# GLOBAL EXISTENCE FOR THE ONE-DIMENSIONAL SEMILINEAR TRICOMI-TYPE EQUATIONS

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1 GLOBAL EXISTENCE FOR THE ONE-DIMENSIONAL SEMILINEAR TRICOMI-TYPE EQUATIONS ANAHIT GALSTYAN The Tricomi equation u tt tu xx = 0 is a linear partial differential operator of mixed type. (For t > 0, the Tricomi equation is hyperbolic; for t < 0, it is elliptic; while at t = 0, it has multiple characteristics.) In [4] and [5], one can find out about applications of the Tricomi equation. Although this equation is very well investigated, there is no result on the global in time, t 0, existence in the Cauchy problem for the nonlinear, even semilinear, Tricomi equation. It must be emphasized that a one-dimensional wave equation essentially differs from the higher dimensional ones, x R n, u tt u = 0. In particular, Theorem 1 shows that there is no self-similar solution to a one-dimensional wave equation, while for a three and higher-dimensional wave equation, existence of such solutions recently is established (Pecher, Ribaud, Youssfi, Ozawa). (1) Glassey [2] studied the initial value problem, u(x, 0) = ψ 0 (x), u t (x, 0) = ψ 1 (x), x R n, for the semilinear wave equation (2) u tt u = u α+1, with n = 1, 2, 3. In particular, for the one-dimensional wave equation, (3) u tt u xx = u α+1, u(x, 0) = ψ 0 (x), u t (x, 0) = ψ 1 (x), according to the results of [2], there is a finite time blow up for smooth compactly supported initial data if α > 0. Namely, if initial data are C smooth functions and have compact supports and positive averages, then for any α > 0, a classical solution of (2) cannot exist on R n [0, ). To motivate our approach consider integral equation (4) u(x, t) = u 0 (x, t) + G[ u α+1 ](x, t), corresponding to (3), where the function u 0 (x, t) = 1 ( ) ψ 0 (x + t) + ψ 0 (x t) x+t x t ψ 1 (y) dy

2 134 WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS: MAY 18 20, 2006 is the solution to the Cauchy problem for the linear string equation, while G[f](x, t) = 1 2 t 0 dτ t τ τ t f(x + z, τ)dz. If ψ 0, ψ 1 C 0, then u 0 C ([0, ) R), and u 0 (t, ) obeys the finite speed of propagation property. In particular, it has a compact support for every given instant t. Then, for every fixed T > 0 operator, G is continuous: G : C([0, T ] R) C([0, T ] R) and G : C([0, T ]; L p (R)) C([0, T ]; L q (R)). Any (distributional or classical) solution to the semilinear string equation also solves integral equation (4) with some function u 0 (t, x), which is a (distributional or classical) solution to the linear problem. On the other hand, if u 0 C 2 ([0, T ] R) is given, then any function u C([0, T ] R) which solves integral equation (4) is also solution of the semilinear equation. Denote K(x 0, t 0 ) := {(x, t) x x 0 < (t 0 t), 0 < t < t 0 }. The integral equation (4) is said to be obeying the Finite Speed of Propagation Property, if for every point (x 0, t 0 ) from u 0 (x, 0) = 0, t u 0 (x, 0) = 0 on {x R ; x x 0 t 0 } and from u 0 = 0 on K(x 0, t 0 ), it follows u = 0 on K(x 0, t 0 ) for the solution u C([0, T ]; L q (R)) C 1 ([0, T ]; D (R)). Theorem 1. Suppose that α > 0. For any given nontrivial function u 0 from C ([0, ) R) generated by ψ 0, ψ 1 C0 (R), ψ 1(x)dx 0, there is no global in time solution u C([0, ); L q (R)) C 1 ([0, T ]; D (R)) to the integral equation (4), which obeys the finite speed of propagation property. The next conjecture stresses the difference between one-dimensional and higher dimensional semilinear wave equations. Conjecture (Strauss [7]). For n 2 blow-up for all data if p < p n and global existence for all small data if p > p n. Here, n 2, p = α + 1, and p n is the positive root of the equation (n 1)p 2 n (n + 1)p n 2 = 0. For the history of the results that have validated Strauss s Conjecture, see [1]. In fact, the above-mentioned difference between n = 1 and n 2 is more importunate. In particular, if we turn to nonsmooth data, for example, homogeneous, like ψ 0 (x) = x a, (a > 0) and ψ 1 (x) = x b, (b > 0), then it does not help to avoid a nonexistence. In the case of homogeneous initial data, the solution is self-similar: u(x, t) = λ 2/α u(λx, λt) for all λ > 0, x R, t > 0. Indeed, if we look for the self-similar solution to the Cauchy problem u tt u xx = u(x, t) α+1, u(x, 0) = 0, u t (x, 0) = ε x b, α > 0, then we have to set b = 1 + 2/α > 1. On the other hand, the solution u 0 = u 0 (x, t) of the Cauchy problem for the linear equation, (u 0 ) tt (u 0 ) xx = 0, u 0 (x, 0) = 0, (u 0 ) t (x, 0) = ε x b,

3 THE LEGACY OF LADYZHENSKAYA AND OLEINIK 135 is given by u 0 (x, t) = x+t x t s b /2 ds. In this case, since u(x, t) u 0 (x, t), the singularity of initial data is spread over the whole light cone and consequently, nonlinear one-dimensional wave equation does not have self-similar solution. Well-posedness of the Cauchy problem for n-dimensional linear Tricomi and Tricomi-type equations was proved by many authors, among them O. A. Oleĭnik [6]. For the progress made in mixed type equations and transonic flow, see C. S. Morawetz [5] and B. L. Keyfitz [3]. In this paper, we establish global existence in the Cauchy problem for the semilinear one-dimensional wave equation with the time dependent coefficient. Namely, consider the Cauchy problem (1) for the following equation, (5) u tt t 2k u xx = γ(t)f (u), with k 0, x R, t 0, a continuous function γ C((0, )), while F (u) is (6) F (u) = u α u or F (u) = u α+1, α > 0, u = u(x, t) is real-valued. We assume that for real-valued function γ, we have γ(t) Ct m for all t (0, ), with some constants C and m, m > 1. We study the Cauchy problem (5), (1) through integral equation. To write that integral equation, we appeal to [9, 3.3], where the following operator G is introduced: G[f](x, t) = (k + 1) k k k+1 t 0 x+φ(t) φ(b) db dy f(y, b) x (φ(t) φ(b)) (x y + φ(t) + φ(b)) γ (φ(b) (x y) + φ(t)) γ ( ) (x y + φ(t) φ(b))(x y φ(t) + φ(b)) F γ, γ; 1;, t 0. (x y + φ(t) + φ(b))(x y φ(t) φ(b)) Here, F ( a, b; c; z ) is the hypergeometric function, and φ(t) := tk+1 k + 1, γ := k 2 φ(1). As a matter of fact, operator G is a resolving operator for the Cauchy problem with zero initial data for the linear Tricomi equation, Now consider the integral equation u tt t 2k u xx = f(x, t). (7) u(x, t) = u 0 (x, t) + G[γ F (u)](x, t), x R, t 0, where function u 0 C([0, ); L q (R)) is given. The following theorem is the main result of the present communication.

4 136 WOMEN IN MATHEMATICS: MAY 18 20, 2006 Theorem 2. Assume that (8) q > 1, β(α + 1) m < 1, β = 2 + m α Let u 0 C([0, ); L q (R)) be given such that sup t β u 0 (t) L q (R) ε. (k + 1) q If ε is sufficiently small, then there exists a unique solution of equation (7) such that u C([0, ); L q (R)) sup t β u(t) L q (R) 2ε. If a given function u 0 C([0, ); L q (R)) solves the Cauchy problem for the linear equation (u 0 ) tt t 2k (u 0 ) xx = 0, u 0 (x, 0) = ψ 0 (x), u 0 t (x, 0) = ψ 1 (x), then we proved the following global existence theorem for the small data. Theorem 3. Assume that conditions (8), and inequalities 2 + m + α α(α + 1)(k + 1) 1 q < k 2α(k + 1), 1 q. 2 + m α(k + 1) are satisfied. Let ψ 0, ψ 1 be smooth functions with the compact supports, ψ 0, ψ 1 C0 (R) and small norms: ψ 0 L p (R) + ψ 1 L p (R) ε. Here p submits to terms 1 < p < ρ, 1/q = 1/p 1/ρ, 1/ρ + 1/ρ = 1. If ε is sufficiently small, then there exists a unique solution u C([0, ); L q (R)) C 1 ([0, ); D (R)) of the Cauchy problem (1), (5) such that sup t β u(t) L q (R) 2ε. According to the next theorem, the condition 0 < α < (2 + m)/k is necessary for the existence of the global in time weak solution to the problem (1), (5). It generalizes the statement of Theorem 1 to the Tricomi-type equations. In the next theorem, the finite propagation speed property is defined by K k (x 0, t 0 ) := {(x, t) x x 0 < (t k+1 0 t k+1 )/(k+1), 0 < t < t 0 }. Theorem 4. Suppose that 0 < α < (2 + m)/k and 2k N. For any given nontrivial function u 0 C ([0, ) R) solution to the Cauchy problem for the linear Tricomi-type equation, (u 0 ) tt t 2k (u 0 ) xx = 0,

5 THE LEGACY OF LADYZHENSKAYA AND OLEINIK 137 with the initial data ψ 0, ψ 1 C 0 (R), ψ 1(x)dx 0, there is no global in time solution u C([0, ); L q (R)) to the integral equation u(x, t) = u 0 (x, t) + G[ u α+1 ](x, t), which obeys the finite speed of propagation property. References [1] V. Georgiev, H. Lindblad, and C. D. Sogge, Weighted Strichartz estimates and global existence for semilinear wave equations, Amer. J. Math. 119 (1997), no. 6, [2] R. T. Glassey, Finite-time blow-up for solutions of nonlinear wave equations, Math. Z. 177 (1981), no. 3, [3] B. L. Keyfitz, Courant Lecture in Honor of Cathleen Morawetz. NYU, November 20, [4] C. S. Morawetz, The mathematical approach to the sonic barrier, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc. (N.S.) 6 (1982), no. 2, [5], Mixed equations and transonic flow, J. Hyperbolic Differ. Equ. 1 (2004), no. 1, [6] O. A. Oleĭnik, On the Cauchy problem for weakly hyperbolic equations, Comm. Pure Appl. Math. 23 (1970), [7] W. A. Strauss, Nonlinear scattering theory at low energy, J. Funct. Anal. 41 (1981), no. 1, [8] F. Tricomi, Sulle equazioni lineari alle derivate parziali di secondo ordine di tipo misto, Rend. Reale Accad. Lincei Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Natur. 5 (1923), no. 14, [9] K. Yagdjian, A note on the fundamental solution for the Tricomi-type equation in the hyperbolic domain, J. Differential Equations 206 (2004), no. 1, Department of Mathematics; University of Texas-Pan American; Edinburg, TX USA address:

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