1 Astronomy 1 10/17/17 - NASA JPL field trip 10/17/17 - LA Griffith Observatory field trip
2 CH 1 Here and NOW Where do we fit in the Universe? How-small-we-really-are-in-this-universe
4 Start here: The figure shows a region about 16 meters (52 feet) from the edge of the street to the door of this Building. Figure 1-1 p3
5 Each picture in the following sequence shows you a frame or field of view within the universe that is 100 times wider than the preceding picture.
6 In this figure, your field of view has increased in size by a factor of 100, and you can see an area 1.6 kilometers (1 mile) in diameter. Figure 1-2 p3
7 This figure has a span of 160 kilometers (100 miles).
8 At the next step in your journey, you will see the entire planet Earth about 13,000 km (8000 miles) in diameter The picture shows most of the daylight side. The blurriness at the extreme right is the sunset line. HW (Learning to look 1) In Figure 1-4 of the lecture the division between daylight and darkness is at the right on the globe of the Earth. How do you know this is the sunset line and not the sunrise line? Figure 1-4 p4
9 The rotation of Earth on its axis each 24 hours carries you eastward. As you cross the sunset line into darkness, you say the sun has set.
10 At the scale of this figure, the atmosphere on which your life depends is thinner than a strand of thread.
11 Enlarge your field of view again by a factor of 100, and you see a region 1,600,000 km (1 million miles) wide. Earth is the small blue dot in the center. The moon with a diameter of only about one-fourth that of Earth is an even smaller dot along its orbit.
12 If you had a high-mileage car, it may have made the equivalent of a trip to the moon which has an average distance from Earth of 380,000 kilometers (240,000 miles). These numbers are so large that it is inconvenient to write them out. 30 earths
13 Astronomy is the science of big numbers. You will use numbers much larger than these to describe the universe. Rather than writing out these numbers, it is more convenient to write them in scientific notation. This is nothing more than a simple way to write numbers without writing lots of zeros. For example, you would write 380,000 as 3.8 x 10 5.
15 Enlarge your field of view again by a factor of 100, and you see a region 1,600,000 km = 1.6 x 10 6 (1 million miles) wide. Earth is the small blue dot in the center. The moon with a diameter of only about one-fourth that of Earth is an even smaller dot along its orbit.
16 When you once again enlarge your field of view by a factor of 100, Earth, its moon, and the moon s orbit all lie in the small red box at lower left. This figure has a diameter of about 1.6 x 10 8 kilometers.
17 Now, you can see the sun and two other planets that are part of our solar system. Our solar system consists of the sun, its family of planets, and some smaller bodies such as moons, asteroids, and comets. Like Earth, Venus and Mercury are planets small, nonluminous bodies that shine by reflecting light. Venus is about the size of Earth and Mercury is a bit larger than Earth s moon. In this figure, they are both too small to be seen as anything but tiny dots.
18 The sun is a star a self-luminous ball of hot gas that generates its own energy. The sun is 110 times larger in diameter than Earth, but it too is nothing more than a dot in the diagram. Another way astronomers deal with large numbers is to define new units: The average distance from Earth to the sun is called the astronomical unit (AU) a distance of 1.5 x 10 8 kilometers (93 million miles). For example, you can say, the average distance from Venus to the sun is about 0.7 AU.
19 After just six steps, each enlarging by a factor of 100, you now see the entire solar system. Your view now is 1 trillion (10 12 ) times wider than in the first figure. The details of the previous figure are lost in the red square at the center of this figure. You see only the brighter, more widely separated objects as you back away.
20 The sun, Mercury, Venus, and Earth lie so close together that you cannot separate them at this scale. Mars, the next outward planet, lies only 1.5 AU from the sun.
21 In contrast, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are so far from the sun that they are easy to find in the figure. Light from the sun reaches Earth in only 8 minutes, but it takes over 4 hours to reach Neptune.* Pluto orbits mostly outside Neptune s orbit, but it is no longer considered a major planet. * See the definition of a light year
22 When you again enlarge your field of view by a factor of 100 (10 14 ) the solar system becomes invisibly small. The sun is only a point of light, and all the planets and their orbits are now crowded into the small red square at the center. The planets are too small and reflect too little light to be visible so near the brilliance of the sun.
24 Nor are any stars visible except for the sun. The sun is a fairly typical star, a bit larger than average, and is located in a fairly normal neighborhood in the universe. Although there are many billions of stars like the sun, none is close enough to be visible in the figure.
25 The stars are separated by average distances about 30 times larger than this view, which has a diameter of 11,000 AU. It is difficult to grasp the isolation of the stars. If the sun were represented by a golf ball in New York City, the nearest star would be another golf ball in Chicago. How far is the nearest Star
26 Now, your field of view has expanded to a diameter a bit over 1 million AU. The sun is at the center, and you see a few of the nearest stars. These stars are so distant that it is not reasonable to give their distances in AU.
27 Astronomers have defined a new larger unit of distance the lightyear. One light-year (ly) is the distance that light travels in one year roughly km or 63,000 AU.
28 The diameter of your field of view in the figure is 17 ly. The nearest star to the sun, Proxima Centauri, is 4.2 ly from Earth. In other words, light from Proxima Centauri takes 4.2 years to reach Earth.
29 Although stars are roughly the same size as the sun, they are so far away that you cannot see them as anything but points of light. Even with the largest telescopes on Earth, you still see only points of light when you look at stars. Any planets that might circle those stars are much too small and faint to be visible.
30 In the figure, the sizes of the dots represent not the sizes of the stars but their brightness. This is the custom in astronomical diagrams, and it is also how starlight is recorded. Bright stars make larger spots in a photo or electronic picture than faint stars.
31 When you expand your field of view by another factor of 100, the sun and its neighboring stars vanish into the background of thousands of other stars. The field of view is 1,700 ly in diameter.
32 No one has ever journeyed thousands of light-years to look back and photograph the sun s neighborhood. So, this is a representative picture of a part of the sky that can be used as a reasonable simulation. The sun is faint enough that it would not be easily located in a photo at this scale.
33 Some things that are invisible in this figure are actually critically important. You do not see the thin gas that fills the spaces between the stars.
34 A cloud of gas and dust in space named Messier 78, so far away its light takes 1600 years to reach earth. This image was created by a private citizen, Igor Chekalin of Russia, in response to a worldwide contest sponsored by the European southern observatory (ESO) in Mr. Chekalin s prize was an all-expenses-paid trip to Chile to work with the astronomers using one of ESO s giant telescopes. p3
35 Although those clouds of gas are thinner than the best vacuum produced in laboratories on Earth, it is those clouds that give birth to new stars. The sun formed from such a cloud about 5 billion years ago.
36 If you expand your field of view by a factor of 100, you see our galaxy. A galaxy is a great cloud of stars, gas, and dust bound together by the combined gravity of all the matter.
37 In the night sky, you see our galaxy from the inside as a great, cloudy wheel of stars ringing the sky as the Milky Way. Our galaxy is known as the Milky Way Galaxy.
38 Of course, no one has photographed our galaxy. This figure shows a galaxy similar to our own.
39 Our sun would be invisible in such a picture. If you could see it, you would find it about two-thirds of the way from the center to the edge.
40 Our galaxy, like many others, has graceful spiral arms winding outward through the disk. You will learn that stars are born in great clouds of gas and dust as they pass through these arms.
41 The visible disk of our galaxy is roughly 80,000 ly in diameter. Only a century ago, astronomers thought it was the entire universe an island universe of stars in an otherwise empty vastness.
42 As you expand your field of view by another factor of 100, our galaxy appears as a tiny luminous speck surrounded by other specks. The figure includes a region 17 million ly in diameter. Each dot represents a galaxy.
43 Our galaxy is part of a cluster of a few dozen galaxies. You will find that galaxies are commonly grouped together in clusters. Some of these galaxies have beautiful spiral patterns like our own galaxy, but others do not.
44 The figure represents a view with a diameter of 1.7 billion light years by combining observations with theoretical calculations.
45 The sequence of figures ends here it has reached the limits of the largest telescopes on Earth. Our view with the largest telescopes does not extend as far as the region that would be covered by a figure 100 times larger than the figure.
46 A problem in studying astronomy is keeping a proper sense of scale. Remember that each of the billions of galaxies contains billions of stars. Many of those stars probably have families of planets like our solar system. On some of those billions of planets, liquidwater oceans and protective atmospheres may have sheltered the spark of life.
47 It is possible that some other planets are inhabited by intelligent creatures who share your curiosity, wonder at the scale of the cosmos, and are looking back at you when you gaze into the heavens.
48 Pale Blue Dot
49 Powers of 10 Powers of 10 video Size Comparison Giant Black Hole in NGC 1277 size of universe (Explains Parallax) ON 618 is a very distant and extremely luminous quasar technically, a hyperluminous, broadabsorption line, radio-loud quasar located near the North Galactic Pole in the constellation Canes Venatici. It likely contains one of the most massive known black holes, perhaps weighing in at 66 billion times the mass of the Sun
50 Scientific Method A common misconception in science is that science provides facts or "truth" about a subject. Science is not collection of facts; rather, it is a process of investigation into the natural world and the knowledge generated through that process. This process of investigation is often referred to as the scientific method and it is typically defined in many textbooks and science courses as a linear set of steps through which a scientist moves from observation through experimentation and to a conclusion as shown below:
PART I The Universe CHAPTER 1 Our place in the Universe The realm of the galaxies All life as we know it exists within the bounds of the single planet that we call home. For centuries mankind has gazed
TAKEN FROM HORIZONS 7TH EDITION CHAPTER 1 TUTORIAL QUIZ 1. If the solar system is scaled down so that the Sun is represented by a basketball, a. a ping-pong ball located 500 feet away would properly represent
1 The Solar System Though Pluto, and the far-flung depths of the Solar System, is the focus of this book, it is essential that Pluto is placed in the context of the planetary system that it inhabits our
Name Date PHYSICS 160: Cosmos Spring 2015 Homework #1 MODEL SOLAR SYSTEM Purpose: To get an intuitive feeling for the size of the solar system. Perhaps you ve heard the phrase to disappear into empty space.
Phys 100 Astronomy (Dr. Ilias Fernini) Review Questions for Chapter 1 MULTIPLE CHOICE (Right answers are reported in red) 1.. A solar system contains a. primarily planets. b. large amounts of gas and dust
1UNIT The Universe What do you remember? What are the points of light in this photo? What is the difference between a star and a planet? a moon and a comet? Content objectives In this unit, you will Learn
Chapter 1: Our Place in the Universe 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe Our goals for learning: What is our physical place in the Universe? How did we come to be? How can we know what the Universe was like
Astronomy Unit Notes Name: (DO NOT LOSE!) To help with the planets order 1 My = M 2 V = Venus 3 Eager = E 4 M = Mars 5 Just = J 6 Served = Saturn 7 Us = Uranus 8 N = N 1 Orbit: The path (usually elliptical)
Unit Overview: Understanding the Universe S TA R T ING WITH EARTH A ND B E YO ND Our solar system examining size and scale in space 6.11B UNDERSTAND THAT GRAVITY IS THE FORCE THAT GOVERNS MOTION IN OUR
What makes up the Universe? Introduction to the Universe Book page 642-644 Objects in the Universe Astrophysics is the science that tries to make sense of the universe by - describing the Universe (Astronomy)
The Sun A star is a huge ball of hot, glowing gases. The Sun is a star. The width of the Sun is equal to the width of 100 Earths placed side by side. The Sun is extremely hot. The surface of the Sun has
UNIT 1: THE UNIVERSE VOCABULARY Asteroids Asteroid belt Astronomical unit (AU) Black hole Celestial body Cluster of galaxies Comets Constellation Dwarf planets Galaxy Light-year (LY) meteorites Milky Way
Introduction to Astronomy Have you ever wondered what is out there in space besides Earth? As you see the stars and moon, many questions come up with the universe, possibility of living on another planet
1 Astronomy: Universe at a Glance, Ch. 1a What you see depends on from where you observe: Ancients lived in a very dark world at night compared to us today, and the sky was magnificent and enticing. Sometimes
Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe 1 1.1 Our Modern View of the Universe Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe? How did we come to be? How can we know what the universe was like in
11 Video Script: 1. For thousands of years people have looked up at the night sky pondering the limits of our solar system. 2. Perhaps you too, have looked up at the evening stars and planets, and wondered
Tour of the Universe! Andromeda: M31 (NGC 224, the famous Andromeda Galaxy) is the nearest large galaxy to our own Milky Way galaxy. It is so bright that it is easily seen by naked eye as a faint fuzzy
Introduction to the Universe What makes up the Universe? Objects in the Universe Astrophysics is the science that tries to make sense of the universe by - describing the Universe (Astronomy) - understanding
Page1 Earth s Formation Unit [Astronomy] Student Success Sheets (SSS) HS-ESSI-1; HS-ESS1-2; HS-ESS1-3; HS-ESSI-4 NGSS Civic Memorial High School - Earth Science A Concept # What we will be learning Mandatory
A Tour of Our Solar System and Beyond The Sun diameter = 1,390,000 km = 864,000 mi >99.8% of the mass of the entire solar system surface temperature 5800 C 600 x 10 6 tons H -> 596 x 10 6 tons He per second
Chapter 1 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition A Modern View of the Universe Chapter Opener 1.1 The Scale of the Universe Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe? How big is
The Solar System TABLE OF CONTENTS click one to go to that page, or just go on. What is the Solar System? The Sun Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune (Pluto) Asteroids Meteors and Meteorites
Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe 1.1 Our Modern View of the Universe Topics we will explore: What is our place in the universe? How did we come to be? How can we know what the universe was like in the
Unit 2 Lesson 1 LESSON topic: formation of the solar system - Solar system formation - Star formation - Models of the solar system - Planets in our solar system Big bang theory Origin of the universe According
Space SC.8.E.5.1 SC.8.E.5.1: Recognize that there are enormous distances between objects in space and apply our knowledge of light and space travel to understand this difference. Essential Questions: Distances
Chapter 1 Our Place in the Universe 1.1 A Modern View of the Universe Our goals for learning: What is our place in the universe? How did we come to be? How can we know what the universe was like in the
The Universe in my pocket The Solar System 4 No. 4 Gloria Delgado Inglada Instituto de Astronomía, UNAM, Mexico 2 The Solar System is composed of the Sun and of all the bodies travelling around it: planets,
ASTR 380 The Universe: the context for Life Simple facts: The Universe is vast. The Universe is old. The elements for life are wide-spread. Our physical laws appear universal The Universe is mostly empty!
Observational Astronomy Astro-25 Professor Meyer-Canales Saddleback College Astronomy Courses Offered at Saddleback College Astronomy 20 - General Astronomy Survey/Lecture course Astronomy 21 - Solar System
The Earth and the Universe The exploration of space is called astronomy. Most of our observations in space have come from using telescopes of different kinds. Observing the universe from the ground has
Cosmology Vocabulary Vocabulary Words Terrestrial Planets The Sun Gravity Galaxy Lightyear Axis Comets Kuiper Belt Oort Cloud Meteors AU Nebula Solar System Cosmology Universe Coalescence Jovian Planets
Cosmic Landscape Introduction Study Notes About how much bigger in radius is the Sun than the Earth? The ratio of the Sun's radius to the Earth's radius is 1,392,000/12756 = 109.1 How big is an astronomical
THE SIZE AND STRUCTURE OF THE UNIVERSE when considering the facts in this presentation, keep in mind: Earth s diameter (distance across center at widest point) approximately = 8,000 miles (12,800 kilometers)
What is Earth Science? A.EARTH SCIENCE: the study of Earth and its history B. Earth science is divided into 4 main branches: 1. Geology: study of the lithosphere 2. Oceanography: study of oceans 3. Meteorology:
ASTRONOMY Universe- Includes all known matter (everything). Celestial Object Any object outside or above Earth s atmosphere. Galaxy- A large group (billions) of stars (held together by gravity). Our galaxy
Chapter 15 & 16 Science Review (PATTERNS IN THE SKY, OUR SOLAR SYSTEM) The Milky Way the galaxy that contains our solar system Our solar system is a speck in the Milky Way galaxy Pluto is now considered
Earth s Place in the Universe outline 1. in the beginning. The Big Bang 2. galaxies -- different types 3. stars -- life cycle 4. the solar system -- sun and planets the big bang the universe is expanding
Planets, Stars and Galaxies Section 1 Mon. & Weds. 3:35-4:50 Prof. Todd Adams Welcome! Department of Physics Florida State University Astronomy is the study of objects beyond the Earth s atmosphere and
Astronomy Universe: all of space and everything in it Most (90%) of the universe is made up of: dark matter: stuff we think is there due to amount of mass we think is there but is not detected by the instruments
Learning About Our Solar System By debbie Routh COPYRIGHT 2004 Mark Twain Media, Inc. ISBN 978-1-58037-876-5 Printing No. 404007-EB Mark Twain Media, Inc., Publishers Distributed by Carson-Dellosa Publishing
Notes Astronomy What is the solar system? 11.1 Structure of the Solar System Our solar system includes planets and dwarf planets, their moons, a star called the Sun, asteroids and comets. Planets, dwarf
The Scale of the Cosmos Scale defined as relative magnitude. Astronomy deals with objects on a vast range of size scales and time scales. Most of these size and time scales are way beyond our every-day
The Scale of the Cosmos Scale defined as relative magnitude. Astronomy deals with objects on a vast range of size scales and time scales. Most of these size and time scales are way beyond our every-day
Our Place in the Universe (Chapter 1) The Structure and Size of the Universe Based on Chapter 1 This material will be useful for understanding Chapters 2, 3, and 13 on Years, Seasons, and Months, The Orbits
Plan Questions? Syllabus; administrative details Some Definitions An Idea of Scale All material available from http://astroweb.case.edu/ssm/astr101/ which is the primary document for the course (not Canvas).
The Moon The Moon s relationship with Earth The Moon orbits the Earth every 27.3 days. The tides on Earth are caused mostly by the gravitational pull of the Moon and the Sun. The Moon's gravitational pull
Physical Science enchmark Test 4 Name: ate: 1 rocket accelerates from the launch pad. The forces on the rocket are action forces. balanced. reaction forces. unbalanced. 2 What force(s) act(s) on a rocket
Unit 2 Lesson 1 What Objects Are Part of the Solar System? Florida Benchmarks SC.5.E.5.2 Recognize the major common characteristics of all planets and compare/contrast the properties of inner and outer
The Universe and Galaxies 16.1 http://dingo.care-mail.com/cards/flash/5409/galaxy.swf Universe The sum of all matter and energy that exists, that has ever existed, and that will ever exist. We will focus
Space Cruise & Picture Book Learning Target: Recognize that there are enormous distances between objects in space Apply our knowledge of light and space travel to understand this distance. Watch Powers
Earth in Space Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe Key Concepts What are stars? How does the Sun compare to other stars? Where is Earth located in the universe? How is the universe structured? What do you
One with the Cosmos A short tour out your backdoor Shane L. Larson Department of Physics Utah State University email@example.com Senior University Utah State 24 September 2008 1 Storyline Seeing the Cosmos
* Pre-Unit Assessment Solar System 5-PS2-1, MS-ESS1-2, MS-ESS1-3 Reading and Map Solar System Chart Solar System Size Comparison Model Earth, Moon, Sun System K-PS3-1, 1-ESS1-1, 1-ESS1-2 Reading and Diagram
Unit 6 Lesson 4 What Are the Planets in Our Solar System? What other objects are near Earth in this part of space? Earth and millions of other objects make up our solar system. In Our Corner of Space A
The Evening Sky in February 2019 Sirius and Canopus are the brightest in the evening sky. Sirius, the brightest of all the stars, is north of overhead. Canopus, the second brightest star, is a bit south
Bell Ringer 1. Briefly describe the Doppler effect in one sentence. 2. What do you want to do someday, like, in life? 3. How do you think science might apply to what you want to do someday? SCIENCE MATTERS
Star Systems and Galaxies Why Does the Milky Way Look Hazy? 1. Using a pencil, carefully poke at least 20 holes close together in a sheet of white paper. 2. Tape the paper to a chalkboard or dark-colored
Galaxies and the Solar System by Lynn Durrant 1 10 tips for learning success Be independent and responsible for your own learning. Work collaboratively in pairs or groups. Use different strategies to help
Celestial bodies are all of the natural objects in space ex. stars moons, planets, comets etc. Star: celestial body of hot gas that gives off light and heat the closest star to earth is the sun Planet:
Standard 7.3.1: Recognize and describe that the Sun is a medium-sized star located near the edge of a diskshaped galaxy of stars and that the universe contains many billions of galaxies and each galaxy
Name: Date: 1. The pull of gravity on Earth is a direct result of the A. mass of Earth. B. magnetic field of Earth. C. rotation of Earth on its axis. D. weight of Earth's atmosphere. This online assessment
Beyond Our Solar System Chapter 24 PROPERTIES OF STARS Distance Measuring a star's distance can be very difficult Stellar parallax Used for measuring distance to a star Apparent shift in a star's position
Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune 40.329407-74.667345 Sun Mercury Length of rotation Temperature at surface 8 official planets large number of smaller objects including Pluto, asteroids,
19.1 Tools of Astronomers Frequently in the news we hear about discoveries that involve space. Since the 1970s, space probes have been sent to all of the planets in the solar system and we have seen them
Our Solar System Lesson 5 T he Solar System consists of the Sun, the Moon, planets, dwarf planets, asteroids, comets, meteors and other celestial bodies. All these celestial bodies are bound to the Sun
UNIT 1: EARTH AND THE SOLAR SYSTEM. 1) A BRIEF HISTORY Theories of the Universe In the second century BC, the astronomer Ptolemy proposed that the Earth was the centre of the Universe, and that the Sun,
Name: Earth and Space Assessment Study Guide Assessment Date : Earth s Rotation and Revolution Term Rotation Revolution Brief Definition Earth s Time to Complete One complete spin on an axis 24 hours (or
ASTR& 115: STARS, GALAXIES, AND THE COSMOS This work is a derivative of the Astronomy textbook by OpenStax, licensed under CC BY 4.0. Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under CC BY 4.0
Astronomy 210 Section 1 MWF 1500-1550 134 Astronomy Building This Class (Lecture 15): The Solar System: Overview HW #4 due on Friday! Next Class: Turn in the Betelgeuse observation! Planet Properties Music:
ASTRONOMY THE BIG BANG THEORY WHAT WE KNOW Scientists observe that every object in the universe is moving away from each other. Objects furthest away are moving the fastest. So.. WHAT DOES THIS MEAN? If
Kitt Peak Nightly Observing Program Splendors of the Universe on YOUR Night! Many pictures are links to larger versions. Click here for the Best images of the OTOP Gallery and more information. M17 Swan
Name Date Class Assignment #12 The Milky Way For thousands of years people assumed that the stars they saw at night were the entire universe. Even after telescopes had been invented, the concept of a galaxy
19.3 Galaxies and the Universe Early civilizations thought that Earth was the center of the universe. In the sixteenth century, we became aware that Earth is a small planet orbiting a medium-sized star.
Course Syllabus Astronomy: Exploring the Universe Course Description Why do stars twinkle? Is it possible to fall into a black hole? Will the sun ever stop shining? Since the first glimpse of the night