# PH5211: High Energy Physics. Prafulla Kumar Behera Room: HSB-304B

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1 PH5211: High Energy Physics Prafulla Kumar Behera Room: HSB-304B

2 Information Class timing: Wed. 11am, Thur. 9am, Fri. 8am The course will be graded as follows: 1 st quiz (20 marks) on 9 th September. 2 nd quiz (20 marks) on 21 st October. End Sem-Exam. 60 Marks on 28 th November.

3 How to order PDG booklet?

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6 July 2010 PARTICLE PHYSICS BOOKLET

7 Introduction to High Energy Physics Dr. Prafulla Kumar Behera Useful references: Particle Physics Booklet (available free!) D. Perkins, Intro. to High Energy Physics (Addison-Wesley) P.C.W. Davies, The Forces of Nature (Cambridge U. Press) F. Close, The Cosmic Onion (Heinemann) R. Feynman, QED (Penguin)

8 What is High Energy Physics? High Energy physics explores objects that are not only very energetic but are also very small. We probe the fundamental structures of matter and energy and the interplay between them. Ultimately, we want to describe the Elementary Particles and their interactions - hence the alternative name, Particle Physics. We discover new laws of Nature with exquisite mathematical beauty. (Actually, much of the relevant mathematics had been considered purely esoteric until their use here).

9 Small and Energetic These tell us what theories we should use for our physics. Small means that QUANTUM MECHANICS is important, where particles tend to behave more like waves, according to de Broglie s formula: Wavelength = h/momentum or =ħ/p ħ is plank s constant and small, Js Energetic means that SPECIAL RELATIVITY is important, and we should use Einstein s equation: E = (mc 2 ) 2 + (pc) 2 C is vacuum speed of light and large, m/s.

10 What do we mean? In the Particles Physics Booklet one finds, for Example:.average mass of J/ is 3.1 GeV. Why is a mass being reported in units of energy? [1 GeV = 10 9 ev = J] Similarly, why is the radius of the proton often approximated by 4 GeV -1? Why is a length represented by an inverse energy?

11 Units The traditional set of units that we are most familiar with is {M, L, T}. In terms of these, the dimensions of our three important quantities in High Energy Physics are: [c] = Velocity of light = LT -1 [ħ] = [Length Momentum] = M L 2 T -1 [E] = [Mass Velocity 2 ] = M L 2 T -2 However, now we realize that we can invert these relationships so that the set {M, L, T} {c, ħ, E}: L = [ħ] [c] [E] -1 M = [E] [c] -2 T = [ħ] [E] -1

12 Let s Translate At this point, we decide to set, with the understanding that since they have different dimensions we can always reinstate them in formulae uniquely using dimensional analysis. So the new dimensions are: length ~ L =[c] [E] -1 -> [E] -1 mass ~ M = [E] [c] -2 -> [E] lifetime ~ T = [E] -1 -> [E] -1 So a mass of 80.4 GeV really means 80.4 GeV/c 2 Radius of proton 4 GeV -1 : r = 4 (ħc) GeV -1 r = 4 ( / (2) ) / = m

13 High Energy Accelerators - Theory Let s go back to Einstein s equation, where we have now set c = 1, so... This suggests a strategy for searching for new heavy types of matter: 1. Start with two fairly light particles of mass. 2. Accelerate them so that they each obtain large momenta and energies 3. Set the particles on a collision course and wait! 4. When they are close together they may interact in such a way that a new particle is produced with almost zero momentum. However, energy must be conserved so that the mass of the new particle m is:

14 Accelerators in Practice In practice, this ideal scenario is hard to accomplish for example, many new particles may be produced (not just one). The Fermilab accelerate protons and anti-protons in their Tevatron collider. m proton 1 GeV E total = 2 TeV Physicists there discovered the heaviest elementary particle yet found - the top quark with mass 175 GeV. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the highest energy collider (7 TeV) in the world, promising place for new discovery!

15 The Uncertainty Principle The higher the energy that a particle has, the shorter the distance that it travels and the shorter it lives. Many of the particles that we produce in a high energy collision are unstable and do not live for very long For instance, the top quark is not seen directly, but is observed via its multi-stage decay: Top quark (t) W boson (W + ) + bottom quark(b) positron (e + ) + neutrino (ν e ) Part of the challenge of experimental high energy physics is figuring out exactly where all the particles came from!

16 The - The particle known as the - was a successful prediction of the theory that is now universally embraced by high-energy physicists.

17 The Electromgnetic Spectrum E = hc/ => high energy = short wavelength Region Wavelength (m) Energy (ev) Radio > 0.1 < 10-5 Microwave Infrared Visible Ultraviolet X-Rays Gamma Rays < > 10 5 Tevatron < LHC

18 Particles Probes To resolve an object, we must look at it with particles which have a wavelength less than the objects size. Size of an atom ~ 0.2 nm = m. Size of nucleus of Uranium-238 ~ m Size of proton ~ m (high Energy Physics) # nuclear sub-structure quarks Size of the quarks ~???? Nuclear Physics

19 Particles Properties Just as with atoms, it is possible to group the elementary particles that we know about into families with similar properties. First we need to know: Which particles are truly elementary? Stable: p, n, e ±,, Unstable: W ±, t, -, c*, What characteristics do they share? Mass? Electric charges? Something else we don t know about?

20 The Periodic Tables of HEP + fermions anti-particles, with opposite charge.

21 Hadrons and confinement We don t see quarks and gluons directly, because the strong colour interaction confines them into hadrons.

22 Conservation Laws By writing out the quark content of baryons and mesons it is easy to decide what types of reactions are allowed. We are used to the conservation of electric charge and must augment this with a few more laws such as conservation of strangeness under the strong force.

23 Forces of Nature Lets compare the forces at energies (and distance) typical for HEP, say E ~ 1 GeV ( r ~ 0.1 fm) QED: Quantum Electrodynamics QCD: Quantum Chromodynamics

24 Quantum Field Theory Particles interact with each other through fields. We are familiar with electric, magnetic and gravitational fields. In HEP, we know that quantum mechanics is important, with the result that these fields are quantized. The particles interact by exchanging field quanta. These quanta are the bosons that we have been talking about - g,, W and Z. We describe the interactions of these particles by a Quantum Field Theory (complicated math). Fortunately, Quantum Field Theory has a simple representation that we can use - Feynman diagrams.

25 Feynman Diagrams Simple, pretty pictures..represent all that complicated math

26 Renormalization According to the uncertainty principle, the vacuum may fluctuate which causes all the field Strengths and interaction to be renormalized This causes the strong interaction to become weaker at higher energies, called asymptotic freedom. This is the flip-side of confinement, where the interactions Become stronger at lower energies (longer distances).

27 The Higgs Boson The Higgs Boson is the missing link in our periodic table, or Standard Model. We haven t found the Higgs yet - despite a recent false alarm at CERN (unofficial). However, without the Higgs particle, our theory predicts that the masses of the W-boson and Z-boson are zero. This is not the case! The procedure by which the Higgs forces these to be massive is called Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking. This mechanism must happen one way or another - with a traditional Higgs, multiple Higgs particles, or something else. We ll know soon (maybe LHC).

28 Super-theories Just as we realized that we could describe the weak and electromagnetic theories within one embracing electroweak theory, attempts have been made to unify this theory with that of the strong interactions. These are called Grand Unified Theories, or GUTs. Other theorists try to link fermions and bosons through supersymmetry, introducing yet more undiscovered particles (e.g. squarks, partners of the regular quarks). These theories naturally incorporate gravity, leading to even more unification - supergravity. Ultimately, these theories may be embedded in an even more speculative framework, called superstrings. At this point we are closer to maths than physics!

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