# Two dimensional exterior mixed problem for semilinear damped wave equations

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1 J. Math. Anal. Appl. 31 (25) Two dimensional exterior mixed problem for semilinear damped wave equations Ryo Ikehata 1 Department of Mathematics, Graduate School of Education, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima , Japan Received 16 September 23 Available online 2 September 24 Submitted by I. Lasiecka Abstract We consider two dimensional exterior mixed problems for a semilinear damped wave equation with a power type nonlinearity u p. For compactly supported initial data, which have a small energy we shall derive global in time existence results in the case when the power of the nonlinearity satisfies 2 <p<+. This generalizes a previous result of [J. Differential Equations 2 (24) 53 68], which dealt with a radially symmetric solution. 24 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Keywords: Semilinear damped wave equation; 2D exterior domain; Compact support; Small energy; Global existence 1. Introduction We are concerned with the following mixed problem in the 2 dimensional exterior domain Ω R 2 with a smooth boundary Ω: u tt (t, x) u(t, x) + u t (t, x) = u(t, x) p, (t,x) (, ) Ω, (1.1) address: 1 Partially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C)(2) (No ), Japan Society for the Promotion of Science X/\$ see front matter 24 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. doi:1.116/j.jmaa

2 R. Ikehata / J. Math. Anal. Appl. 31 (25) where u(,x)= u (x), u t (,x)= u 1 (x), x Ω, (1.2) u Ω =, t >, (1.3) u t = u t, u tt = 2 u t 2, = 2 2 x 2 i=1 i, x = (x 1,x 2 ), and we may assume without loss of generality that / Ω, and Ω {x R 2 ; x <ρ } for some ρ >. Throughout this paper, q and H l stand for the usual L q (Ω)-norm and H l (Ω)- norm, respectively. For simplicity of notations, in particular, we write instead of 2. Furthermore, for <T + we set X 1 (, T )(Ω) = C ( [,T); H 1 (Ω)) C 1( [,T); L 2 (Ω) ). The purpose of this paper is to obtain global in time weak solutions to the problem (1.1) (1.3) with the power type nonlinearity u p satisfying 2 <p<+. (1.4) For this purpose we actually utilize the finite propagation speed property of solutions. Although there are many research papers concerning the Cauchy problem in R N for Eq. (1.1) (and for these results we refer the reader to Ikehata et al. [5], Narazaki [8], Nishihara [9], Todorova and Yordanov [14] and references therein), there seems to be little investigations concerning the nonlinear exterior mixed problem for Eq. (1.1) except for some literatures due to Nakao [7], Racke [1,11] and Shibata [12]. This is because in the exterior domain case it seems difficult to construct good basic decay estimates to the linear problem for (1.1). As compared with the exterior domain case, in the Cauchy problem case we can rely on good basic decay estimates due to Matsumura [6]. On the other hand, in 2 Ikehata [1] (see also [2] for N = 3, 4, 5 dimensional cases) constructed the small global solution to the two dimensional exterior mixed problem (1.1) (1.3), which has the power p satisfying 2.5 <p<+. (1.5) Quite recently, in [4] Ikehata has improved the region (1.5) of p to (1.4) in the framework of a radially symmetric solution. Therefore the main purpose of this paper is in a removal of the radial symmetry in [4]. For this we shall rely on a weighted energy method due to Todorova and Yordanov [14] in order to deal with the nonlinearity. At first sight, it may look like just an application of the Todorova Yordanov method. For decay estimates to the linear problem, which plays an essential role throughout this paper, Ikehata [1] has already prepared good a priori estimates. It was advantage that the optimal decay estimates for the linear equations in [1] can be derived by a quite simple device. Combinations of [1] and [14] will deduce the global well-posedness result to problem (1.1) (1.3) satisfying (1.4). It is also essential how we combine the decay estimates for the linear problem due to [1] with the method of [14] (see Lemma 2.3 below). Our main result reads as follows.

3 368 R. Ikehata / J. Math. Anal. Appl. 31 (25) Theorem 1.1. Let 2 <p<+, and suppose that the initial data [u,u 1 ] H 1 (Ω) L 2 (Ω) satisfy supp u suppu 1 { x R 2 ; x <ρ } Ω, (1.6) with some ρ>ρ. Then there exists a positive number ɛ ρ > such that if I = u + u 1 <ɛ ρ, the corresponding problem (1.1) (1.3) has a unique global solution u X 1 (, + )(Ω) satisfying ut (t, ) + u(t, ) CI (1 + t) 1, with some constant C>. Remark 1.1. The result of [4] can be also applied to the mixed problem for Eq. (1.1) with u t replaced by a localized radial dissipation a( x )u t, which is effective only near infinity (see also [3]). But, it seems that Theorem 1.1 cannot be applied to that localized dissipation case because the Todorova Yordanov method basically works well only for a constant coefficient damped wave equation case. In this sense Theorem 1.1 partially improves a result of [4], which studies a similar one in the framework of radial symmetry of solutions. Remark 1.2. It is still open to show the corresponding blowup results for 1 <p 2. Remark 1.3. We can also deal with the other nonlinearities like ± u p 1 u. 2. Proof of Theorem 1.1 In this section we shall prove our Theorem 1.1. For this purpose we first collect several facts concerning the linear problem for (1.1). Now let us consider the following mixed problem for a linear damped wave equation in Ω: v tt (t, x) v(t, x) + v t (t, x) =, (t,x) (, + ) Ω, (2.1) v(,x)= v (x), v t (,x)= v 1 (x), x Ω, (2.2) v Ω =, t >. (2.3) In order to obtain a priori estimates for the nonlinear problem (1.1) (1.3), we shall rely on the following decay estimates for the linear equation (2.1), which was derived in Ikehata [1]. Let B> be a real number satisfying inf x 2 x Ω B >. Then the following result was introduced in [1, Theorems 2.1 and 2.2].

4 R. Ikehata / J. Math. Anal. Appl. 31 (25) Theorem 2.1. If the initial data [v,v 1 ] H 1(Ω) L2 (Ω) further satisfy x log ( B x ) (v + v 1 ) ( = x 2( log ( B x )) 2 (v + v 1 )(x) 1/2 dx) 2 < +, Ω then the unique solution v X 1 (, + )(Ω) to problem (2.1) (2.3) satisfies v(t, ) C(1 + t) 1/2 ( v H 1 + v 1 + x log ( B x ) (v + v 1 ) ), v(t, ) + vt (t, ) C(1 + t) 1 ( v H 1 + v 1 + x log ( B x ) (v + v 1 ) ), with some constant C>. Furthermore, we use the following fundamental result, which can be derived by the standard multiplier method (cf. Nakao [7]). Proposition 2.1. Let [v,v 1 ] H 1(Ω) L2 (Ω). Then a unique solution v X 1 (, + )(Ω) to the problem (2.1) (2.3) satisfies v(t, ) C ( v H 1 + v 1 ), v(t, ) + vt (t, ) C(1 + t) 1/2 ( v H 1 + v 1 ), with some constant C>. Now let us apply this Theorem 2.1 to our nonlinear problem (1.1) (1.3) in order to obtain Theorem 1.1. To get a priori estimates for the nonlinear problem (1.1) (1.3) we shall proceed our proof based on a new weighted energy method recently developed by Todorova and Yordanov [14]. After all the Todorova Yordanov method can be applied also to the exterior mixed problem if one uses Theorem 2.1 in place of the basic estimates developed in [6]. In the occasion of the proof of Theorem 1.1 the following local well-posedness result is needed (cf. [13] and [1]). Proposition 2.2. Let 1 <p<+. Then for each (u,u 1 ) H 1(Ω) L2 (Ω), there exists a maximal existence time T m > such that the problem (1.1) (1.3) has a unique solution u X 1 (,T m )(Ω).IfT m < +,then [ lim u(t, ) + u(t, ) + ut (t, ) ] =+. t T m First of all, we choose (as in [14]) ψ(t,x) = 1 ( t + ρ (t + ρ) 2 2 x 2 ), for x <t+ ρ (x Ω), as the weight function. Note that the function ψ(t,x) also satisfies ψ(t,x) x 2 4(t + ρ). (2.4)

5 37 R. Ikehata / J. Math. Anal. Appl. 31 (25) For detail of this good function ψ(t,x), we refer the reader to [14]. Furthermore, for later use we set B(r) = { x R N ; x <r }, Ω(r)= Ω B(r), Ω(r) = Ω B(r), r >, where Ω is the closure of Ω in R N. Let us introduce three Lemmas below, which play essential roles in proving Theorem 1.1. The first one is as follows. Lemma 2.1. Let u(t, x) be a local solution of the problem (1.1) (1.3) on [,T m ) as in Proposition 2.2. Then the following estimate holds: for all t [,T m ), e ψ(t, ) Du(t, ) ( CI + C max (s + 1)δ e γψ(s, ) u(s, ) ) (p+1)/2 [,t] p+1, where δ> is a technical constant being independent of the problem (1.1) (1.3), γ> 2/(p + 1), D = ( t, ), and C = C ρ,δ,γ > is a constant, which depends on ρ, δ and γ. The proof of Lemma 2.1 can be done along the same line as in [14, Proposition 2.3], so we shall omit its proof. The second lemma reads as follows. Lemma 2.2. Let 2 <q, θ(q)= 2(1/2 1/q) and <θ(q) 1, and let <σ 1. If v H 1 (Ω) with supp v Ω(ρ + t), t, then it is true that e σψ(t, ) v q C q,ρ,σ (1 + t) (1 θ(q))/2 v 1 σ e ψ(t, ) v σ, with some constant C q,ρ,σ > satisfying lim σ C q,ρ,σ =+. The proof of Lemma 2.2 can be done along the same line as in [14, Proposition 2.4], too. Later on we shall briefly draw its outline of proof for the reader s convenience. The third lemma reads as follows. The proof of lemma below using Theorem 2.1 is an essential part throughout this paper. Lemma 2.3. Let u(t, x) be a local solution of the mixed problem (1.1) (1.3) in [,T m ) as in Proposition 2.2. Then the following decay estimate holds: (1 + t) Du(t, ) C ρ I + C η,ɛ,δ,ρ [max (1 + s)β e δψ(s, ) u(s, ) ] p, [,t] 2p for any ɛ>, η>, δ>,whereβ = 3/2p + ɛ/2p + η/p, and C η,ɛ,δ,ρ > is a constant, which depends on η>, ɛ>, δ> and ρ>ρ. In order to prove Lemmas 2.2 and 2.3 we shall prepare more technical lemmas below. Lemma 2.4. Let v H 1(Ω) and supp v Ω(ρ + t), t. Then, for σ>, it is true that σn 2 (t + ρ) 1 e σψ(t, ) v 2 + (e σψ(t, ) v) 2 e σψ(t, ) v 2, where N = 2.

6 R. Ikehata / J. Math. Anal. Appl. 31 (25) Proof. We set f = e σψ v, σ>. Then one has v = e σψ ( f σf ψ), so that e σψ v = f σf ψ. This implies e σψ v 2 = = 2σ f σf ψ 2 dx f 2 dx + σ 2 f 2 ψ 2 dx f( f ψ)dx. (2.5) Now, by assumption we may assume that there exists a real number r t (,ρ+ t) such that supp v Ω(r t ). Then since f f = 1 2 f 2 it follows from integration by parts that f( f ψ)dx = f( f ψ)dx Ω(r t ) = 1 2 = 1 2 Ω(r t ) Ω(r t ) f 2 ψ dx Ω(r t ) f 2 ψ(t,r) n f 2 ψ dx, (2.6) where n = n(r) is the unit outward normal vector at Ω(r t ). Note that in the calculation of (2.6) since ψ(t,r) x = 2 (t + ρ) 2 x, 2 it holds that ψ(t,r) < +, for each r = x Ω(r t ). Because of (2.5) and (2.6) we can deduce e σψ(t, ) v 2 f 2 dx + σ f 2 ψ(t, x) dx. (2.7) On the other hand, we see that dr

7 372 R. Ikehata / J. Math. Anal. Appl. 31 (25) ψ(t, x) = N ( (t + ρ) 2 x 2) 1/2 x 2 ( + (t + ρ) 2 x 2) 3/2 2 2 N 2 (t + ρ) 1 >, (2.8) for ρ + t> x (x Ω). (2.7) and (2.8) imply the desired estimate. Once we could have obtained Lemma 2.4, the proof of Lemma 2.2 is much the same procedure as in [14, Proof of Proposition 2.4] because one can also use the Gagliardo Nirenberg and the Hölder inequalities in Ω. For the reader s convenience we shall draw its proof briefly. Proof of Lemma 2.2. First it follows from the Gagliardo Nirenberg inequality that f q C f 1 θ(q) f θ(q), where f = e σψ v, C = C(q) > andθ(q) = 2(1/2 1/q) (, 1]. Furthermore, from Lemma 2.4 one has f e σψ v, ( ) 1 1/2 f (t + ρ) 1/2 e σψ v. σ Thus one has f q C q,σ (t + ρ) (1 θ(q))/2 e σψ v, Here, from the Hölder inequality we see e σψ v 2 = e 2σψ v 2σ v 2(1 σ) Ω lim C q,σ =+. σ e 2σψ v 2σ 1/σ v 2(1 σ) 1/(1 σ) = v 2(1 σ) e ψ v 2σ, for σ (, 1). These imply the desired estimate. Furthermore, the following inequality is useful in the proof of Lemma 2.3. Lemma 2.5. For each ɛ>, δ> and ρ>ρ, there exists a constant C = C ɛ,δ,ρ > such that x log ( B x ) e pδψ(t,x) C(1 + t) (1+ɛ)/2, for t and x Ω,wherelim ɛ C ɛ,δ,ρ =+. Proof. First notice that for each ɛ> there exist constants C iɛ > (i = 1, 2) with lim ɛ C 1ɛ =+ and lim ɛ C 2ɛ = 2e such that log(br) C 1ɛ r ɛ, (2.9)

8 R. Ikehata / J. Math. Anal. Appl. 31 (25) for all r dist(, Ω) = r >, and e y C 2ɛ y (1+ɛ)/2, (2.1) for y>. Taking y = pδr 2 /4(t + ρ) in (2.1) (r = x, x Ω) wehave ( ) 4 (1+ɛ)/2 r 1+ɛ e pδr2 /(4(t+ρ)) C2ɛ 1 (ρ + t) (1+ɛ)/2 C ɛ,δ,ρ(1 + t) (1+ɛ)/2. pδ Thus it follows from (2.4) and (2.9) that r log(br)e pδψ(t,x) C 1ɛ r 1+ɛ e (pδr2 )/(4(t+ρ)) C ɛ,δ,ρ (1 + t) (1+ɛ)/2, for r r (r = x, x Ω), which implies the desired inequality. Therefore, as a direct consequence of Lemma 2.5 one has the following lemma, which is peculiar to the present problem, that is, it is essential to restrict the parameter ɛ>(and δ>) sufficiently small (see (2.22) below) in order to control the weighted norm for the nonlinear term in the next lemma. Lemma 2.6. Let u(t, x) be a solution as in Proposition 2.2. Then it is true that x log ( B x ) u(s) p Cɛ,δ,ρ (1 + s) (1+ɛ)/2 e δψ(s, ) u(s) p 2p, for s<t m and any ɛ>. Now let us prove Lemma 2.3, which is an essential part for the proof of Theorem 1.1. Proof of Lemma 2.3. By S(t)g (g L 2 (Ω)) we denote the unique solution v(t,x) to the mixed problem (2.1) (2.3) with v = andv 1 = g. Then the solution u(t) = u(t, ) to the nonlinear problem (1.1) (1.3) can be rewritten as an integral equation t ( ) u(t) = S(t)(u + u 1 ) + t S(t)u + S(t s) u(s) p ds. (2.11) Note that the operators {S(t): t } satisfy the following properties because of Theorem 2.1 and Proposition 2.1: t S(t)g + S(t)g C(1 + t) 1 ( g + x log ( B x ) g ), (2.12) for g L 2 (Ω) satisfying x log(b x )g < +,and t S(t)g + S(t)g C(1 + t) 1/2 g, (2.13) for g L 2 (Ω),whereC>isaconstant. We must estimate the norm u t (t) and u(t). Ifweset ( ) u L (t) = S(t)(u + u 1 ) + t S(t)u, then u L is a unique solution to the linear problem (2.1) (2.3) with v = u and v 1 = u 1,so that from Theorem 2.1 one has Du L (t) C ρ (1 + t) 1 I. (2.14)

9 374 R. Ikehata / J. Math. Anal. Appl. 31 (25) Next let us estimate the nonlinear term in (2.11), and we set t u N (t) = S(t s) u(s) p ds. We split the integral into two parts u N (t) = S(t s) t u(s) p ds + S(t s) u(s) p ds = un,1 (t) + u N,2 (t). For the first integral we apply (2.12), and obtain DS(t s) u(s) p C(1 + t s) 1( u(s) p 2p + ( ) x log B x u(s) p ). (2.15) Here, from Lemma 2.6 and the following trivial estimate: u(s) p 2p C(1 + s)1/2 e δψ(s, ) u(s) p 2p, (2.16) it is true that DS(t s) u(s) p Cɛ,δ,ρ (1 + t s) 1 (1 + s) (1+ɛ)/2 e δψ(s, ) u(s) p 2p. This implies DS(t s) u(s) p ds C ɛ,δ,ρ (1 + s) 1 η (1 + t s) 1{ (1 + s) 3/2p+(2η+ɛ)/2p e δψ(s, ) u(s) 2p } p ds C ɛ,δ,ρ (max (1 + s)β e δψ(s, ) u(s) ) p [,t] 2p (1 + s) 1 η (1 + t s) 1 ds, for any ɛ>andη>, where β = 3/2p + η/p + ɛ/2p. Since (1 + s) 1 η (1 + t s) 1 ds C η (1 + t) 1, lim η C η =+, we find Du N,1 (t) DS(t s) u(s) p ds C η,ɛ,δ,ρ (1 + t) 1( max [,t] (1 + s)β e δψ(s, ) u(s) 2p ) p, (2.17)

10 R. Ikehata / J. Math. Anal. Appl. 31 (25) for any ɛ>andη>, where again we set β = 3 2p + η p + ɛ 2p. (2.18) On the other hand, for the estimate of u N,2 (t) because of (2.13) one has DS(t s) u(s) p C(1 + t s) 1/2 u(s) p 2p C(1 + t s) 1/2 (1 + s) 3/2( max (1 + s)3/2p ) p. u(s) 2p [,t] Thus, because of the fact e δψ(s,x) 1 we obtain t DS(t s) u(s) p ds C t ( (1 + t s) 1/2 (1 + s) 3/2 ds max (1 + s)3/2p u(s) ) p [,t] 2p C(1 + t) 1( max [,t] (1 + s)3/2p u(s) 2p ) p C(1 + t) 1( max (1 + s)3/2p e δψ(s, ) u(s) ) p. [,t] 2p This implies Du N,2 (t) t DS(t s) u(s) p ds C(1 + t) 1( max (1 + s)β e δψ(s, ) u(s) ) p, [,t] 2p (2.19) for β> defined in (2.18). Finally (2.11), (2.14), (2.17) and (2.19) imply the desired estimate. Now we are in a position to prove Theorem 1.1. For this, we set W(t)= e ψ(t, ) Du(t) + (1 + t) Du(t). Proof of Theorem 1.1. First it follows from Lemmas 2.1 and 2.3 that W(t) C ρ I + C δ,ρ (max (1 + s)δ e γψ(s, ) u(s) ) (p+1)/2 [,t] p+1 + C η,ɛ,δ,ρ (max [,t] (1 + s)β e δψ(s, ) u(s) 2p ) p for any γ>2/(p + 1), η>, ɛ>andδ>. On the other hand, Lemma 2.2 with q = 2p and σ = δ gives

11 376 R. Ikehata / J. Math. Anal. Appl. 31 (25) e δψ(s, ) u(s) 2p C ρ (1 + s) (1 θ(2p))/2 u(s) 1 δ e ψ(s, ) u(s) δ C ρ (1 + s) (1 θ(2p))/2{ (1 + s) u(s) } 1 δ(1 + s) (1 δ) W(t) δ = C ρ (1 + s) (1 θ(2p))/2 (1 δ) W(t). (2.2) Similarly we have e γψ(s, ) u(s) p+1 C ρ (1 + s) (1 θ(p+1))/2 (1 γ) W(t). (2.21) It follows from (2.2) and (2.21) that Set W(t) C ρ I + C δ,ρ {max (1 + [,t] s)δ+(1 θ(p+1))/2 (1 γ) W(s) } p. + C η,ɛ,δ,ρ {max (1 + [,t] s)β+(1 θ(2p))/2 (1 δ) W(s) } (p+1)/2 γ = 2 p ɛ 1. Then by definition of the quantities θ(2p) and θ(p+ 1) we obtain β + 1 θ(2p) ( ) ( 2 (1 δ) = 2 p 1 + δ + ɛ 2p + η ) <, (2.22) p if we choose η>, ɛ>andδ> are small enough, because we have assumed 2 <p. Similarly, because of 2 <pwe see δ + (1 θ(p+ 1)) 2 (1 γ)= ( ) 3 p (δ + ɛ 1 )<, if we choose ɛ 1 and δ are also small enough. Note that the parameters η>, ɛ>, δ> and ɛ 1 > depend only on p. Let the parameters as above be fixed. At this moment we see that the constants appeared in Lemmas have finite value, which guarantees the validity of the above arguments. Then we have ( ) (p+1)/2 ( ) p. max W(s) C ρi + C ρ max W(s) + Cρ max W(s) (2.23) [,t] [,t] [,t] Define (as in [14]) M(t) = max W(s). [,t] (2.23) can be written as M(t) C ρ I + C ρ M(t) (p+1)/2 + C ρ M(t) p. Therefore, by taking I sufficiently small we have arrived at the good a priori bound M(t) C ρ I, for t [,T m ). This causes e ψ(t, ) Du(t) + (1 + t) Du(t) Cρ I, which implies the existence of a global in time solution by Proposition 2.2.

12 R. Ikehata / J. Math. Anal. Appl. 31 (25) Acknowledgment The author thanks the referees for their helpful suggestions. References [1] R. Ikehata, Energy decay of solutions for the semilinear dissipative wave equations in an exterior domain, Funkcial. Ekvac. 44 (21) [2] R. Ikehata, Small data global existence of solutions for dissipative wave equations in an exterior domain, Funkcial. Ekvac. 45 (22) [3] R. Ikehata, Fast decay of solutions for linear wave equations with dissipation localized near infinity in an exterior domain, J. Differential Equations 188 (23) [4] R. Ikehata, Global existence of solutions for semilinear damped wave equation in 2-D exterior domain, J. Differential Equations 2 (24) [5] R. Ikehata, Y. Miyaoka, T. Nakatake, Decay estimates of solutions for dissipative wave equations in R N with lower power nonlinearities, J. Math. Soc. Japan 56 (24) [6] A. Matsumura, On the asymptotic behavior of solutions of semi-linear wave equations, Publ. Res. Inst. Math. Sci. 12 (1976) [7] M. Nakao, Energy decay for the linear and semilinear wave equations in exterior domains with some localized dissipations, Math. Z. 238 (21) [8] T. Narazaki, L p L q estimates for damped wave equations and their applications to semi-linear problem, J. Math. Soc. Japan 56 (24) [9] K. Nishihara, L p L q estimates of solutions to the damped wave equation in 3-dimensional space and their application, Math. Z. 244 (23) [1] R. Racke, Decay rates for solutions of damped systems and generalized Fourier transforms, J. Reine Angew. Math. 412 (199) [11] R. Racke, Non-homogeneous non-linear damped wave equations in unbounded domains, Math. Methods Appl. Sci. 13 (199) [12] Y. Shibata, On the global existence of classical solutions of second order fully nonlinear hyperbolic equations with first order dissipation in the exterior domain, Tsukuba J. Math. 7 (1983) [13] W.A. Strauss, Nonlinear Wave Equations, CBMS Regional Conf. Ser. in Math., American Mathematical Society, Providence, RI, [14] G. Todorova, B. Yordanov, Critical exponent for a nonlinear wave equation with damping, J. Differential Equations 174 (21)

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