# Phylogeny: traditional and Bayesian approaches

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1 Phylogeny: traditional and Bayesian approaches 5-Feb-2014 DEKM book Notes from Dr. B. John Holder and Lewis, Nature Reviews Genetics 4, ,

2 Phylogeny A graph depicting the ancestor-descendent relationships between organisms or gene sequences. Sequences are tips of the tree Branches connect the tips to their unobservable ancestral sequence 2

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7 What is phylogeny? The inference of evolutionary relationships The inference of putative common ancestors Trees (with branches and leaves!) Example: mouse: rat: marmoset Chimp: Human: ACAGTGACGCCCCAAACGT ACAGTGACGCTACAAACGT CCTGTGACGTAACAAACGA CCTGTGACGTAGCAAACGA CCTGTGACGTAGCAAACGA

8 Rooted vs Unrooted tree (dendograms) Rooted tree Unrooted tree C D B A B C D A OTUs Operational taxonomic units (leaves) HTUs Hypothetical taxonomic units (internal nodes)

9 Calculating the number of unrooted trees How many possibilities are there for adding leaf 3? How many possibilities are there for adding leaf 4? 3

10 Calculating the number of unrooted trees How many possibilities are there for leaf 5? For the 5 th leaf, there are 5 possibilities ie to add the n th leaf, we can add at the immediate leaf branches+ the number of internal branches ie (n-1) terminal-branches + (n-4) internal branches =2n-5

11 Total number of trees? 1 2 N = 10 #unrooted: 2,027,025 #rooted: 34,459, N = 30 #unrooted: 8.7 x #rooted: 4.95 x #unrooted trees for n taxa: (2n-5)*(2n-7)*...*3*1 = (2n-5)! / [2 n-3 *(n-3)!] #rooted trees for n taxa: (2n-3)*(2n-5)*(2n-7)*...*3 = (2n-3)! / [2 n-2 *(n-2)!] Commonly represented as 2n-5!! or 2n-3!!

12 Two main problems in Tree Construction Evaluate tree and/or assign branch lengths Construction of the best tree among the many possibilities

13 Parsimony Approach to Evolutionary Tree Evaluation Assumes observed character differences resulted from the fewest possible mutations Seeks the tree that yields lowest possible parsimony score - sum of cost of all mutations found in the tree

14 Example for calculating parsimony score AAG AAA AGA GGA 1 AAG AAA AAA AAA 1 1 GGA AGA AGA AAG AAA AGA AAA AAA AAA GGA Total #substitutions = 3 Total #substitutions = 4 The left tree is preferred over the right tree. The total number of changes is called the parsimony score.

15 Sankoff algorithm to count evolutionary changes in a given tree Step-1: Define a cost matrix [c ij ], representing changes from character state i to state j A C G T A C G T Step-2: Starting from the leaves, we work down at each node, k to calculate a score S k (i) for each state, i (i= for DNA) S k is the minimal cost of events for all subtrees above that node, k

16 Sankoff algo cont d Remember for each internal node ( parent ) we have two sub-nodes ( children ) So the scores need to be added up on both branches First, consider say the left branch, with left child node at state i and we want to evaluate the score for parent node at state A. If S(left child node) is known for each states, the S(parent will be S p caa SC1( A) ca T SC1( T) ( A) LeftArm min cag SC1( G) cac SC1( C) A Left A/T/G/C Child node (C1) A Parent node C Left A/T/G/C Child node (C1) Right Child node A Parent node

17 Sankoff algo cont d S p caa SC1( A) ca T SC1( T) ( A) LeftBranch min cag SC1( G) cac SC1( C) min c S ( j) A j C1 j A/ T/ G/ C LeftBranch Left Child node (C1) A A/T/G/C Parent node Right Child node (C2) S () i S '() i S '() i p p left p right c S j c S k min i j C1( ) min / / / i k C2( ) j A T G C k A/ T/ G/ C LeftBranch RightBranch

18 Sankoff algorithm Example Sp() i min cij SC1( j) min cik SC2( k) ja/ T/ G/ C ka/ T/ G/ C LeftArm RightArm ACGT ACGT ACGT ACGT ACGT {C} {A} {C} {A} {G} Cost matrix A C G T A C G T A C G T A C G T A C G T A C G T

19 Problem 1: Assigning branch lengths using Least squares We have an observed matrix of Distances between sequences from all possible pair-wise comparisons Remember D and K in JC model? A B C D E A B C D E E A C D B Observed distances denoted by D ij and the real branch lengths to be predicted as d ij n n i1 j1; ji QT ( ) ( D d) ij ij 2

20 Motivation: From a distance table to a tree Each tree has branch lengths from which predicted set of distances can be computed: d(i,j) (small d, denotes the distance of the branches, unlike the observed pairwise distances D). Human Gorilla D(Human,Chimp) = 0.55 D(Human,Gorilla) = Chimp D(Chimp, Gorilla) = 0.66

21 Motivation: From a distance table to a tree The question is can we find branch lengths, so that the d s are equal to the D s? Human X Y Gorilla D(Human,Chimp) = 0.3 =X + Z D(Human,Gorilla) = 0.4 = X + Y Chimp Z D(Chimp, Gorilla) = 0.5 = Y + Z X+Z = 0.3 X+Y = 0.4 Y+Z = 0.5 Y-Z = 0.1 Y+Z = 0.5 Y = 0.3 Z = 0.2 X = 0.1

22 Is there always a solution?? A X Y W D 5 Variables, 6 Equations, B Z V C It might be that there s no single solution NC 2 2 N 3 for N > 3 Number Of Equations Number of variables

23 Least squares Cont d d x v ij ij, k k k x ij k introduce an indicator variable,, which is 1 if branch v k lies in the path from species i to species j and 0 otherwise v2 v1 v7 v5 v6 v4 v3 4 3 d 1v 1v 0v 0v 0v 0v 1v d 1v 0v 1v 0v 0v 1v 0v d 0v 0v 0v 1v 1v 1v 1v

24 LS- Cont d when the weights are 1.0 QT ( ) ( D d ) n n i1 j1; ji dq n n n n 2 ( Dij xijkvk ) xij, k D ij xij, kvk i1 j1; ji k dvk i1 j1;; ji k T X D T ( X X) v 1 ( T T v X X) X D X ij ij 2 2 ( ) 0 No of rows~n 2 (nc 2 ) No of columns=2n-3 (eq to k) D No of rows nc 2 Columns=1 A B d x v ij ij, k k k E v5 v1 v6 v3 v7 v2 v4 D

25 Problem 2: Construct the best tree

26 P2: Fast clustering algorithm for tree construction UPGMA (unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages) Given two disjoint clusters C i, C j of sequences, 1 d ij = {p Ci, q Cj} d pq C i C j Note that if C k = C i C j, then distance to another cluster C l is: d il C i + d jl C j d kl = C i + C j = UPGMA distance ni () n( j) D(( ij), l) ( ) D( i, l) ( ) D( j, l) ni () n( j) ni () n( j)

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28 UPGMA algorithm Find i and j with smallest D ij Create new group X by joining nodes i & j Compute distances between X (new member) and others (old) Place node X at D ij /2 Delete i and j; replace with X in D-matrix

29 The distance table dog bear raccoon weasel seal sea lion cat chimp dog bear raccoon weasel seal sea lion cat chimp 0

30 Distance between these two taxa was 24, so each branch has a length of 12. ss seal sea lion We call the parent node of seal and sea lion ss.

31 Removing the seal and sea-lion rows and columns, and adding the ss row and columns dog bear raccoon weasel ss cat chimp dog ? bear ? raccoon 0 42? weasel 0? ss cat chimp 0

32 Computing dog-ss distance dog bear raccoon weasel seal sea lion cat chimp dog n( i) n( j) D(( ij), k) ( ) D( i, k) ( ) D( j, k) n( i) n( j) n( i) n( j) Here, i=seal, j=sea lion, k = dog. n(i)=n(j)=1. D(ss,dog) = 0.5D(sea lion,dog) + 0.5D(seal,dog) = =0.5*48+0.5*50=49

33 The new table. Starting second iteration dog bear raccoon weasel ss cat chimp dog bear raccoon weasel ss cat chimp 0

34 Inferring tree Distance between bear and raccoon was 26, so each branch has a length of 13. ss br seal sea lion bear raccoon We call the parent node of bear and raccoon br.

35 Computing br-ss distance dog bear raccoon weasel ss cat chimp ss Here, i=raccoon, j=bear, k = ss. n(i)=n(j)=1. D(br,ss) = 0.5D(bear,ss)+0.5D(raccoon,ss)=37.5. ), ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ), ( ) ) ( ) ( ) ( ( ) ), (( k j D j n i n j n k D i j n i n i n k ij D

36 The new table. Starting next iteration dog br weasel ss cat chimp dog br weasel ss cat chimp 0

37 Inferring tree Distance between br and ss was 37.5, so each branch has a length of But this is the distance from brss to the leaves. The distance brss to ss is =6.75. The distance between brss to br is =5.75 brss ss br seal sea lion bear raccoon And so on..

38 UPGMA s Weakness: Example Correct tree UPGMA brss 5.75 ss br seal sea lion bear raccoon

39 Neighbor joining: Star topology B b c C A a e d D Sum of all branches is S*=a+b+c+d+e. Summing all distances in the matrix counts each edge four times (e.g., d AB, d AC, d AD and d AE ). Hence, the sum of all distances in the matrix is 4S*. E

40 Add one branch (the first potential tree ) A B a b e C d AB c = a + b d AC = a + f + c d AD = a + f + d d AE d= a + f + e D A B a b f c C d e D E E Sum of branches with the new branch is S = a + b + c + d + e + f = (d AC + d AD + d AE + d BC + d BD + d BE )/6 + d AB /2 + (d CD + d CE + d DE )/3

41 Neighbor joining (general idea) 1. Add one branch to the star topology and compute the difference between S* and S. 2. Repeat for each pair of leaves in the tree. 3. Choose the pair that yields the largest difference (the closest neighbors). 4. Join that pair. 5. Repeat until all pairs are joined.

42 NJ algorithm For each tip compute n u D /( n 2) i jj : i ij Choose i and j for which, D u u ij i j is smallest Join nodes i and j to X. Compute branch length from i to X and j to X v ( D u u ) 2 ix ij i j v ( D u u ) 2 jx ij j i Compute the distance between X and remaining nodes D ( D D D ) 2 kx ik jk ij

43 NJ algorithm Cont d New node X is treated as a new tip and old nodes I, j are deleted If more than two nodes remain go back to step-1, else connect the two nodes (l,m) by D l,m

44 Bootstrapping:Confidence in trees

45 Trees: representation in computer files Newick format

46 Newick format: named for seafood restaurant where standard was decided upon

47 Trees: representation in computer files A B C D ( (A, B), (C, D) ); Newick format: Leafs: represented by taxon name Internal nodes: represented by pair of matching parentheses Descendants of internal node given as comma-delimited list. Tree string terminated by semicolon

48 Trees: representation in computer files A B C D ( (A:1, B:0.5) :2, (C:0.7, D:0.3) :2.5); ( (A:1, B:0.5)L:2, (C:0.7, D:0.3)M:2.5)N; Newick format: Leafs: represented by taxon name Internal nodes: represented by pair of matching parentheses Descendants of internal node given as comma-delimited list. Tree string terminated by semicolon

49 How to make a Tree? 1. Know the distances between each pair e.g, multiple sequence alignment, or pairwise alignments 2. Apply UPGMA or NJ 3. Calculate statistics: Bootstrap 4. Visualize your tree (e.g., Treeview) 5. Or use an all-in-one program :-) e.g. CLUSTALW

50 Phylogenetic software Software packages Freely available Phylip (widely used) BioNJ PhyML Tree Puzzle MrBayes Commercial PAUP (widely used) MEGA

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52 Phylogenetic servers pname=paup

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