# CA Physical Science Benchmark Test 4. 1 A rocket accelerates from the launch pad. The forces on the rocket are

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1 Physical Science enchmark Test 4 Name: ate: 1 rocket accelerates from the launch pad. The forces on the rocket are action forces. balanced. reaction forces. unbalanced. 2 What force(s) act(s) on a rocket that is accelerating upward? centripetal force and gravity gravity and thrust gravity only thrust only 3 t a certain point in a rocket's path, the force of gravity becomes greater than the other forces acting on the rocket. What will happen to the rocket when this occurs? It will move in a curved path around Earth. It will move in an ellipse. It will move in a straight line away from Earth. It will move toward Earth. 4 The planet constantly changes direction as it travels around its orbit. Therefore, you know that the forces on the planet are accelerating. balanced. constant. unbalanced. opyright by Pearson Education Page 1 of 15

2 Physical Science enchmark Test 4 5 The planet moves in the direction marked. What force(s) contribute to the planets motion? only only and neither nor 6 What would happen if the force labeled werenotpresent? The planet would move away from the sun. The planet would move toward the sun. The planet would stop moving. The planet would travel in a straight line. 7 The two factors that combine to keep the planets in orbit are gravity and orbital speed. orbital speed and mass. mass and inertia. gravity and inertia. 8 Earth s gravity pulls everything on or near it toward the moon. toward any lower surface. toward the surface of Earth. toward the center of Earth. 9 n object weighs 300 newtons on Earth. The same object weighs only 50 newtons on the moon. Why does an object weigh less on the moon than on Earth? opyright by Pearson Education Page 2 of 15

3 Physical Science enchmark Test 4 because objects have less mass on the moon because there is weightlessness in space because the moon s mass is about that of the Earth because the moon lacks gravitational force 10 space suit that can be worn on Mars is being developed. The gravity on Mars is 0.38 that of Earth. The gravity on the moon is 0.16 that of Earth. Why wouldn t astronauts wear the same space suits on Mars that they have worn on the moon? Moon space suits would be too heavy on Mars. Moon space suits would be too light on Mars. Moon space suits would have too much mass on Mars. Moon space suits would have too little mass on Mars. 11 What would cause the gravity on the surface of Mars to be greater than the gravity on the surface of the moon? Mars is more massive than the moon. Mars is solid and the moon is not. Mars is farther away from the sun than the moon. Mars is farther away from Earth than the moon. 12 What would happen immediately if the sun stopped exerting a force on Earth? Earth s axis would no longer be tilted. Earth s North and South Poles would be reversed. Earth s path would become erratic, but Earth would continue to orbit the sun. Earth would leave its orbit and travel in a straight line. 13 Which of the following holds together all objects in the universe? inertia friction gravity momentum 14 What determines the strength of the gravitational attraction between two objects? opyright by Pearson Education Page 3 of 15

4 Physical Science enchmark Test 4 charge density mass size 15 The force of gravity decreases as which of the following increases? distance volume weight mass 16 What is a galaxy? a solar system containing more than one star larger than our sun a collection of asteroids, dust, and gases orbiting each other in space an unidentified object in space that can be seen using a powerful telescope a collection of billions of stars and their satellites held together by gravity 17 What type of galaxy is shown in the picture? nebula irregualr elliptical spiral 18 How are elliptical galaxies and spiral galaxies different? Elliptical galaxies have almost no gas or dust. Elliptical galaxies vary more in shape than spiral galaxies. Spiral galaxies have almost no gas or dust. Spiral galaxies contain only old stars. opyright by Pearson Education Page 4 of 15

5 Physical Science enchmark Test 4 19 The Milky Way is an example of an elliptical galaxy. an irregular galaxy. a spiral galaxy. a quasar. 20 The universe contains billions of galaxies. The largest galaxies contain a trillion stars. What holds each galaxy together? gravity the sun star clusters infrared radiation 21 How do astronomers classify galaxies? by color by location by shape by size 22 The sun is one of a group of stars called the main sequence. supergiants. white dwarfs. giants. opyright by Pearson Education Page 5 of 15

6 Physical Science enchmark Test 4 23 Jody used the diagram to compare our sun with lpha entauri. Which statementbestdescribes her conclusion? lpha entauri is slightly cooler and slightly brighter than our sun. Our sun is slightly cooler and slightly brighter than lpha entauri. lpha entauri and our sun are exactly alike. Our sun is hotter and brighter than lpha entauri. 24 Where are the coolest, dimmest stars found on the diagram? in the upper left-hand corner near Zeta Eridani in the center of the diagram near Procyon anywhere along the main sequence in the lower right-hand corner near arnard s star 25 What are the two chief components of a star such as the sun? oxygen and hydrogen nitrogen and carbon dioxide nitrogen and hydrogen hydrogen and helium opyright by Pearson Education Page 6 of 15

7 Physical Science enchmark Test 4 26 The more mass a star has the faster it dies. longer its life span. slower it uses up its fuel. more likely it is to become a nebula. 27 The sun that warms our solar system is one of billions of stars in the universe. How is the sun like all the other stars? It is the same age. It is the same size. It is the same temperature. It is made of the same materials. 28 Why does our galaxy, the Milky Way, look hazy when viewed on a clear, dark night? The Milky Way is very far away. louds of dust make the galaxy seem hazy. ity lights obscure a clear view of the Milky Way. Other stars are too distant to see them individually. 29 ll stars begin their lives as parts of nebulas. black holes. pulsars. double stars. opyright by Pearson Education Page 7 of 15

8 Physical Science enchmark Test 4 30 What determines whether a star becomes a white dwarf or a supernova? its color its diameter its mass its temperature 31 light-year is 365 days. the distance light travels in a year. the distance from Earth to Proxima entauri. the amount of light the sun produces in a year. 32 The center of our galaxy is 25,000 lightyears away from Earth. Using this information, select the statement below that is true. Light travels at 25,000 kilometers per year. Our galaxy is 50,000 light-years in diameter. It takes 25 years for light from the center of the galaxy to reach Earth. It would take 25,000 years to reach the center of our galaxy traveling at the speed of light. 33 Why do scientists use the speed of light to describe distances between stars? Light waves can be detected only from distant sources. Telescopes can detect light-years more easily than kilometers. The speed of light is more easily measured than the speed of sound. istances between some objects in the universe are too large to use kilometers. opyright by Pearson Education Page 8 of 15

9 Physical Science enchmark Test 4 34 trip to Proxima entauri at the speed of light would take 4.2 years. What is the distance from Earth to Proxima entauri? 4.2 million million miles 4,200,000 miles 4,200,000 kilometers 4.2 light-years 35 One astronomical unit (U) is defined as the distance of Earth from the sun, or 149,598,000 kilometers. The table shows the average distance from the sun, in U, and the average orbital speed of the nine planets in our solar system. How much farther from the sun is Pluto than Earth (in U)? Planet istance from the Sun and Orbital Speed Planet verage istance From the Sun (U) verage Orbital Speed (km/s) Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Satum Uranus Neptune Pluto U 8.6 U 18 U 38 U opyright by Pearson Education Page 9 of 15

10 Physical Science enchmark Test 4 36 The largest asteroid is called eres. It orbits the sun at a distance of about 2.7 U. Where is eres orbit located? Planet istance from the Sun and Orbital Speed Planet verage istance From the Sun (U) verage Orbital Speed (km/s) Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Satum Uranus Neptune Pluto between the orbits of Earth and Mars, but closer to Earth between the orbits of Earth and Mars, but closer to Mars between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, but closer to Mars between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, but closer to Jupiter 37 How does a star differ from a planet? star has a fixed orbit. star is self-luminous. star revolves about the sun. star shines by reflected light. 38 Which of the following makes a star visible? emission of light reflection of light absorption of light scattering of light 39 Milton observes Saturn through a telescope. What does he see? light absorbed by Saturn light emitted by Saturn light reflected by Saturn light transmitted by Saturn opyright by Pearson Education Page 10 of 15

11 Physical Science enchmark Test 4 40 What produces light in a star? combustion fluorescent minerals nuclear fusion reflection of light from planets 41 What causes the moon to change its appearance as shown in the diagram? ifferent amounts of the moons surface emit light. ifferent amounts of the moons surface reflect light. Half of the moons surface emits light, but different amounts of this half are visible from Earth. Half of the moons surface reflects light, but different amounts of this half are visible from Earth. 42 Four of Jupiters satellites can be seen from Earth using a telescope. What makes these satellites visible? light emitted by the satellites light emitted by Earth and reflected by the satellites light emitted by Jupiter and reflected by the satellites light emitted by the sun and reflected by the satellites 43 bout how many times will the moon cycle through all of its phases in the time it takes Earth to make one revolution around the sun? One complete revolution of Earth around the sun takes about opyright by Pearson Education Page 11 of 15

12 Physical Science enchmark Test 4 one rotation. one season. one year. one eclipse. 45 What do all of the inner planets have in common? They have the same period of revolution. They have the same period of rotation. They have the same diameter. They are small and have rocky surfaces. 46 total lunar eclipse occurs when Earth blocks sunlight from reaching the moon. the moon blocks sunlight from reaching Earth. the moon passes partly into the umbra of Earth s shadow. Earth s shadow allows a view of the sun s corona. 47 For a solar eclipse to occur, the sun must be directly between Earth and the moon. the moon must be directly between Earth and the sun. the moon must be directly behind Earth. Earth must be directly between the sun and the moon. 48 How is an object as small as the moon able to block out an object as large as the sun? The moon absorbs light from the sun very well. The moon is larger than scientists think it is. The moon is not what causes a total solar eclipse. The moon is much closer to Earth than the sun. opyright by Pearson Education Page 12 of 15

13 Physical Science enchmark Test 4 49 What generalization can you make from the chart regarding the period of revolution of planets as you move farther from the sun? The Inner Planets Planet iameter (km) Period of Rotation (Earth days) verage istance from the Sun (km) Period of Revolution (Earth years) Mercury 4, ,000, Venus 12, ,000, Earth 12, ,000, Mars 6, ,000, The closer a planet is to the sun, the longer its period of revolution. The farther a planet is from the sun, the longer its period of revolution. The longer the period of rotation, the longer the period of revolution. istance from the sun has no effect on the period of revolution. 50 The period of revolution of Mars is to the period of revolution of Earth as the diameter of Mercury is to the diameter of which planet? The Inner Planets Planet iameter (km) Period of Rotation (Earth days) verage istance from the Sun (km) Period of Revolution (Earth years) Mercury 4, ,000, Venus 12, ,000, Earth 12, ,000, Mars 6, ,000, Jupiter Pluto Earth Neptune 51 The asteroid belt is located between Earth and Mars. between Mars and Jupiter. between Jupiter and Saturn. between Saturn and Uranus. 52 Scientists believe that the moon has been hit by numerous meteoroids because they can see that it has many opyright by Pearson Education Page 13 of 15

14 Physical Science enchmark Test 4 maria. rocks. valleys. craters. 53 In a heliocentric system, all of the planets revolve around the sun. the sun revolves around Earth. Earth is the center of the universe. the sun appears to move backward among the planets. 54 Which is the smallest of the nine planets in the solar system? Mercury Venus Neptune Pluto 55 ll scientists seek to discover information about the natural world, though scientists in different disciplines use different tools. Which kind of observations do scientists use the tool shown to collect? those using the sense of sight those using the sense of smell those using the sense of touch those using the sense of hearing 56 What do scientists do to ensure that their investigations can be repeated and obtain the same results? They write everything in code. They keep their results secret. They keep accurate and detailed records. They publish their hypotheses on the Internet. opyright by Pearson Education Page 14 of 15

15 Physical Science enchmark Test 4 57 Scientists who study the solar system usually cannot perform controlled experiments. What do they use to test their hypotheses? conclusions constants observations variables 58 The density of planets and other large objects is measured in kg instead of g/. The moon has an average density of 3,350 kg/. Space probes have brought back samples of rocks from the moon. 10-cm cube of moon rock has a volume of What would you expect the mass of this cube to be? 3.35 kg 33.5 kg 3,350 kg 3,350,000 kg 59 The planet Mercury travels 2,874 km in one minute. What is Mercurys average speed in km/s? (Remember that.) 2,874 km/s km/s km/s km/s 60 Many of the small satellites in the solar system have irregular shapes. Saturns moon alypso is one of these. It can be approximated by a rectangular prism with length 15 km, width 8 km, and height 8 km. What is the approximate volume of alypso? opyright by Pearson Education Page 15 of 15

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