Today in class Review: The Sky and Celestial Motion The Science and History of Planetary Motion

Save this PDF as:
Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Today in class Review: The Sky and Celestial Motion The Science and History of Planetary Motion"

Transcription

1 Today in class : The Sky and Celestial Motion The Planetary Motion

2 : Celestial Motion

3 Question concepts Question #1: During a single day or night, the Sun, Moon, stars and planets all appear to move across the sky together. Their relative positions change relatively slowly from night to night. Question #2: As the Earth orbits the Sun, the night side of the Earth is oriented in a different direction in space, always away from the Sun. As a result, at different times of year different constellations are visible in the night sky. Question #3: Using a figure like that below, where the earth may be located in various positions around its orbit, characterize the location of constellations in the sky at various times (sunset, midnight, noon). For example, the constellation directly on the opposite side of the earth from the sun will be highest in the sky at midnight. Gemini Taurus Aries Earth Pisces Sun Aquarius Capricornus Sagittarius Cancer Leo Virgo Libra Scorpius

4 Science vs. the scientific method Intro to scientific models of the heliocentric model of the solar system More about scientific practice

5 The ancient question, resolved in 1600 s - Apparent Retrograde Planetary Motion Planets appear to turn around and back up at certain points during their movement among the stars. Due to the motion of the earth and planets around the Sun.

6 Science vs. the Science: The body of scientific information (facts and inferences) and their confidence levels, relationships The community supporting and refining these ideas The scientific method: hypothesize, test, evaluate, refine, repeat The process by which ideas are increased (or decreased) in confidence level

7 Scientific model nomenclature Models/hypotheses/theories/laws are largely synonyms example: s laws of planetary motion are not physical laws at all, are observed empirical relations Newton s theory of gravity is incorrect (Einstein s is better ) but we still call it a theory and call its constituent principles laws. Distinctions are sometimes made in certain cases, but these are largely contextual in this lecture sun-centered solar system is hypothesis even though actually proven fact A model can be both right and wrong Even an incorrect model can continue to have utility A model can be just wrong there are many incorrect models that have no utility utility = ability to predict outcomes of situations

8 The ancient question, resolved in 1600 s - Apparent Retrograde Planetary Motion Planets appear to turn around and back up at certain points during their movement among the stars. Due to the motion of the earth and planets around the Sun.

9 The Models (at this point hypotheses ) Sun-centered projection effect Earth-centered circles on circles (epicycles)

10 Ptolemaic model - c. 100 Based on ideas developed in ancient Greece Greeks developed both earth and sun-centered models Earth-centered model favored because it was thought that the earth must be static Stars don t shift as Earth moves - In fact they do, it is just very small (parallax) Movement of Earth is inconsistent with motion of objects on Earth - In fact, Aristotle s laws of motion were wrong Provided reasonably accurate prediction

11 Copernican model s formalized existing proposal in 1500 s to allow better comparison He was convinced sun-centered provided a simpler explanation for retrograde motion To provide accurate predictions with circular motions, just as complicated as Ptolemaic model (circles on circles were needed) Still concerned about a moving Earth

12 Question concepts Question #4: A sun-centered solar system had been considered as a possibility since Greek times, even though it was disfavored until the 1600s. Question #5: When formalized the sun-centered solar system, it inferred a different movement in space of the planets. However, it was not significantly simpler in its initial form, and also the observations of planet motion at the time were consistent with either the sun- or earth-centered model.

13 measured by multiple independent parties conjecture "reasonable" speculation Unlikely speculation Disproven earth-centered had slightly higher confidence at the time because it was thought self-evident that the earth wasn t moving The scale of scientific confidence: tool to help you categorize scientific ideas position of idea on scale can depend on person At high levels of confidence, answer is universal at lower levels of confidence, scientists can disagree Experimental evidence (from multiple sources) is given the highest confidence different confidence in trustworthy and not trustworthy sources of evidence

14 Brahe - late 1500 s Realized need for more accurate measurements and performed them In the face of competing theories which are both unsatisfactory, gather better data! This might point the way to a theory better than both In this case both Ptolemaic and Copernican models were wrong in detailed comparisons to data Shows importance of technical capability to advancing scientific understanding

15 - early 1600 s By abandoning circles was able to develop a highly accurate sun-centered model Stated in 3 laws (will be discussed more later) Orbits are ellipses Equal area in equal time (sets orbital speed) Quantitative relation between period and orbit size

16 When Tides Change in Science The new precision of s measurements (facts) made a earth-centered solar system an unlikely inference. s laws, which were sun-centered, provided a more compelling inference because they were very consistent with s observations of planet motion in the sky. This drove a historical shift in opinion toward a sun-centered solar system. Elevated the confidence of sun-centered model over Earth-centered. But the motion of the Earth had not been detected (actually it wouldn t be until the 1800 s).

17 Facts and Inferences Inference can t have higher confidence than facts on which it is based, and may have much lower measured by multiple independent parties conjecture "reasonable" speculation Unlikely speculation Disproven Facts: observations bare results of experiments (what happened) line can get blurry for extremely well tested theories Example: the motion of the planets in the sky Inferences: often first called hypotheses may have very high or low confidence Example: (historically) the motion of the planets/sun in space

Remember that for one of your observing projects you can go to a star party (stargazing). This is available at the Lawrence Hall of Science every 1st

Remember that for one of your observing projects you can go to a star party (stargazing). This is available at the Lawrence Hall of Science every 1st Observing Project Remember that for one of your observing projects you can go to a star party (stargazing). This is available at the Lawrence Hall of Science every 1st and 3rd Saturday of the month. For

More information

chapter 10 questions_pictures removed.notebook September 28, 2017 Chapter 10 What We Know About the Universe Has Taken Us Thousands of Years to Learn

chapter 10 questions_pictures removed.notebook September 28, 2017 Chapter 10 What We Know About the Universe Has Taken Us Thousands of Years to Learn 1. Define Star (Pg 352) Chapter 10 What We Know About the Universe Has Taken Us Thousands of Years to Learn A celestial body of hot gases with a nuclear furnace at its core that makes its own thermal energy.

More information

Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe

Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe In ancient times phenomena in the sky were not understood! Chapter 2 The Science of Life in the Universe The Ancient Greeks The Scientific Method Our ideas must always be consistent with our observations!

More information

drinking straw, protractor, string, and rock. observer on Earth. Sun across the sky on March 21 as seen by an

drinking straw, protractor, string, and rock. observer on Earth. Sun across the sky on March 21 as seen by an 1. The diagram below represents some constellations and one position of Earth in its orbit around the Sun. These constellations are visible to an observer on Earth at different times of the year. When

More information

SCIENCE 9 CHAPTER 10 SECTION 1

SCIENCE 9 CHAPTER 10 SECTION 1 SCIENCE 9 CHAPTER 10 SECTION 1 Observing the Stars (pp. 352-365) Celestial Bodies Celestial body: a natural object in space, such as the Sun, the Moon, a planet, or a star Star: a celestial body of hot

More information

- SPACE/TIME GUIDE ARIES. Matariki rises late evening & is visible until early morning. Matariki rises. at dusk & is visible until late LEO

- SPACE/TIME GUIDE ARIES. Matariki rises late evening & is visible until early morning. Matariki rises. at dusk & is visible until late LEO TEACHER RESOURCE STARDOME OBSERVATORY & PLANETARIUM FACTS, RESOURCES AND ACTIVITIES ON... MATARIKI SCIENCE CONTENT/ CURRICULUM LINK ASTRONOMICAL SYSTEMS - SPACE/TIME GUIDE The star cluster Matariki plays

More information

Physics Lab #4: Learning Starry Night, Part 3

Physics Lab #4: Learning Starry Night, Part 3 Physics 10293 Lab #4: Learning Starry Night, Part 3 Introduction In this lab, we will continue using Starry Night to explore some of the most important concepts we will cover in lecture. Continue with

More information

Was Ptolemy Pstupid?

Was Ptolemy Pstupid? Was Ptolemy Pstupid? Why such a silly title for today s lecture? Sometimes we tend to think that ancient astronomical ideas were stupid because today we know that they were wrong. But, while their models

More information

1. The bar graph below shows one planetary characteristic, identified as X, plotted for the planets of our solar system.

1. The bar graph below shows one planetary characteristic, identified as X, plotted for the planets of our solar system. 1. The bar graph below shows one planetary characteristic, identified as X, plotted for the planets of our solar system. Which characteristic of the planets in our solar system is represented by X? A)

More information

Ast ch 4-5 practice Test Multiple Choice

Ast ch 4-5 practice Test Multiple Choice Ast ch 4-5 practice Test Multiple Choice 1. The distance from Alexandria to Syene is about 500 miles. On the summer solstice the sun is directly overhead at noon in Syene. At Alexandria on the summer solstice,

More information

Test Bank for Life in the Universe, Third Edition Chapter 2: The Science of Life in the Universe

Test Bank for Life in the Universe, Third Edition Chapter 2: The Science of Life in the Universe 1. The possibility of extraterrestrial life was first considered A) after the invention of the telescope B) only during the past few decades C) many thousands of years ago during ancient times D) at the

More information

Announcements. Topics To Be Covered in this Lecture

Announcements. Topics To Be Covered in this Lecture Announcements! Tonight s observing session is cancelled (due to clouds)! the next one will be one week from now, weather permitting! The 2 nd LearningCurve activity was due earlier today! Assignment 2

More information

Models of the Solar System, Gravitation and the motion of the Planets A.K.A DEAD WHITE GUYS WEEK! 1/28/14

Models of the Solar System, Gravitation and the motion of the Planets A.K.A DEAD WHITE GUYS WEEK! 1/28/14 Models of the Solar System, Gravitation and the motion of the Planets A.K.A DEAD WHITE GUYS WEEK! 1/28/14 Cosmogony A cosmogony is theory about ones place in the universe. A geocentric cosmogony is a theory

More information

Copernican Revolution. Motions of the sky. Motions of the sky. Copernican Revolution: questions on reading assignment

Copernican Revolution. Motions of the sky. Motions of the sky. Copernican Revolution: questions on reading assignment Copernican Revolution Motion of the sun & planets Ptolemy s Almagest Copernicus de Revolutionibus Orbium Caelestium, (Concerning Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres), 1543 Galileo refutes Ptolemy with

More information

Competing Models. The Ptolemaic system (Geocentric) The Copernican system (Heliocentric)

Competing Models. The Ptolemaic system (Geocentric) The Copernican system (Heliocentric) Competing Models The Ptolemaic system (Geocentric) The Copernican system (Heliocentric) How did Galileo solidify the Copernican revolution? Galileo overcame major objections to the Copernican view. Three

More information

If Earth had no tilt, what else would happen?

If Earth had no tilt, what else would happen? A more in depth explanation from last week: If Earth had no tilt, what else would happen? The equator would be much hotter due to the direct sunlight which would lead to a lower survival rate and little

More information

Learning Objectives. one night? Over the course of several nights? How do true motion and retrograde motion differ?

Learning Objectives. one night? Over the course of several nights? How do true motion and retrograde motion differ? Kepler s Laws Learning Objectives! Do the planets move east or west over the course of one night? Over the course of several nights? How do true motion and retrograde motion differ?! What are geocentric

More information

Name: Partner(s): Day/Time: Version: plan

Name: Partner(s): Day/Time: Version: plan Precession of the equinoxes https://dept.astro.lsa.umich.edu/ugactivities/labs/precession/precession.html 1 of 3 7/27/2016 10:14 PM Name: Partner(s): Day/Time: Version: plan Precession - Planetarium Activity

More information

Lecture 2 Motions in the Sky September 10, 2018

Lecture 2 Motions in the Sky September 10, 2018 1 Lecture 2 Motions in the Sky September 10, 2018 2 What is your year in school? A. New freshman B. Returning freshman C. Sophomore D. Junior E. Senior F. I ve been here, like, forever 3 What is your major?

More information

Astronomy. The Seasons

Astronomy. The Seasons Astronomy The Seasons The seasons are caused by the inclination of the Earth s axis: when a hemisphere is tipped toward the Sun, the Sun is more directly above it. At the Summer Solstice the tilt is most

More information

Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 21

Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 21 Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 21 Early history of astronomy Ancient Greeks Used philosophical arguments to explain natural phenomena Also used some observa:onal data (looking at the night sky) Ancient

More information

Chapter 02 The Rise of Astronomy

Chapter 02 The Rise of Astronomy Chapter 02 The Rise of Astronomy Multiple Choice Questions 1. The moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because A. You are closer to it when it rises (angular-size relation).

More information

History of Astronomy. PHYS 1411 Introduction to Astronomy. Tycho Brahe and Exploding Stars. Tycho Brahe ( ) Chapter 4. Renaissance Period

History of Astronomy. PHYS 1411 Introduction to Astronomy. Tycho Brahe and Exploding Stars. Tycho Brahe ( ) Chapter 4. Renaissance Period PHYS 1411 Introduction to Astronomy History of Astronomy Chapter 4 Renaissance Period Copernicus new (and correct) explanation for retrograde motion of the planets Copernicus new (and correct) explanation

More information

D. A system of assumptions and principles applicable to a wide range of phenomena that has been repeatedly verified

D. A system of assumptions and principles applicable to a wide range of phenomena that has been repeatedly verified ASTRONOMY 1 EXAM 1 Name Identify Terms - Matching (20 @ 1 point each = 20 pts.) 1 Solar System G 7. aphelion N 14. eccentricity M 2. Planet E 8. apparent visual magnitude R 15. empirical Q 3. Star P 9.

More information

Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself

Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself 2.1 Patterns in the Night Sky Our goals for learning: What does the universe look like from Earth? Why do stars rise and set? Why do the constellations we

More information

Chapter 2 The Copernican Revolution

Chapter 2 The Copernican Revolution Chapter 2 The Copernican Revolution Units of Chapter 2 2.1 Ancient Astronomy 2.2 The Geocentric Universe 2.3 The Heliocentric Model of the Solar System The Foundations of the Copernican Revolution 2.4

More information

Today. Review. Momentum and Force Consider the rate of change of momentum. What is Momentum?

Today. Review. Momentum and Force Consider the rate of change of momentum. What is Momentum? Today Announcements: HW# is due Wednesday 8:00 am. HW#3 will be due Wednesday Feb.4 at 8:00am Review and Newton s 3rd Law Gravity, Planetary Orbits - Important lesson in how science works and how ultimately

More information

1 Astronomy: The Original Science

1 Astronomy: The Original Science CHAPTER 18 1 Astronomy: The Original Science SECTION Studying Space BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: How do astronomers define a day, a month,

More information

Introduction To Modern Astronomy II

Introduction To Modern Astronomy II ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 03 Sep. 18, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy II Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17) Ch1: Astronomy and the Universe Ch2: Knowing the Heavens

More information

Ancient Cosmology: A Flat Earth. Alexandria

Ancient Cosmology: A Flat Earth. Alexandria Today Competing Cosmologies Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Ptolemy vs. copernicus Retrograde Motion Phases of Venus Galileo FIRST HOMEWORK DUE How d it work? Ancient Cosmology: A Flat Earth Here there be

More information

cosmogony geocentric heliocentric How the Greeks modeled the heavens

cosmogony geocentric heliocentric How the Greeks modeled the heavens Cosmogony A cosmogony is theory about ones place in the universe. A geocentric cosmogony is a theory that proposes Earth to be at the center of the universe. A heliocentric cosmogony is a theory that proposes

More information

C) D) 2. The model below shows the apparent path of the Sun as seen by an observer in New York State on the first day of one of the four seasons.

C) D) 2. The model below shows the apparent path of the Sun as seen by an observer in New York State on the first day of one of the four seasons. 1. Which diagram best represents the regions of Earth in sunlight on June 21 and December 21? [NP indicates the North Pole and the shading represents Earth's night side. Diagrams are not drawn to scale.]

More information

Across the Universe. By Gabrielle Sierra

Across the Universe. By Gabrielle Sierra Across the Universe By Gabrielle Sierra Our universe is an amazing place. Since prehistoric days, inquisitive minds have been wondering about the celestial objects that surround our planet, and today scientists

More information

Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens

Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens Earth Science, 13e Tarbuck & Lutgens Origins of Modern Astronomy Earth Science, 13e Chapter 21 Stanley C. Hatfield Southwestern Illinois College Early history of astronomy Ancient Greeks Used philosophical

More information

The History of Astronomy. Please pick up your assigned transmitter.

The History of Astronomy. Please pick up your assigned transmitter. The History of Astronomy Please pick up your assigned transmitter. When did mankind first become interested in the science of astronomy? 1. With the advent of modern computer technology (mid-20 th century)

More information

Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets

Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets Chapter Four Guiding Questions 1. How did ancient astronomers explain the motions of the planets? 2. Why did Copernicus think that the Earth and the other planets

More information

Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets. Chapter Four

Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets. Chapter Four Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets Chapter Four Guiding Questions 1. How did ancient astronomers explain the motions of the planets? 2. Why did Copernicus think that the Earth and the other planets

More information

Chapter 4. The Origin Of Modern Astronomy. Is okay to change your phone? From ios to Android From Android to ios

Chapter 4. The Origin Of Modern Astronomy. Is okay to change your phone? From ios to Android From Android to ios Chapter 4 The Origin Of Modern Astronomy Slide 14 Slide 15 14 15 Is Change Good or Bad? Do you like Homer to look like Homer or with hair? Does it bother you when your schedule is changed? Is it okay to

More information

Astronomy 100 Section 2 MWF Greg Hall. Outline. Total Lunar Eclipse Time Lapse. Homework #1 is due Friday, 11:50 a.m.!!!!!

Astronomy 100 Section 2 MWF Greg Hall. Outline. Total Lunar Eclipse Time Lapse. Homework #1 is due Friday, 11:50 a.m.!!!!! Astronomy 100 Section 2 MWF 1200-1300 100 Greg Hall Leslie Looney Phone: 217-244-3615 Email: lwl @ uiuc. edu Office: Astro Building #218 Office Hours: MTF 10:30-11:30 a.m. or by appointment Homework #1

More information

Introduction To Modern Astronomy I

Introduction To Modern Astronomy I ASTR 111 003 Fall 2006 Lecture 03 Sep. 18, 2006 Introduction To Modern Astronomy I Introducing Astronomy (chap. 1-6) Planets and Moons (chap. 7-17) Ch1: Astronomy and the Universe Ch2: Knowing the Heavens

More information

Observing the Universe for Yourself

Observing the Universe for Yourself Observing the Universe for Yourself Figure 6-20 Solar-System Formation What does the universe look like from Earth? With the naked eye, we can see more than 2,000 stars as well as the Milky Way. A constellation

More information

Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself

Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself 2.1 Patterns in the Night Sky Our goals for learning: What does the universe look like from Earth? Why do stars rise and set? Why do the constellations we

More information

Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets

Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets Gravitation and the Motion of the Planets 1 Guiding Questions 1. How did ancient astronomers explain the motions of the planets? 2. Why did Copernicus think that the Earth and the other planets go around

More information

Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself. What does the universe look like from Earth? Constellations. 2.1 Patterns in the Night Sky

Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself. What does the universe look like from Earth? Constellations. 2.1 Patterns in the Night Sky Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself 2.1 Patterns in the Night Sky Our goals for learning: What does the universe look like from Earth? Why do stars rise and set? Why do the constellations we

More information

Early Models of the Universe. How we explained those big shiny lights in the sky

Early Models of the Universe. How we explained those big shiny lights in the sky Early Models of the Universe How we explained those big shiny lights in the sky The Greek philosopher Aristotle (384 322 BCE) believed that the Earth was the center of our universe, and everything rotated

More information

Astronomy 120 Winter 2005 Highlights of Astronomy. First Midterm Examination

Astronomy 120 Winter 2005 Highlights of Astronomy. First Midterm Examination Astronomy 120 Winter 2005 Highlights of Astronomy First Midterm Examination Name: MULTIPLE CHOICE: Choose the one best answer from among the five choices for each of the following 6 questions. Each correct

More information

Copernican Revolution 15 Jan. Copernican Revolution: questions on reading assignment

Copernican Revolution 15 Jan. Copernican Revolution: questions on reading assignment Copernican Revolution 15 Jan Final exam is Wed, May 6 th, not 5 th. Questions on reading Motion of the sun & planets Ptolemy s Almagest Copernicus de Revolutionibus Orbium Caelestium, (Concerning Revolutions

More information

Seasons & Constellations

Seasons & Constellations Name Bell Date ACTIVITY: Seasons & Constellations Seasons & Constellations * During autumn, we see the constellation Orion in the dark early morning sky. In winter, we see Orion in the night sky. In summer,

More information

Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself. Copyright 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Discovering the Universe for Yourself 1 2.1 Patterns in the Night Sky Our goals for learning: What does the universe look like from Earth? Why do stars rise and set? Why do the constellations

More information

Problem Set I Observing the Sky: The Birth of Astronomy

Problem Set I Observing the Sky: The Birth of Astronomy Problem Set I Observing the Sky: The Birth of Astronomy Problem 1.1 The ideal terrestrial locations from which one can observe all the stars over the course of a year lie along the Earth s equator, which,

More information

Phys Homework Set 2 Fall 2015 Exam Name

Phys Homework Set 2 Fall 2015 Exam Name Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) About how many stars are visible on a clear, dark night with the naked eye alone? 1)

More information

Phys Homework Set 2 Fall 2015 Exam Name

Phys Homework Set 2 Fall 2015 Exam Name Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Increasing the temperature of a blackbody by a factor of 2 will increase its energy by

More information

Phases of the Moon. Two perspectives: On Earth, or outside the Moon s orbit. More Phases. What if we zoom out? Phases of the Moon Demo 2/3/17

Phases of the Moon. Two perspectives: On Earth, or outside the Moon s orbit. More Phases. What if we zoom out? Phases of the Moon Demo 2/3/17 Phases of the Moon The Moon goes through a set of phases about once every month Month comes from the word moon Time period of the phases (from Full Moon to Full Moon) is 29.5 days. The different phases

More information

First MIDTERM Exam: Mon, Sep. 22, covering chapters tutorials (review later today).

First MIDTERM Exam: Mon, Sep. 22, covering chapters tutorials (review later today). Announcements First MIDTERM Exam: Mon, Sep. 22, covering chapters 1 3 + tutorials (review later today). Interim grades online, coded by class ID. See course website Grades tab. Another great night for

More information

Review of previous concepts!! Earth s orbit: Year, seasons, observed constellations, Polaris (North star), day/night lengths, equinoxes

Review of previous concepts!! Earth s orbit: Year, seasons, observed constellations, Polaris (North star), day/night lengths, equinoxes Review of previous concepts!! Earth s orbit: Year, seasons, observed constellations, Polaris (North star), day/night lengths, equinoxes Celestial poles, celestial equator, ecliptic, ecliptic plane (Fig

More information

Summary Sheet #1 for Astronomy Main Lesson

Summary Sheet #1 for Astronomy Main Lesson Summary Sheet #1 for Astronomy Main Lesson From our perspective on earth The earth appears flat. We can see half the celestial sphere at any time. The earth s axis is always perpendicular to the equator.

More information

The Scientific Method

The Scientific Method Chapter 1 The Scientific Method http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/physical/bookpage/ Chapter 1 Outline: Main Ideas Scientists make science work The Scientific Method Science is a process Exploring Nature An

More information

Evidence that the Earth does not move: Greek Astronomy. Aristotelian Cosmology: Motions of the Planets. Ptolemy s Geocentric Model 2-1

Evidence that the Earth does not move: Greek Astronomy. Aristotelian Cosmology: Motions of the Planets. Ptolemy s Geocentric Model 2-1 Greek Astronomy Aristotelian Cosmology: Evidence that the Earth does not move: 1. Stars do not exhibit parallax: 2-1 At the center of the universe is the Earth: Changeable and imperfect. Above the Earth

More information

Lecture #4: Plan. Early Ideas of the Heavens (cont d): Geocentric Universe Heliocentric Universe

Lecture #4: Plan. Early Ideas of the Heavens (cont d): Geocentric Universe Heliocentric Universe Lecture #4: Plan Early Ideas of the Heavens (cont d): Shape & size of the Earth Size & distance of Moon & Sun Geocentric Universe Heliocentric Universe Shape of the Earth Aristotle (Greece, 384 322 B.C.)

More information

Most of the time during full and new phases, the Moon lies above or below the Sun in the sky.

Most of the time during full and new phases, the Moon lies above or below the Sun in the sky. 6/16 Eclipses: We don t have eclipses every month because the plane of the Moon s orbit about the Earth is different from the plane the ecliptic, the Earth s orbital plane about the Sun. The planes of

More information

lightyears observable universe astronomical unit po- laris perihelion Milky Way

lightyears observable universe astronomical unit po- laris perihelion Milky Way 1 Chapter 1 Astronomical distances are so large we typically measure distances in lightyears: the distance light can travel in one year, or 9.46 10 12 km or 9, 600, 000, 000, 000 km. Looking into the sky

More information

Unit 1 Discovering the Heavens I. Introduction to Astronomy A. Celestial Sphere

Unit 1 Discovering the Heavens I. Introduction to Astronomy A. Celestial Sphere Unit 1 Discovering the Heavens I. Introduction to Astronomy A. Celestial Sphere celestial sphere - a model that represents the real sky with the Earth at the center - used to help visualize positions of

More information

Astronomy 1010 Planetary Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 1

Astronomy 1010 Planetary Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 1 Astronomy 1010 Planetary Astronomy Sample Questions for Exam 1 Chapter 1 1. A scientific hypothesis is a) a wild, baseless guess about how something works. b) a collection of ideas that seems to explain

More information

Chapter 2 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Discovering the Universe for Yourself Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 2 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Discovering the Universe for Yourself Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 2 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Discovering the Universe for Yourself Discovering the Universe for Yourself 2.1 Patterns in the Night Sky Our goals for learning: What does the

More information

History of Astronomy. Historical People and Theories

History of Astronomy. Historical People and Theories History of Astronomy Historical People and Theories Plato Believed he could solve everything through reasoning. Circles and Spheres are good because they are perfect (never ending) and pleasing to the

More information

Astronomy 1 Fall 2016

Astronomy 1 Fall 2016 Astronomy 1 Fall 2016 Comet Halley Edmund Halley, a friend of Newton s used Newton s math to predict the return of a comet seen at intervals of 76 years. Lecture 3; September 29, 2016 Previously on Astro-1

More information

Happy Lunar New Year!

Happy Lunar New Year! Happy Lunar New Year! (optional) To keep track of time, humans have created calendars based on the Sun (solar) the Moon (lunar) or both! Today is a New Moon Some Asian countries start the year on the second

More information

The Puzzle of Planetary Motion versus

The Puzzle of Planetary Motion versus The Puzzle of Planetary Motion versus Finding Earth s place in the Universe Observing the Planets Five of the planets are bright enough to be seen by the unaided eye. This view shows the sky after sunset

More information

Planets & The Origin of Science

Planets & The Origin of Science Planets & The Origin of Science Reading: Chapter 2 Required: Guided Discovery (p.44-47) Required: Astro. Toolbox 2-1 Optional: Astro. Toolbox 2-2, 2-3 Next Homework Due. Feb. 26 Office Hours: Monday, 12-2

More information

Physics 107 Ideas of Modern Physics. Goals of the course. How is this done? What will we cover? Where s the math?

Physics 107 Ideas of Modern Physics. Goals of the course. How is this done? What will we cover? Where s the math? Physics 107 Ideas of Modern Physics (uw.physics.wisc.edu/~rzchowski/phy107) Modern Physics: essentially post-1900 Why 1900? Two radical developments: Relativity & Quantum Mechanics Both changed the way

More information

Earth Science, 11e. Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 21. Early history of astronomy. Early history of astronomy. Early history of astronomy

Earth Science, 11e. Origin of Modern Astronomy Chapter 21. Early history of astronomy. Early history of astronomy. Early history of astronomy 2006 Pearson Prentice Hall Lecture Outlines PowerPoint Chapter 21 Earth Science 11e Tarbuck/Lutgens This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors

More information

How big is the Universe and where are we in it?

How big is the Universe and where are we in it? Announcements Results of clicker questions from Monday are on ICON. First homework is graded on ICON. Next homework due one minute before midnight on Tuesday, September 6. Labs start this week. All lab

More information

9/12/2010. The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature. 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force

9/12/2010. The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature. 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force The Four Fundamental Forces of Nature 1. Gravity 2. Electromagnetism 3. The Strong Nuclear Force 4. The Weak Nuclear Force The Universe is made of matter Gravity the force of attraction between matter

More information

,.~ Readlng ~ What,~,~~ is a geocentric system? Chapter3 J 73

,.~ Readlng ~ What,~,~~ is a geocentric system? Chapter3 J 73 Earth at the Center When the ancient Greeks watched the stars move across the sky, they noticed that the patterns of the stars didn t change. Although the stars seemed to move, they stayed in the same

More information

A100 Exploring the Universe: The Invention of Science. Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy

A100 Exploring the Universe: The Invention of Science. Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy A100 Exploring the Universe: The Invention of Science Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy astron100-mdw@courses.umass.edu September 09, 2014 Read: Chap 3 09/09/14 slide 1 Problem Set #1: due this afternoon

More information

ASTR 2310: Chapter 2

ASTR 2310: Chapter 2 Emergence of Modern Astronomy Early Greek Astronomy Ptolemaic Astronomy Copernican Astronomy Galileo: The First Modern Scientist Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion Proof of the Earth's Motion Early Greek

More information

Sky, Celestial Sphere and Constellations

Sky, Celestial Sphere and Constellations Sky, Celestial Sphere and Constellations Last lecture Galaxies are the main building blocks of the universe. Consists of few billions to hundreds of billions of stars, gas clouds (nebulae), star clusters,

More information

Monday, October 3, 2011

Monday, October 3, 2011 We do not ask for what useful purpose the birds do sing, for song is their pleasure since they were created for singing. Similarly, we ought not ask why the human mind troubles to fathom the secrets of

More information

Midterm Review #2-2018

Midterm Review #2-2018 1. Which arrangement of the Sun, the Moon, and Earth results in the highest high tides, and the lowest low tides on Earth? (Diagrams are not drawn to scale.) A) B) C) D) Base your answers to questions

More information

Claudius Ptolemaeus Second Century AD. Jan 5 7:37 AM

Claudius Ptolemaeus Second Century AD. Jan 5 7:37 AM Claudius Ptolemaeus Second Century AD Jan 5 7:37 AM Copernicus: The Foundation Nicholas Copernicus (Polish, 1473 1543): Proposed the first modern heliocentric model, motivated by inaccuracies of the Ptolemaic

More information

1. The Moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because

1. The Moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because 2-1 Copyright 2016 All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of 1. The Moon appears larger when it rises than when it is high in the sky because A. you are

More information

Gravitation Part I. Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler

Gravitation Part I. Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler Gravitation Part I. Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, and Kepler Celestial motions The stars: Uniform daily motion about the celestial poles (rising and setting). The Sun: Daily motion around the celestial

More information

EARTH SCIENCE UNIT 9 -KEY ASTRONOMY

EARTH SCIENCE UNIT 9 -KEY ASTRONOMY EARTH SCIENCE UNIT 9 -KEY ASTRONOMY UNIT 9- ASTRONOMY 2 THE SOLAR SYSTEM I. The Solar System: THE SUN AND ALL CELESTIAL OBJECTS THAT ORBIT THE SUN HELD BY THE SUN S GRAVITY. a. Celestial Body: ANY OBJECT

More information

Introduction to the sky

Introduction to the sky Introduction to the sky On a clear, moonless night, far from city lights, the night sky is magnificent. Roughly 2000 stars are visible to the unaided eye. If you know where to look, you can see Mercury,

More information

2. Descriptive Astronomy ( Astronomy Without a Telescope )

2. Descriptive Astronomy ( Astronomy Without a Telescope ) How do we locate stars in the heavens? 2. Descriptive Astronomy ( Astronomy Without a Telescope ) What stars are visible from a given location? Where is the sun in the sky at any given time? Where are

More information

PHYS103 Hour Exam No. 1 Page: 1

PHYS103 Hour Exam No. 1 Page: 1 PHYS103 Hour Exam No. 1 Page: 1 1 The Ptolemaic model of the Solar system accounted for the daily rising and setting of the Sun by assuming that a. The Sun drops below the surface of the Earth when it

More information

The ecliptic and the sidereal motion of the sun Moon and the planets on it.

The ecliptic and the sidereal motion of the sun Moon and the planets on it. The ecliptic and the sidereal motion of the sun Moon and the planets on it. The following picture is a picture of the sky as it looks about noon on May 18 2012. The light of the Sun has been erased artificially

More information

Practice Test DeAnza College Astronomy 04 Test 1 Spring Quarter 2009

Practice Test DeAnza College Astronomy 04 Test 1 Spring Quarter 2009 Practice Test DeAnza College Astronomy 04 Test 1 Spring Quarter 2009 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Mark answer on Scantron.

More information

BU Astronomy Department AS 10X courses. Night Lab 2 What s the name of that star?

BU Astronomy Department AS 10X courses. Night Lab 2 What s the name of that star? BU Astronomy Department AS 10X courses Night Lab 2 What s the name of that star? The objectives for this Night Lab are: To learn how to find constellations and other objects in the sky using a star chart

More information

The following notes roughly correspond to Section 2.4 and Chapter 3 of the text by Bennett. This note focuses on the details of the transition for a

The following notes roughly correspond to Section 2.4 and Chapter 3 of the text by Bennett. This note focuses on the details of the transition for a The following notes roughly correspond to Section 2.4 and Chapter 3 of the text by Bennett. This note focuses on the details of the transition for a geocentric model for understanding the universe to a

More information

d. Galileo Galilei i. Heard about lenses being used to magnify objects 1. created his own telescopes to 30 power not the inventor! 2. looked

d. Galileo Galilei i. Heard about lenses being used to magnify objects 1. created his own telescopes to 30 power not the inventor! 2. looked 1. Age of Reason a. Nicolaus Copernicus 1473-1543 i. Commenteriolus manuscript circulated from 1512 1. unpublished 2. Heliocentric hypothesis ii. On the Revolutions of the Planets published year of his

More information

Brock University. Test 1, October 2017 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P01, Section 1 Number of Students: 470 Date of Examination: October 3, 2017

Brock University. Test 1, October 2017 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P01, Section 1 Number of Students: 470 Date of Examination: October 3, 2017 Brock University Test 1, October 2017 Number of pages: 9 Course: ASTR 1P01, Section 1 Number of Students: 470 Date of Examination: October 3, 2017 Number of hours: 50 min Time of Examination: 17:00 17:50

More information

You should have finished reading Chapter 3, and started on chapter 4 for next week.

You should have finished reading Chapter 3, and started on chapter 4 for next week. Announcements Homework due on Sunday at 11:45pm. Thank your classmate! You should have finished reading Chapter 3, and started on chapter 4 for next week. Don t forget your out of class planetarium show

More information

Astronomy- The Original Science

Astronomy- The Original Science Astronomy- The Original Science Imagine that it is 5,000 years ago. Clocks and modern calendars have not been invented. How would you tell time or know what day it is? One way to tell the time is to study

More information

Yr1 Lesson 1. The Great Circles of Astrology, the Angles, Precession,

Yr1 Lesson 1. The Great Circles of Astrology, the Angles, Precession, Yr1 Lesson 1 The Great Circles of Astrology, the Angles, Precession, Cosmic Intelligence Agency 2015 Astro Lesson 1! Signs, Symbols, Glyphs and Charts! The Celestial Sphere Great Circles of Astrology -

More information

Position 3. None - it is always above the horizon. Agree with student 2; star B never crosses horizon plane, so it can t rise or set.

Position 3. None - it is always above the horizon. Agree with student 2; star B never crosses horizon plane, so it can t rise or set. Position 3 None - it is always above the horizon. N E W S Agree with student 2; star B never crosses horizon plane, so it can t rise or set. Imaginary plane No; the Earth blocks the view. Star A at position

More information

History of Astronomy - Part I. Ancient Astronomy. Ancient Greece. Astronomy is a science that has truly taken shape only in the last couple centuries

History of Astronomy - Part I. Ancient Astronomy. Ancient Greece. Astronomy is a science that has truly taken shape only in the last couple centuries History of Astronomy - Part I Astronomy is a science that has truly taken shape only in the last couple centuries Many advances have been made in your lifetime However, astronomical concepts and ideas

More information

A100 Exploring the Universe: The Rise of Science. Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy

A100 Exploring the Universe: The Rise of Science. Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy A100 Exploring the Universe: The Rise of Science Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy weinberg@astro.umass.edu September 11, 2012 Read: Chap 3 09/11/12 slide 1 Problem Set #1 due this afternoon at 5pm! Read:

More information

Lecture 4. Outline. First Exam. First Exam. ASTR 111 Section 002

Lecture 4. Outline. First Exam. First Exam. ASTR 111 Section 002 Lecture 4 ASTR 111 Section 002 Outline 1. Quiz Discussion 2. Exam Discussion 3. The Moon in its orbit finish discussion 4. Gravitation and the Waltz of the Planets through section 4.3 of text. First Exam

More information

25. What is the name for a theory that describes the overall structure of the universe? A) field theory B) astrology C) cosmology D) astronomy.

25. What is the name for a theory that describes the overall structure of the universe? A) field theory B) astrology C) cosmology D) astronomy. 1. So far as we know, the first person who claimed that natural phenomena could be described by mathematics was A) Copernicus. B) Pythagoras. C) Aristotle. D) Ptolemy. 2. The groundwork for modern science

More information