Physics at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. Darien Wood Northeastern University

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1 Physics at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider Darien Wood Northeastern University 1

2 Outline Introduction: collider experiments The Tevatron complex (review) Examples of physics studies at the Tevatron jet production testing substructure Search for extra space-time dimensions Direct search for the Higgs boson Precision measurements: W mass & top mass Sleuth is there anything new? What s next 2

3 Motivating Questions Do the laws of physics that we understand continue to work at the smallest scales that we can probe? Are the known fundamental particles (quarks, leptons, vector bosons) truly fundamental, or are they made of something else? Is there a higher mass or energy scale at which new types of particles or interactions can be seen? 3

4 Today s highest energy beams: Fermilab DØ TeVatron 2 km Main Injector 4

5 Tevatron Collider Beam: 980 GeV protons Target : 980 GeV antiprotons Collision energy = 1.96 TeV 5

6 Why use antiprotons? Efficient annihilation of particle and antiparticle Also, protons & antiprotons automatically travel in opposite orbits in the accelerator 6

7 Collision statistics Each collision is a random event; many different kinds of new particles could be produced Theory does not predict what will happen on a given event, but it does predict the probability for certain things happening (like top quark production). Probability of producing a top and and anti-top is around 1 event in Some other processes are even more rare 7

8 Why Colliding Beams? 980 GeV proton Hits proton at rest: s 30GeV 980 GeV proton Hits 980 GeV antiproton: s 1960GeV (see 8

9 Major particle colliders (past, present & future) Lepton Colliders ~ , SPEAR SLAC (Stanford, CA) e+e-, ~3 GeV 1979-present, CESR Cornell (Ithaca, NY) e+e-, ~10 GeV ~ PETRA, DESY (Hamburg) e+e-, ~35 GeV , SLC SLAC (Stanford, CA) e+e-, ~90 GeV , LEP CERN (Geneva) e+e-, ~200 GeV ~2020, NLC/TESLA (CA, IL, Hamburg?) e+e+, 500 GeV Hadron Colliders , SppbarS, CERN (Geneva) p-pbar, ~630 GeV 1987-present, Tevatron Fermilab (Batavia, IL) p-pbar, ~2 TeV 2006?, LHC CERN (Geneva) 14 TeV pp Mixed Colliders 1992-present, HERA DESY (Hamburg) ep, GeV 9

10 Experiment example #1: quark scattering Repeating Rutherfoord s experiment, essentially quark out quark in antiquark in antiquark out Detect energy & angle of outgoing quarks Note: quarks could be replaced with gluons very hard to distinguish At what distance scale is physics tested? 10

11 A closer look (Too) simple minded calculation: hc λ = pc = GeV fm 900GeV 10 But this is a swindle, because typically, only a small fraction of the proton energy goes into the hard collision: m Quarks are not free, so what emerges is a collimated jet of hadrons along the original quark direction 11

12 An event observed in the detector: (2-dimensional slice) Charged tracks Point of collision Colors correspond to energy deposited in a cell of the calorimeter Note that energy is concentrated in two narrow cones, or jets. Two-jet production is the most common hard scatter process 12

13 Spectrum of jet transverse energy Hard collision: p out E T DØ Run 1 DØ Data η jet < 0.5 soft collision: p in 1/( η E T ) d 2 σ/(de T dη)de T dη (fb/gev) JETRAD CTEQ3M, µ = 0.5 E T max E T E T (GeV) 13

14 Angular distribution of two jet events The ratio of (forward+backward)/(central) is plotted Λ is the compositeness mass scale Cross section ratio This is where you would expect to see evidence of quark substrucure DØ Data Λ + =1.5 TeV Λ + =2.0 TeV Λ + =2.5 TeV Λ + =3.0 TeV JETRAD: CTEQ3M, µ = 0.5E T max, sep = M (GeV/c 2 ) 14

15 q Example 2: Looking for Extra Space-time Dimensions γ γ q Events Events Mass, GeV Mass, GeV 750 Data 750 a) Events c) cos(θ * ) SM+LED signal, η = 1 TeV -4 cos(θ * ) Events R<3x10-4 m (n=2) R<2x10-15 m (n=7) Mass, GeV 750 b) Total background d) 15 cos(θ * ) cos(θ * ), M > 300 GeV R

16 Example 3: Direct Search for Higgs Boson The most important missing piece of the Standard Model Responsible for giving mass to all particles with mass Mass of Higgs itself is unknown, >115 GeV Likes to be produced with W s and Z s, the carriers of the weak interaction: q W µ Predicted frequency: ~1 in 2x10 12 ν collisions W qbar What would you see in the detector for such an event? How could you be fooled? H bbar b 16

17 Example 4: precision measurements With enough measurement precision and statistics, it is possible to see objects smaller than the wavelength: Wavefront distorted by interference effects Similarly, the properties of lower mass particles can be distorted by the effects of virtual higher mass particles 17

18 Self-interference of W boson t m t 175GeV W W mw 80GeV b m b 5GeV W W H m H?GeV 18

19 W Boson Discovered at CERN in 1982 Now produced at both the Tevatron and LEP At DØ, its mass is measured precisely using the decay mode W eν Approximately 60,000 W events used in the mass measurement. Fit transverse mass (formed using quantities perpendicular to the beam direction) mass measured to less that 100 MeV (about 0.1%) 19

20 Discovered at the Tevatron in 1995 Produced mostly in pairs p p tt + X almost every possible decay mode is used in its discovery and mass measurement about 90 events used in mass measurement. Mass measured to better than 5% by DØ The top quark Fit mass data fit bkgd 150 True mass 200 LB NN 31 Events (5 tagged) 0 2 ln L Fit top quark mass (GeV/c ) 20

21 W mass precision LEP1, SLD Data LEP2, pp Data 68% CL m W [GeV] α Mass shift from virtual Higgs effects (?) m H [GeV] Preliminary Note supressed zero m t [GeV] 21

22 D 1) Define final states Question: Is it possible to perform a data-driven driven search for new phenomena? 8) Apply to Run II Sleuth 7) Does Sleuth find anything interesting in Run I data? No. A systematic search of many final states reveals no evidence of new high p T physics. 6) Can Sleuth find something interesting? (yes!) 2) Define variables bkg top p γwz T j p T p l T 3) Define regions p/ T A quasi-model-independent new physics search strategy 4) Define "interestingness" e b N i = 0 i! b i 5) Run hypothetical similar experiments 22 σ

23 Main points Creating collisions with lots of kinetic energy (in the center of mass system) makes it possible to create many different new particles Creation of massive particles requires more energy The average result of collisions can be predicted by theory (if the theory is correct) but each individual collision has a random outcome, so Many different processes can be studied with the same experiment (with different analysis procedures) Detecting rare processes requires the accumulation and examinatio of trillions of collisions. 23

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