# Lab 12.1 Calorimetry. Name School Date

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 Name School Date Lab 12.1 Calorimetry Purpose To investigate the flow of heat between two bodies due to a difference in their temperatures. To investigate the flow of heat involved in changes in phase. Equipment Virtual Calorimetry Lab PENCIL Explore the Apparatus Open the Virtual Calorimetry Lab on the website. Figure 1 OK, it looks like we re not in mechanics anymore! Let s take a trial run with the calorimetry apparatus. What we have is your basic Dispens-O-Matic which can dispense water, ice, iron, and a mystery material in a range of masses and temperatures. All the dispensing is done into the small graduated beaker. The beaker can receive only one type of material at a time. From there it can be transferred into the calorimeter or the sink for disposal. Let s try to reproduce the situation depicted in Figure 1. Drag the beaker onto the hot/cold plate under the dispenser spout as shown in the figure. It will snap into place, even if you miss by a lot. Click the Water button. Drag the temperature slider to adjust the water temperature to 45 C. Click and hold the Add button until the beaker is about half full. Before continuing, you need to record your results so far in the In the Calorimeter table provided on the screen. Click in the text area beside Material #1. Type Water. Continue by entering your mass and temperature as shown in the Beaker Info panel. You probably have a different mass than in the figure. The mass is hard to set precisely. Lab 12.1 Calorimetry 1 August 11, 2008

3 6. How s your theory holding up? You have two types of information mass and change in temperature. See if you can come up with an equation using just those quantities that predicts the final temperature, T f, of both of these trials. Show your calculations for each trial. Theory You ve noticed that when samples of water at different temperatures are mixed, the resulting mixture has a temperature somewhere between the hot and cold temperatures of the original samples. Some sort of averaging seems to be taking place which would suggest the sharing of something. Investigating just how this happens on a microscopic scale is not the subject of this lab. But summarizing what is known about this behavior will provide us with both models and language to help us interpret what s happening. Temperature vs. Heat Try this. Find a desk or chair that has both metal parts and wooden or plastic parts. Hold the metal part with one hand while holding the wooden part with the other hand. 1. Which of these two materials appears to be warmer? metal wood You found earlier that when two samples of water were mixed, they came to a common temperature. Both parts of the chair were probably in the same uniform-temperature room for some time, so wouldn t our mixing model suggest that they d be the same temperature as the air? Yes. And surprisingly they are the same temperature. So what gives? Consider this first. 2. Of the three objects involved, which is probably hotter? metal wood your hand We go to a lot of effort to keep our bodies in a relatively cool environment. Our metabolism produces a lot of waste energy and we need to get rid of it somehow, thus our choice of a cool environment. When you touched the two different materials, they were initially probably about 15 C cooler than your body and as a result, heat flowed from you into both bodies. But the metal is a much better conductor of that heat, so when you sensed a lower temperature, what your were really detecting was a greater rate of flow of heat. The rate of flow of this heat is greater for the hand in contact with the metal. In the preceding discussion we ve used the term heat several times. Here s how we define heat. Heat is the energy that flows from a high-temperature object to a low-temperate object because of a difference in temperatures. Heat will continue to flow until the materials reach thermal equilibrium. Or stated differently, two bodies are in a state of thermal equilibrium if no heat is exchanged between them when brought into thermal contact. At thermal equilibrium they will be at a common temperature, the equilibrium temperature. The energy involved in this transfer is internal energy. The internal energy of a substance is the sum of the molecular kinetic energy, the molecular potential energy, and other kinds of molecular energy. Defining temperature should help to pull these ideas together to explain what we ve been observing with our water mixtures. While temperature is defined differently in different situations, for the present investigation we ll use the following. The absolute temperature of a body is a measure of the average internal energy per molecule. Two bodies at the same temperature might have the same or different amounts of internal energy depending on the number of molecules. If one body contained more molecules, its total internal energy would be greater since the temperature represents the average internal energy per molecule. Lab 12.1 Calorimetry 3 August 11, 2008

4 Based on the above definitions we d say that when we mix water of different temperatures together, internal energy is transferred by the interaction of the molecules. This energy in transfer from a warmer body to a cooler body is what we refer to as heat. Specific Heat Capacity When we mixed equal masses of 24 C and 12 C water the final temperature was the average of the two initial temperatures. If we had used water hotter than 24 C, we would expect a higher final temperature since the higher initial temperature would represent a larger quantity of internal energy. Similarly we found that when we doubled the amount of the warm water, we increased the final temperature of the mixture. Again this fits with our understanding of internal energy being related to the energies of the molecules. More molecules at a given temperature would correspond to more total internal energy. So the more mass we have and the higher the temperature, the more internal energy there is to pass on to cooler materials as heat. Let s continue our initial exploration with one more investigation. 3. Suppose you mixed together approximately 100 g of 24 C water with 100 g of 12 C iron. What would you predict for the equilibrium temperature of this mixture? Less than 18 C 18 C Greater than 18 C 4. Try it with your calorimeter and see what actually happens. T f = C That s very different! Clearly water and iron are somehow not evenly matched. Here s a summary of what we ve found. Table 1 Mixing Hot Water with Cold Water, and then Cold Iron Trial 1 3 Mass (kg) Initial Temperature Final Temperature Change in Temperature (C ) Hot Water Cold Water Hot Water Cold Iron The hot water in trial 3 cooled by only a small amount relative to the amount of cooling in trial 1. And the temperature of the cool metal changed by a much larger amount than the equal mass of cool water. From this we can surmise that a much smaller amount of heat is required to produce a given change the temperature of a given mass of iron. In summary we ve found that when heat flows into or out of a body there are (at least) three factors that determine the amount of temperature change the mass, the type of material, and the quantity of heat flowing. We describe this mathematically as Equation 1 where m is the mass in kg, c is the specific heat capacity in Joules/kg C, and ΔT is the change in temperature in C. When heat flows into a body and the temperature changes, the temperature will increase so ΔT and Q will be positive. Similarly, when heat flows out of a body and the temperature changes, ΔT and Q will be negative. Specific heat capacity When a quantity of heat Q, flows from one part of a system to another, the total internal energy of the system is unchanged. Thus Q represents the amount of energy simultaneously lost by one part of the system and gained by another. Given this it is easy to see why we use the term flow for this process. In this investigation we want to predict the results of such an energy transfer and then confirm our prediction experimentally. If we place a mass of iron, m I, at an initial temperature, T Io, into our calorimeter and then add a mass of water, m W, at an initial temperature, T Wo, we should find that heat flows from the warmer to the cooler body until thermal equilibrium is reached at the equilibrium temperature, T f. Lab 12.1 Calorimetry 4 August 11, 2008

5 As observed above, Q net for our (thermally isolated) system will be zero. We can also write Equation 2 as 0 Equation 2 Equation 3 For our system of iron and water we can combine Equations 1 and 3 giving us Equation 4 With Equation 4 we can predict a whole range of outcomes. We ll first try to predict the equilibrium temperature when known quantities of water and iron are mixed. Then we ll determine the specific heat capacity of an unknown material. 1. Determining the Equilibrium Temperature, T f We first need to expand Equation 4 to include the initial and final temperatures of both materials. Equation 5 When the system is in thermal equilibrium, T If = T Wf, thus, replacing both of these with T f, We can solve for T f as follows. Equation 6 Equation 7 Using the masses and temperatures in Table 2, show the calculations to find the theoretical value for T f here. Now mix the two materials in your calorimeter to determine the final temperature experimentally. Record your experimental value for T f in Table 2. Table 2 Mixing Hot Water with Cold Iron Specific Heat of Water, c W = 4186 J/kg C Specific Heat of Iron, c I = 452 J/kg C Mass (kg) Initial Temperature Water Iron Final Temperature Lab 12.1 Calorimetry 5 August 11, 2008

6 1. Calculate the percentage difference between your theoretical and experimental values for the equilibrium temperature. % difference = Show Calculations for % difference Lab 12.1 Calorimetry 6 August 11, 2008

7 2. Determining the specific heat capacity of an unknown material. In addition to water, ice, and iron, the Dispens-O-matic can dispense a quantity of an unknown solid. Your task now is to determine the specific heat capacity of this mystery material. To do this you need to provide an appropriate data table, and detailed calculations beginning with the equation When you ve determined c M, use the tables in your textbook to determine what material you judge the mystery material to be. Indicate how accurate your result is by calculating the percentage error. Use the space provided below to show your work. Lab 12.1 Calorimetry 7 August 11, 2008

8 Phase Changes and Latent Heat So far we ve only considered the case where heat flow results in a temperature change. Let s see what else can happen. In your calorimeter, mix together the materials listed in Table 3. The ice cubes are irregular so you may not get exactly 400 grams of ice. Watch the contents of the calorimeter as they approach equilibrium temperature. Table 3 Mixing Warm Water and Cold Ice Specific Heat of Water, c W = 4186 J/kg C Specific Heat of Ice, c I = 2000 J/kg C Mass (kg) Initial Temperature Water Ice Final Temperature Calculate Q = mcδt for each material. Q water = m W c W ΔT W = J Q Ice = m I c I ΔT I = J Clearly, We can see that the water lost a lot of energy. But the ice seems to have gained only about 7% of it. What gives? If you were watching carefully you saw that the ice slowly disappeared. We stated earlier that the absolute temperature of a body is a measure of the average internal energy per molecule. And the internal energy of a body was defined as the sum of the molecular kinetic energy, the molecular potential energy, and other kinds of molecular energy. When the ice melts its molecules undergo a large increase in potential energy as they change from a rigid crystalline form to a liquid form. The warm water molecules are the source of this energy. This change in potential energy is known as a phase change the solid ice changed to liquid water. This significant amount of extra energy is accounted for by adding an extra term, m i L f, where L f, is the latent heat of fusion. The heat of fusion for ice is J/kg. A similar, but much larger amount of energy is required when water is converted from liquid to gaseous form. In that case, we have m w L v, where L v, is the latent heat of vaporization. We won t consider vaporization in this lab. The heat of vaporization for water is J/kg. Our ice warmed from -5 C to 0 C. It then underwent a phase change at 0 C, after which, in liquid form, it underwent a second temperature change of about 3.7 C. We can find the total energy involved as follows. Q = Q to heat the ice to 0 C + Q to melt the ice at 0 C + Q to heat melt water to 3.7 C This brings us more in line with our calculations for the heat lost by the 90 C water. And we can clearly see the large amount of energy involved in the phase change. Before you continue with the final part of the lab, let s have a look at a graphical representation of this exchange of heat. On the data table below your lab apparatus there is a graph grid (right next to you input this data). Click on that grid to bring up a graph of temperature vs. heat. Follow the directions on the first frame of the animation. I hope that gives you a clearer idea of what s been happening in the calorimeter. We ll finish by trying our hand at predicting that final temperature illustrated at the end of the animation. Lab 12.1 Calorimetry 8 August 11, 2008

9 Determining the final temperature of a mixture of ice and water. Probably the most tedious calculations to make is the final temperature of a mixture. So let s give it a try and use your apparatus to validate your answer. Actually we ll do this in reverse just to give you a clearer picture of what to expect. In your calorimeter combine at least 400 g of water hotter than 70 C with no more than 200 g of ice at a temperature of your choice. A data table is provided below to hold your data. Starting from, write the full equation with all the individual terms. You should have four in all. Solve the equation for T f showing all relevant steps. Substitute in all the data. Determine the theoretical value for T f. Finally compare your experimental and theoretical values for T f by calculating a percentage error. Table 4 Mixing Warm Water and Cold Ice Specific Heat of Water, c W = 4186 J/kg C Specific Heat of Ice, c I = 2000 J/kg C Heat of Fusion of Ice, L FI = J/kg Mass (kg) T Wo T f = T Wf N/A N/A Water N/A N/A Ice Mass (kg) T Io Note: T WI refers to water from the melting of ice. T If T WIo T f = T WIf Show your equations and calculations in the space below Lab 12.1 Calorimetry 9 August 11, 2008

10

### Experiment 15 - Heat of Fusion and Heat of Solution

Experiment 15 - Heat of Fusion and Heat of Solution Phase changes and dissolving are physical processes that involve heat. In this experiment, you will determine the heat of fusion of ice (the energy required

### Figure I. Experimental Setup for the Calorimetry Simulation

Name Section Problem Statement: How is heat transferred between substances? I. Data Collection A. Go to http://dbpoc.com/pearson/chemsims/gold/calorgold4/calor.php. The simulation will open to an image

### SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY AND HEAT OF FUSION

SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY AND HEAT OF FUSION Apparatus on each table: Thermometer, metal cube, complete calorimeter, outer calorimeter can (aluminum only), balance, 4 styrofoam cups, graduated container,

### Preview. Heat Section 1. Section 1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium. Section 2 Defining Heat. Section 3 Changes in Temperature and Phase

Heat Section 1 Preview Section 1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium Section 2 Defining Heat Section 3 Changes in Temperature and Phase Heat Section 1 TEKS The student is expected to: 6E describe how the

### SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY

SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY Apparatus: Thermometer, balance, two large double Styrofoam cups, lid, hooked metal cube, lifting tool, hot plate, boiling pot. Any material is capable of storing some heat or thermal

### The purpose of this lab is to investigate phases of matter, temperature, and heat energy.

9460218_CH07_p081-090.qxd 1/20/10 9:46 PM Page 81 7 TEMPERATURE AND HEAT PURPOSE The purpose of this lab is to investigate phases of matter, temperature, and heat energy. SIMULATIONS States of Matter Figure

### CALORIEMETRY. Similar to the other forms of the energy, The S.I unit of heat is joule. joule is represented as J.

CALORIEMETRY CALORIMETRY Heat is the kinetic energy due to random motion of the molecules of a substance is called heat energy. Heat is a an invisible energy, that causes in us the sensation of hotness

### Lecture 23. Specific Heat and Phase Changes

Lecture 23 Specific Heat and Phase Changes Today s Topics: Heat and Temperature Change Specific heat Heat and Phase Change Latent heat Heat and Temperature Change Heat is energy that flows from a higher-temperature

### Lab: Phase Change. Introduction. Predict. Computer setup- Equipment setup- Name: Period: Date:

/16 Points Lab: Phase Change Introduction Every substance has a characteristic freezing point and melting point. As you might expect, the substance changes phase at each of these temperatures. A pure substance

### Experiment 7 Can You Slow It Down?

Experiment 7 Can You Slow It Down? OUTCOMES After completing this experiment, the student should be able to: tell which factors influence the reaction rate and how they influence the rate. change the temperature

### Post-Show HOT AND COLD. Gases. Liquids. Solids. After the Show. Traveling Science Shows

Traveling Science Shows Post-Show HOT AND COLD After the Show We recently presented a Hot and Cold show at your school, and thought you and your students might like to continue investigating this topic.

### Chapter 10 Test Form B

Chapter 10 Test Form A 1. B 2. A 3. A 4. B 5. D 6. B 7. B 8. A 9. A 10. A 11. B 12. D 13. A 14. C 15. No, heat and cold do not flow between objects. Energy transferred between objects changes the temperature

### SPH3U1 Lesson 03 Energy

THERMAL ENERGY AND LATENT HEAT LEARNING GOALS Students will learn: Heat changes the amount of thermal energy in an object Temperature is a measure of the average thermal energy in an object Heat capacity

### Name... Class... Date... Specific heat capacity and specific latent heat

Specific heat capacity and specific latent heat Specification references: P3.2.2 Temperature changes in a system and specific heat capacity P3.2.3 Changes of heat and specific latent heat Aims This is

### Latent Heat of Fusion

Activity 33 PS-2826 Latent Heat of Fusion Thermodynamics: phase change, latent heat of fusion, melting Qty Equipment and Materials Part Number 1 PASPORT Xplorer GLX PS-2002 1 Fast-Response Temperature

### SCED 204 Sample Activity SCED 204: Matter and Energy in Chemical Systems

SCED 204 Sample Activity SCED 204: Matter and Energy in Chemical Systems Activity #2: DO THE SMALL PARTICLES OF MATTER MOVE? IF SO, HOW? Purpose: We have been developing a model of matter that involves

### Thermodynamics - Heat Transfer June 04, 2013

THERMODYNAMICS - Heat and Heat Transfer: Heat (Q) is a form of Energy that is transferred between an object and another object or its surrounding environment due to a difference in Temperature. Heat is

### DETERMINING AND USING H

DETERMINING AND USING H INTRODUCTION CHANGES IN CHEMISTRY Chemistry is the science that studies matter and the changes it undergoes. Changes are divided into two categories: physical and chemical. During

### CALORIMETRY: Heat of Fusion of Ice

Pre-Lab Discussion CALORIMETRY: Heat of Fusion of Ice When a chemical or physical change takes place, heat is either given off or absorbed That is, the change is either exothermic or endothermic It is

### Review: Heat, Temperature, Heat Transfer and Specific Heat Capacity

Name: Block: Date: IP 614 Review: Heat, Temperature, Heat Transfer and Specific Heat Capacity All these questions are real MCAS questions! 1. In a copper wire, a temperature increase is the result of which

### Chemistry Heat Review. Heat: Temperature: Enthalpy: Calorimetry: Activation energy:

Chemistry Heat Review Name Date Vocabulary Heat: Temperature: Enthalpy: Calorimetry: Activation energy: Formulas Heat of phase change Heat for temperature increase Heat of reaction Endothermic/Exothermic

### AP PHYSICS 2 WHS-CH-15 Thermodynamics Show all your work, equations used, and box in your answers!

AP PHYSICS 2 WHS-CH-15 Thermodynamics Show all your work, equations used, and box in your answers! Nicolas Léonard Sadi Carnot (1796-1832) Sadi Carnot was a French military engineer and physicist, often

### Lecture 4: The First Law of Thermodynamics

Lecture 4: The First Law of Thermodynamics Latent Heat Last lecture, we saw that adding heat to an object does not always change the temperature of the object In some cases, the heat causes a phase change

### Broughton High School. Thermal Energy. Physical Science Workbook Chapter 6 Thermal Energy 2016 Mr. Davis

1 Thermal Energy Vocabulary for Chapter 6 Thermal Energy Broughton High School Physical Science Vocabulary No.# Term Page # Definition 2 1. Degrees 2. Higher Specific Heat 3. Heat of Vaporization 4. Radiation

### Name: New Document 1. Class: Date: 83 minutes. Time: 82 marks. Marks: Comments:

New Document Name: Class: Date: Time: 83 minutes Marks: 82 marks Comments: Q. Solid, liquid and gas are three different states of matter. (a) Describe the difference between the solid and gas states, in

### 2,000-gram mass of water compared to a 1,000-gram mass.

11.2 Heat To change the temperature, you usually need to add or subtract energy. For example, when it s cold outside, you turn up the heat in your house or apartment and the temperature goes up. You know

### Atoms and molecules are in motion and have energy

Atoms and molecules are in motion and have energy By now you know that substances are made of atoms and molecules. These atoms and molecules are always in motion and have attractions to each other. When

### Demonstrate understanding of aspects of heat

Demonstrate understanding of aspects of heat Heat Transfer Temperature - temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles making up an object (measured in C or K) 0 K = -273 o C

### 11/22/11. If you add some heat to a substance, is it possible for the temperature of the substance to remain unchanged?

Physics 101 Tuesday 11/22/11 Class 26" Chapter 17.2, 17.5, 17.6, 18.1, 18.2" Kinetic Theory" Latent Heat" Phase changes" 1 st law of thermodynamics" " Which one is not the assumption in kinetic theory

### 40P (2 x 60 x 60) = 2.5 x 10 6 (4200)(5) P = 1.82 x 10 5 W

NAME : F.3C ( ) Marks: /50 Form 3 Physics Assessment on Heat Time allowed: 45 minutes Section A (34 marks) 1. An indoor swimming pool containing 2.5 x 10 6 kg of water uses 40 identical heaters to maintain

### Study Guide Unit 3 Chapter 6 DRAFT

Study Guide Unit 3 Chapter 6 DRAFT Unit 3 BIG IDEAS Energy can be transformed from one type into another. Energy transformation systems often involve thermal energy losses and are never 100 % efficient.

### Unit 9 Thermochemistry. Chapter 17

Unit 9 Thermochemistry Chapter 17 This tutorial is designed to help students understand scientific measurements. Objectives for this unit appear on the next slide. Each objective is linked to its description.

### Calorimetry. A calorimeter is a device in which this energy transfer takes place

Calorimetry One technique for measuring specific heat involves heating a material, adding it to a sample of water, and recording the final temperature This technique is known as calorimetry A calorimeter

### Phase Change Diagram. Rank Solids, liquids and gases from weakest attractive forces to strongest:

Unit 11 Kinetic molecular theory packet Page 1 of 13 Chemistry Unit 11 Kinetic Theory Unit Quiz: Test Objectives Be able to define pressure and memorize the basic pressure units. Be able to convert to/from:

### Chapter: Heat and States

Table of Contents Chapter: Heat and States of Matter Section 1: Temperature and Thermal Energy Section 2: States of Matter Section 3: Transferring Thermal Energy Section 4: Using Thermal Energy 1 Temperature

### SPECIFIC HEAT OF WATER LAB 11-2

CONCEPT Heat of Fusion Changes of state (phase changes) involve the conversion or transition of matter from one of the common states (solid, liquid or gas) to another. Examples include fusion or melting

### PHYS102 Previous Exam Problems. Temperature, Heat & The First Law of Thermodynamics

PHYS102 Previous Exam Problems CHAPTER 18 Temperature, Heat & The First Law of Thermodynamics Equilibrium & temperature scales Thermal expansion Exchange of heat First law of thermodynamics Heat conduction

### Heat. It tells us the ways that we can change the thermal energy of a system:

Heat Recall what the First Law of Thermodynamics says: It tells us the ways that we can change the thermal energy of a system: 1.) Work Environment does work on system: W > 0, and thermal energy increases

### Physics 231. Topic 13: Heat. Alex Brown Dec 1, MSU Physics 231 Fall

Physics 231 Topic 13: Heat Alex Brown Dec 1, 2015 MSU Physics 231 Fall 2015 1 8 th 10 pm correction for 3 rd exam 9 th 10 pm attitude survey (1% for participation) 10 th 10 pm concept test timed (50 min))

### Lesson Plan: Modeling the Melting of Ice FOR THE TEACHER

Lesson Plan: Modeling the Melting of Ice FOR THE TEACHER Instructional Notes and Answers In our exploration of the tiles, we ended with a macroscopic model of thermal energy transfer as well as a model

### Thermodynamics. We can summarize the four laws of thermodynamics as follows:

Thermodynamics Objective: To investigate the zeroth and first laws of thermodynamics. To calculate properties such as specific heat. To investigate the ideal gas law. To become familiar with basic P-V

### 4.1. Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4 - Heat GCKL UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM. What is thermal equilibrium?

Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4 - Heat GCKL 2010 4.1 4 UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM What is thermal equilibrium? 1. (, Temperature ) is a form of energy that flows from a hot body to a cold body.

### Conducting Energy and Heat. Energy Likes to Move. Radiating Energy

Energy Likes to Move If there is a temperature difference in a system, heat will naturally move from high to low temperatures. The place you find the higher temperature is the heat source. The area where

### What does temperature have to do with energy? What three temperature scales are commonly used? What makes things feel hot or cold?

Heat and Temperature Section 1: Temperature What does temperature have to do with energy? What three temperature scales are commonly used? What makes things feel hot or cold? 1 Intro: Discussion A person

### Name: Block: Date: Student Notes. OBJECTIVE Students will investigate the relationship between temperature and the change of the state of matter.

Name: Block: Date: LCPS Core Experience Heat Transfer Student Notes OBJECTIVE Students will investigate the relationship between temperature and the change of the state of matter. LINK 1. Particles in

### Chapter 1 Heating Processes

Chapter 1 Heating Processes Section 1.1 Heat and temperature Worked example: Try yourself 1.1.1 CALCULATING THE CHANGE IN INTERNAL ENERGY A student places a heating element and a paddle wheel apparatus

### Heat. Heat is energy transferred between a system and its surroundings because of a temperature difference between them.

What is heat? Heat Heat Heat is energy transferred between a system and its surroundings because of a temperature difference between them. Specific heat The specific heat of a material is the amount of

### = (25.0 g)(0.137 J/g C)[61.2 C - (-31.4 C)] = 317 J (= kj)

CHEM 101A ARMSTRONG SOLUTIONS TO TOPIC D PROBLEMS 1) For all problems involving energy, you may give your answer in either joules or kilojoules, unless the problem specifies a unit. (In general, though,

### EXPERIMENT 14 SPECIFIC HEAT OF WATER. q = m s T

EXPERIMENT 14 SPECIFIC HEAT OF WATER INTRODUCTION: Heat is a form of energy which can pass from an object of relatively high temperature to an object of relatively low temperature. One physical property

### Specific Heat. Power Supply Beaker Beam Balance Conecting wires ice. Assembly

Specific Heat Objectives a. To measure the specific heat capacity of water b. To measure the specific heat capacity of aluminium c. To measure the heat of fusion of ice (Optional) Apparatus Required Power

### What Is Air Temperature?

2.2 Read What Is Air Temperature? In Learning Set 1, you used a thermometer to measure air temperature. But what exactly was the thermometer measuring? What is different about cold air and warm air that

### matter/index.html

http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/index.pl http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/states_of_ matter/index.html Thermal Energy Ch 6-1 Temperature and Heat Objectives Explain the kinetic theory of matter

### Put sufficient ice cubes into water (1 M) and wait for equilibrium (both exist) (1 M)

NAME : F.5 ( ) Marks: /70 FORM FOUR PHYSICS REVISION TEST on HEAT Allowed: 70 minutes This paper consists of two sections. Section A (50 marks) consists of the structure-type questions, and Section B (20

### IGCSE Double Award Extended Coordinated Science

IGCSE Double Award Extended Coordinated Science Physics 5 - Thermal Properties of Matter Thermal Expansion You need to know thermal expansions for solids, liquids, and gases, and their applications. Thermal

### 4.1. Physics Module Form 4 Chapter 4 - Heat GCKL UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM. What is thermal equilibrium?

4.1 4 UNDERSTANDING THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM What is thermal equilibrium? 1. ( Heat, Temperature ) is a form of energy that flows from a hot body to a cold body. 2. The SI unit for ( heat, temperature) is Joule,

### Lab 7. Gain and Loss: Heating and Cooling

Lab 7. Gain and Loss: Heating and Cooling Why do things get hot or cold? Why do chemical reactions get hot or cold? Part 1. Identify a metal from specific heat. Prelab Spend 5 minutes doing the following

### Kinetic Theory of Matter

1 Temperature and Thermal Energy Kinetic Theory of Matter The motion of the particles in matter is described by kinetic theory of matter. Matter is composed of particles that are atoms, molecules, or ions

### Chapter 2, Lesson 1: Heat, Temperature, and Conduction

Chapter 2, Lesson 1: Heat, Temperature, and Conduction Key Concepts Adding energy (heating) atoms and molecules increases their motion, resulting in an increase in temperature. Removing energy (cooling)

### Math Lab 10: Differential Equations and Direction Fields Complete before class Wed. Feb. 28; Due noon Thu. Mar. 1 in class

Matter & Motion Winter 2017 18 Name: Math Lab 10: Differential Equations and Direction Fields Complete before class Wed. Feb. 28; Due noon Thu. Mar. 1 in class Goals: 1. Gain exposure to terminology and

### Chapter 12 Solutions. Q Reason: We ll use Equation Q = McΔT and solve for M. We are given. In each case we want to solve for.

Chapter 12 Solutions Q12.12. Reason: Assume the gas is an ideal gas, and use the ideal gas law pv = nrt. Since the number of moles doesn t change and R is a constant, then Equation 12.14 gives In each

### States of Matter Part 1: Lab Stations A. Initial Observations

States of Matter POGIL Activity Name Date Block Part 1: Lab Stations A. Initial Observations At your station you will find some solid aluminum, liquid water, and gaseous air. Observe these three objects

### Student Exploration: Calorimetry Lab

Name: Date: Student Exploration: Calorimetry Lab Vocabulary: calorie, calorimeter, joule, specific heat capacity Prior Knowledge Questions (Do these BEFORE using the Gizmo.) 1. The Latin word calor means

### Chapter 3: Matter and Energy

Chapter 3: Matter and Energy Convert between Fahrenheit, Celsius, and Kelvin temperature scales. Relate energy, temperature change, and heat capacity. The atoms and molecules that compose matter are in

### Chapter 11. Energy in Thermal Processes

Chapter 11 Energy in Thermal Processes Energy Transfer When two objects of different temperatures are placed in thermal contact, the temperature of the warmer decreases and the temperature of the cooler

### ICY HOT LAB. In at least one sentence, explain your reasoning behind your prediction of curve:

TEMPERATURE (ºC) ICY HOT LAB In the following chart sketch your prediction of what will happen to the temperature of the system as you start heating it (beaker of ice, heat until boiling). Include any

### ENTHALPY, INTERNAL ENERGY, AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS: AN OUTLINE FOR CHEM 101A

ENTHALPY, INTERNAL ENERGY, AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS: AN OUTLINE FOR CHEM 101A PART 1: KEY TERMS AND SYMBOLS IN THERMOCHEMISTRY System and surroundings When we talk about any kind of change, such as a chemical

### To use calorimetry results to calculate the specific heat of an unknown metal. To determine heat of reaction ( H) from calorimetry measurements.

Calorimetry PURPOSE To determine if a Styrofoam cup calorimeter provides adequate insulation for heat transfer measurements, to identify an unknown metal by means of its heat capacity and to determine

### Comparing the actual value and the experimental value on heat. By conservation of energy

Topic: Heat 1. Temperature and thermometers a. Temperature: - measure degree of hotness. -measure the average kinetic energy of molecules in random motions. b. Fixed points: -Lower fixed point: temperature

### Thermal Energy. Practice Quiz Solutions

Thermal Energy Practice Quiz Solutions What is thermal energy? What is thermal energy? Thermal energy is the energy that comes from heat. This heat is generated by the movement of tiny particles within

### Atomic Motion and Interactions

Atomic Motion and Interactions 1. Handout: Unit Notes 2. Have You Seen an Atom Lately? 1. Lab: Oil Spreading on Water 2. Demo: Computer animation of spreading oil 3. Lab: Mixing Alcohol and Water 4. Demo:

### Heat and Temperature

Heat and Temperature Temperature What does temperature have to do with energy? What three temperature scales are commonly used? What makes things feel hot or cold? Intro: Discussion A person from Seattle

### Temperature and Its Measurement

Temperature and Its Measurement When the physical properties are no longer changing, the objects are said to be in thermal equilibrium. Two or more objects in thermal equilibrium have the same temperature.

### Specific Heat. Power Supply Beaker Beam Balance Conecting wires ice. Assembly

Specific Heat Objectives a. To measure the specific heat capacity of water b. To measure the specific heat capacity of aluminium c. To measure the heat of fusion of ice (Optional) Apparatus Required Power

### Chapter 11. Energy in Thermal Processes

Chapter 11 Energy in Thermal Processes Energy Transfer When two objects of different temperatures are placed in thermal contact, the temperature of the warmer decreases and the temperature of the cooler

### SAM Teachers Guide Phase Change Overview Learning Objectives Possible Student Pre/Misconceptions

SAM Teachers Guide Phase Change Overview Students review the atomic arrangements for each state of matter, following trajectories of individual atoms to observe their motion and observing and manipulating

### Name Group # Date Partners. Specific Heat and Calorimetry

Specific Heat and Calorimetry Experimental Objective The objective of this experiment is to determine the specific heat of two metals using a calorimetric procedure called the method of mixtures. Theory

### Chapter 9. Preview. Objectives Defining Temperature. Thermal Equilibrium. Thermal Expansion Measuring Temperature. Section 1 Temperature and

Section 1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium Preview Objectives Defining Temperature Thermal Equilibrium Thermal Expansion Measuring Temperature Section 1 Temperature and Thermal Equilibrium Objectives

### Unit 3 - Supplemental Part 1 States & Energy

Unit 3 - Supplemental Part 1 States & Energy From X-ray diffraction patterns, we can learn about the structure of matter at the particle level: 1. In solids, sharp diffraction patterns suggest the existence

### Chapter 14 Temperature and Heat

Nicholas J. Giordano www.cengage.com/physics/giordano Chapter 14 Temperature and Heat Thermodynamics Starting a different area of physics called thermodynamics Thermodynamics focuses on energy rather than

### The Hand Warmer Design Challenge: Where Does the Heat Come From?

The Hand Warmer Design Challenge: Where Does the Heat Come From? LSNED Learn Something New Every Day About Sharing and Contributions Interesting Facts Science In Your Mittens: The Chemistry Of Hand Warmers

### Minneapolis Community and Technical College. Separation of Components of a Mixture

Minneapolis Community and Technical College Chemistry Department Chem1020 Separation of Components of a Mixture Objectives: To separate a mixture into its component pure substances. To calculate the composition

### THERMODYNAMICS. Thermodynamics is the study of energy relationships that involve heat, mechanical work, and other aspects of energy and heat transfer.

THERMODYNAMICS Thermodynamics is the study of energy relationships that involve heat, mechanical work, and other aspects of energy and heat transfer. Central Heating Objectives: After finishing this unit,

### MANGA DISTRICT JOINT EVALUATION TEST 2010 Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E)

Name. School Index No.. Candidate s sign. Date. 232/1 PHYSICS Paper 1 July/August 2010 2 Hours MANGA DISTRICT JOINT EVALUATION TEST 2010 Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (K.C.S.E) 232/1 PHYSICS

### Topic 5: Energetics. Heat & Calorimetry. Thursday, March 22, 2012

Topic 5: Energetics Heat & Calorimetry 1 Heat is energy that is transferred from one object to another due to a difference in temperature Temperature is a measure of the average kinetic energy of a body

### Heat of Fusion Determining the Heat of Fusion of Ice

19 Determining the of Ice The heat of fusion is the quantity of heat needed to change one kilogram of a substance from the solid state to the liquid state at the normal melting point of the substance.

### Changes of State. Thermal Energy: Changes of State 1

Changes of State Last lesson we learned about thermal energy and temperature. Objects whose molecules are moving very quickly are said to have high thermal energy or high temperature. The higher the temperature,

### P5 Heat and Particles Revision Kinetic Model of Matter: States of matter

P5 Heat and Particles Revision Kinetic Model of Matter: States of matter State Size Shape Solid occupies a fixed volume has a fixed shape Liquid occupies a fixed volume takes the shape of its container

### Homework - Lecture 11.

Homework - Lecture 11. Name: Topic: Heat Capacity and Specific Heat Type: Numerical 1. Two liquids, A and B, are mixed together, and the resulting temperature is 22 C. If liquid A has mass m and was initially

### Temperature and Heat. Two systems of temperature. Temperature conversions. PHY heat - J. Hedberg

Temperature and Heat 1. Two systems of temperature 1. Temperature conversions 2. Real science (one scale to rule them all) 3. Temperature scales 2. Effects of temperature on materials 1. Linear Thermal

### Agenda. Chapter 10, Problem 26. All matter is made of atoms. Atomic Structure 4/8/14. What is the structure of matter? Atomic Terminology

Agenda Today: HW Quiz, Thermal physics (i.e., heat) Thursday: Finish thermal physics, atomic structure (lots of review from chemistry!) Chapter 10, Problem 26 A boy reaches out of a window and tosses a

### Thermal Physics. Temperature (Definition #1): a measure of the average random kinetic energy of all the particles of a system Units: o C, K

Thermal Physics Internal Energy: total potential energy and random kinetic energy of the molecules of a substance Symbol: U Units: J Internal Kinetic Energy: arises from random translational, vibrational,

### AP/Honors Lab 18.1 Coulomb s Law

Name School Date AP/Honors Lab 18.1 Coulomb s Law Purpose To observe the effect of the electrostatic force on light-weight charged objects. To experimentally determine the charge on a sphere small sphere

### Calorimetry Measurements of Fusion, Hydration and Neutralization - Hess Law

Calorimetry Measurements of Fusion, Hydration and Neutralization - Hess Law EXPERIMENT 9 Prepared by Edward L. Brown, Lee University and Verrill M. Norwood, Cleveland State Community College To become

### CHM Solids, Liquids, and Phase Changes (r15) Charles Taylor 1/9

CHM 111 - Solids, Liquids, and Phase Changes (r15) - 2015 Charles Taylor 1/9 Introduction In CHM 110, we used kinetic theory to explain the behavior of gases. Now, we will discuss solids and liquids. While