# Today. life the university & everything. Reminders: Review Wed & Fri Eyes to the web Final Exam Tues May 3 Check in on accomodations

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1 life the university & everything Phys 2130 Day 41: Questions? The Universe Reminders: Review Wed & Fri Eyes to the web Final Exam Tues May 3 Check in on accomodations Today Today: - how big is the universe? - how old is the universe? - what is the past and future of the universe? - if time, what's it made of / what we don't know 1

2 Problem with cosmology: - Only one experiment and it is taking long time. - Hard to control or wait long enough. Compromise 1) make consistent with laws of physics about light, atoms etc., 2) think hard about all possible options that satisfy 1, 3) try to predict stuff not yet looked for. (use logic and reason!) Challenge me- other explanations, etc. 4) test theory with computer simulation, do the results match observations? In your lifetime, age of universe changed by several billion years, and volume changed by ~ factor of 2 look up what do we see? bunch of little lights on black background. Model 1 for universe: Black ceiling with bunch of little lights stuck on. Using this model, We predict no relative motion... Take more data. Problem? a. no b. some move c. all move b. some move. 2

3 Look with telescope. Ones that move also look like round objects with all kinds of stuff on them, moons around them. Planets. How far away are the ones that do not move? (stars) a. 10 x distance to moon. b x DtM. c. x 1 million DtM. d. x 100 million DtM. e. x 10 billion DtM. How to find out? Distance and speed are key to understand the nature of the universe. Observations show various range of brightness. Maybe the dim ones are farther away? Model #2: Planets are close, then infinite space with stars spread out uniformly through it. Always has been like that. Problem with this model? Would predict you see stars anywhere you looked so entire sky would be very bright. 3

4 Where is the edge? How can we tell how far away stars are? Two lights in dark. Which is farther away? How to tell? Think of group answer. a. farther one less bright- Intensity = Power/4πr 2, smaller r, bigger I b. parallax, move head, farther away moves less. Jan. D D=h/ θ if θin radians star h like using your 2 eyes July Earth-sun dist = 1.5 x m 1 light year = distance light travels in a year. = 3 x 10 8 m/s x 3.15 x 10 7 s = 9.5 x m. Boulder to India 0.1 light seconds; Earth to sun = 8 light min 4

5 Whole bunch of others stars (200 billion) But parallax only good to 3,000 lt yr, then angles too small to measure. How to get farther stars? Method 2 for measuring distance. Brightness. light intensity meter r farther away, less light Method 2 for measuring distance. Brightness. Light bulb, dark room. Measure intensity at point A and then at point B: Reading at A will be a. twice as large as B, b. same B, c. 1/2 of B d. 1/4 of B e. 1/8 of B A B light intensity meter farther away, less light 5

6 Problem with method- not all stars are same brightness. but using parallax get to check how well it works with 5 million or so! Approach: Identify type and temperature of stars by looking at colors emitted Connect up exact type and temperature of star with amount of power produced. (Hotter more in blue, more power)! Use brightness to measure distance to rest of stars. r light intensity meter farther away, less light Universe is a very big place!! Billions of light years (long ways) Hubble- amazing discovery in Almost all galaxies moving away from us. Farther are moving faster! 1. How did he come to this amazing conclusion? 2. What does this say about the behavior and age of universe? 3. Do we have any proof? 6

7 Doppler Shift sees longer wavelength (lower freq.) waves sees shorter wavelength (higher freq.) waves Light appears shifted towards red = redshifted freq see = freq 0 x (1 + vel light-person /c) Light appears shifted towards blue =blueshifted Δfreq = freq 0 x (vel object /c) c = wavelength x freq. = λf So if knew freq 0 which is frequency of light emitted by star, and then measured how much freq shifted, can figure out velocity. But how can we know freq 0??? a. all stars same colors as sun, just compare with it b. each type of star gives off all its light at one particular wavelength. Just need table for different types of stars. c. the particular colors of hydrogen atoms in the stars d. the particular colors of neon atoms stars 7

8 To use Doppler shift, you must know the rest-velocity wavelengths Usually involves measuring the gas in a lab (on Earth) Then, measure redshift or blueshift of the astronomical object to get the velocity towards or away you. Which object is moving away the fastest? A B C D 1 pc 3.3 ly velocity HUBBLE'S LAW Best current values for expansion H o = 71 +/- 4 km/s/mpc HUBBLE'S CONSTANT straight line means described by v = H 0 D distance 1.5 billion ly Hubble's 1929 plot extended only to 2 Mpc, H o was ~500! 8

9 What could explain this behavior? a little complicated Like expanding out on surface of expanding balloon. All parts appear to spread out from each other. Where center was, not so obvious. vs. Thought experiment: If all expanding now run the clock backwards. There must have been a time when everything was in one place. 9

10 What would happen if all matter in universe start expanding out of big bang? (George Gamow, CU ) Predicted in Start out as EM energy, expands and cools. After ~100,000 years. cold enough (3000 K) to turn into atoms. But universe has continued to expand by a factor of 1000 since then. Should look like light (far IR) emitted from an object of about 3 K above absolute zero. ( Cosmic Microwave Background ) In 1964 Penzias and Wilson (working for a telephone company) accidentally discovered! Observations of cosmic microwave background theoretical calc. of what should look like. Thermal radiation from 2.7 K source. (really cold light bulb) Model of how big bang energy converted into matter also predict ratio of amount of hydrogen/amount of helium in universe. Matches exactly with measurements. Puzzle- CMB looks very uniform. Big bang started with giant expansion from tiny volume, how did matter end up clumping up to form galaxies, clusters of galaxies, stars, etc. Why not just stay uniform cloud of H and He? Theory said could be fluctuations in original cosmic fireball. Make little patches of more energy that leads to more mass, then gravity makes clump up. But if was true, remnants of these tiny cosmic fluctuations should have been left on cosmic background radiation. 10

11 Big Bang origin of universe arguments-- review- 1) Sky not all bright, implies must be edge (in space or time). 2) Hubble expansion, see galaxies moving away. Speed proportional to distance. Implies started at one place ~15 billion years ago. 3) That implies universe started super hot and so hot radiation would be left over, but cooling off as univ. expands. 4) This radiation observed. (cosmic background radiation) Looks like thermal radiation from object 2.7 degrees above absolute zero. Just as predicted by big bang theory. 5) Detailed theory said CMB should have tiny wrinkles in intensity corresponding to clumping of matter to get galaxies. Also is observed. Gravitational attraction: F = GM 1 M 2 /r 2 (attractive) distance M 1 r M 2 So gravitational attraction must be trying to pull them all back together. Slowing down expansion. Shoot off rocket straight up from earth What different things can happen to it and why? What basic features determine which it will be? 11

12 What is the fate of the Universe? Recollapse to gnab gib: Crushing heat Destruction of all matter Rebirth? Death by Fire Eternal expansion: Cold, galaxies dimming Death by Ice Star formation slowing Everything winds up as a brown dwarf, black dwarf, neutron star or black hole Dark Matter- stuff we can't see. Interacts only by gravity. Why do we think it exists and 8 times more of it than normal matter? Can measure mass in other galaxies!! Just uses Newton's laws and law of gravity. circular orbit what is v doing? 12

13 Effect of Black Hole What if we replaced our own sun with a black hole of the same mass? a) We would spiral in (to our death!) b) We would shoot straight in c) Nothing would change d) We would spiral out (because it was too weak to hold our orbit) e) Something else c) Gravity depends upon mass not size -- same pull inward 2. Do same experiment with clusters of galaxies. V R M Get same result. M is about 8 times bigger than the mass of the stars in the galaxies. 13

14 Data Set #2: Gravitational Lenses Dark (& luminous) matter warps space acts like a lens and distorts and magnifies the view of more distant galaxies We can use the images to reveal how much mass is in the cluster Estimated mass of visible galaxies is too small End of universe?: 1) Too much velocity for grav. to stop (escape velocity). 2) Expansion stops and turns around. What basic properties determine which it will be? 14

15 Supernovae experiments show something entirely different!! Universe is accelerating?!?! What the? Funny thing happened when looking for the mass. Found what we see (stars, dust, planets, comets, ) only small fraction of what is out there!??????? data pretty good as to amounts. mass we don't see, pretty sure it's there really weird stuff (sort of anti-mass) suggested by newest new data. 15

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