate of a certain area depends on its average temperature and precipitation. Temperature and precipitation are affected by the water cycle. So, the water cycle affects climate.

47 Table of Contents Chapter: Atmosphere Section 3: Air Movement

48 Density: When substances are mixed: less dense will float on the denser one different densities cause convections EX: air and water

49 Air Density What happens to the molecules of a substance when this substance is warmed up? Does the density change? The molecules or particles will expand and the substance will become less dense

50 Density of gases depends on temperature higher temp. air have lower density - air rises

51 Blue cube higher density - more molecules Pink cube lower density less molecules

52 **The is a relationship in between Density and Atmospheric Pressure Warmer, lower density air - will rise and the molecules are further apart from each other ( less dense) Where the air is less dense, the atmospheric pressure is lower

53 3 Heated Air Areas of Earth receive different amounts of radiation from the Sun because Earth is curved. some areas are warmer than others. Latitudes closer to the Equator are warmer

54 Longitude and Latitude

55 3 1)The heated air at the equator is less dense. 2)Moves up in the atmosphere 3) It is replaced by denser, colder air from the poles. How are Winds formed?

56 3 *Forming Wind *The air movement creates areas with different pressures in the atmosphere which creates all the winds that circulate around the globe. *Wind is the movement of air from: an area of higher pressure ( colder air and more dense) to an area of lower pressure ( warmer air and less dense).

57 How air moves

58 What causes wind? 1)The movement of colder air and warm air on the Earth surface 2) The Coriolis effect

59 *Coriolis Effect and Air Movement *Coriolis Effect is a phenomenon that causes fluids such as air and water to curve as they travel across and above the Earth s surface. The rotation of the Earth is what causes the deflection of these fluids.

60 Coriolis Effect and Air Movement

61 *Coriolis Effect and Air Movement ****This deflection, caused by the Coriolis effect, impacts the way winds and storms move around the Earth.

62 Coriolis Effect and Air Movement winds and water are deflected to the right in the Northern Hemisphere and to the left in the Southern Hemisphere.

63 Youtube video The Coriolis Effect ( 3:06) Why do storms spin in different directions depending on their location and why do they spin in the first place? pbs.org/nova/labs +tube+coriolis+effect&ei=utf- 8&fr=moz35

64 WINDS Graphic organizer Two types: Global winds and Local winds Global Winds affect the weather patterns for the entire planate Local Winds affect local weather

65

66 What are the Doldrums?? Trade winds from North to South meet at the Equator creating doldrums. Area of low atmospheric pressure and low winds (Sailors avoid it)

67 Doldrums and rain Areas of low pressure have : warmer air that will rise Warmer air rise and meets with colder temperatures Warm air will condense form clouds if cloud is too heavy rain USUALLY IN THE DOLDRUM AREA IT RAINS EVERYDAY

68 Manaus

69 3 Local Winds: Sea and Land Breezes These breezes will blow in one direction during the day and to the opposite direction at night

70 3 Sea and Land Breezes This will happen because of the differences in the temperatures of land and water. It takes more time for the water to cool and warm up compared to the land.

71 3 Sea and Land Breezes This will happen because of the differences in the temperatures of land and water. It takes more time for the water to cool and warm up compared to the land.

72 ***Low Pressure X Bad Weather *In areas of low pressure, the warm air will rise, reaching areas that are colder. In colder areas this air will condense forming clouds that might precipitate in the form of rain

73 winds *Global winds are winds that cover long distances. *trade winds- the air movements toward the equator are called trade winds and these winds blow almost continuously.

74 *The trade winds blow towards the equator. Trade winds coming from the south and the north meet near the equator creating an area of calm called the doldrums. *In the doldrums, which is close to the Equator, the warmer air rises, creating a zone of low pressure, where it rains almost every afternoon.

75 *Prevailing Westerlies are winds that blow in the opposite direction of the trade winds and are responsible for most of the weather across North America

76 *Jet Streams - are winds that blow near the top of the Troposphere ( layer of the Atmosphere closer to the Earth) These winds help move storms from one area to another.

77 1) What is the definition of atmosphere and the composition of the atmosphere 2) What are the different layers of the atmosphere and in which layer do we leave? 3) What is Ionosphere? Review Chapter 4 4) What is the Ozone layer and is it important? In which layer of the atmosphere is I located? 5) Explain the effect of CFCs in the Ozone Layer. 6) What are some of the causes of the hole in the Ozone layer?

78 7) What is Hydrosphere? 8) Explain the difference between the 3 ways in which heat can be transferred in the atmosphere. 9) Explain the relationship among air temperature, air density and low or high atmospheric pressure. 10) What are the two types of local winds? Explain the movement of the local winds during a period of 24 hours. 11) What happens to the atmospheric pressure when you go up in altitude??? Why? 12) -What are doldrums and why does it rain frequently in the doldrums area?

79 End of Chapter Summary File

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