# LECTURE 11: SOERGEL BIMODULES

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1 LECTURE 11: SOERGEL BIMODULES IVAN LOSEV Introduction In this lecture we continue to study the category O 0 and explain some ideas towards the proof of the Kazhdan-Lusztig conjecture. We start by introducing projective functors P i : O 0 O 0 that act by w w(1 + s i ) on K 0 (O 0 ). Using these functors we produce a projective generator of O 0. In Section 2 we explain some of the work of Soergel that ultimately was used by Elias and Williamson to give a relatively elementary proof of the Kazhdan-Lusztig conjecture. In order to relate the category O 0 to the Hecke algebra H q (W ) one needs to produce a graded lift of that category. In order to do that, Soergel constructed a functor O 0 C[h] cow -mod, where C[h] cow is the so called coinvariant algebra. He proved that this functor is fully faithful on the projective objects and has described the image of a projective generator that turns out to be a graded module. This gives rise to a graded lift of O 0. Also these results of Soergel lead to the notion of Soergel (bi)modules that are certain (bi)modules over C[h]. They are of great importance for modern Representation theory. We finish by briefly describing some related constructions: Kazhdan-Lusztig bases for Hecke algebras with unequal parameters and multiplicities for rational representations of semisimple algebraic groups in positive characteristic. 1. Projective functors, II 1.1. Functors P i. Let α 1,..., α n denote the simple roots. We want to define a projective functor P i : O 0 O 0. For this we pick λ, µ P such that λ, µ + ρ, λ µ are dominant and the only positive root vanishing on µ + ρ is α i (so λ + ρ lies inside the dominant Weyl chamber and µ + ρ lies on the wall corresponding to α i ). Let V be the irreducible module with highest weight λ µ. So we have functors φ := pr λ (V ) : O µ O λ and its biadjoint φ := pr µ (V ) : O λ O µ. Lemma 1.1. The object φ φ ( (w λ)) admits a 2 step filtration by (w λ), (ws i λ), where the Verma with the smaller weight appears as the quotient and Verma with the larger weight appears as a sub. This is a special case of Proposition 2.3 in the previous lecture. Now recall (Corollary 2.4 of Lecture 10) that there is an equivalence O 0 O λ with (w 0) (w λ). Transferring the functor φ φ to O 0, we get the functor P i we need. Note that P i is exact (and, moreover, is self-adjoint). In particular, P i induces an endomorphism of K 0 (O 0 ) = ZW to be denoted by [P i ]. Corollary 1.2. We have [P i ]w = w(s i + 1). Remark 1.3. This may be viewed as a reason for the identification K 0 (O 0 ) = ZW (that is regarded as a right W -module). Indeed, we see that the generators s i +1 of the group algebra ZW lift to endofunctors P i of O 0. This gives one of the first examples of categorification. 1

2 2 IVAN LOSEV Remark 1.4. One can ask whether it is possible to lift the elements s i to endofunctors of O 0. The answer is yes if we are willing to replace O 0 with the bounded derived category D b (O 0 ). Then we can consider the reflection functor R i given by the cone of the adjunction morphism 1 P i = φ φ. The functors R i are self-equivalences of D b (O 0 ) that give rise to an action of the braid group B W on D b (O 0 ). Recall that the group B W is generated by the elements T i with relations T i T j T i... = T j T i T j... (m ij factors) Projective objects in O 0. We start by recalling basics on projective objects in an abelian category, say C. An object P C is called projective if the functor Hom C (P, ) is exact. By C -proj we denote the full subcategory of C consisting of projective objects ( full means that the morphisms in C -proj are the same as in C). Note that this is an additive category that is closed under taking direct summands but, in general, has neither kernels nor cokernels. We say that C has enough projectives if every object is a quotient of a projective. If all objects in C have finite length, the condition that C has enough projectives is equivalent to the condition that every simple L C has a projective cover P L, i.e., an indecomposable projective object surjecting onto L (recall that an object is called indecomposable if it cannot be decomposed into a proper direct sum). If a projective cover exists, it is unique up to an isomorphism and has no Hom s to other simple objects. Every projective splits into the direct sum of projective covers. We can recover C from C -proj if C has enough projectives and all objects have finite length. For simplicity, assume, in addition, that C has finitely many simple objects. Let P be a projective generator of C, i.e., a projective object that surjects onto any simple object. Then the functor Hom C (P, ) is an equivalence of C and the category of right End C (P )-modules. We note that End C (P ) is a finite dimensional associative unital algebra. Conversely, if A is a finite dimensional associative unital algebra, then the category A -mod of finite dimensional A-modules has enough projectives, finitely many simples and all objects have finite length. We are interested in C = O 0. As we have seen in Lecture 7, it has finitely many simples and all objects have finite length. Let us give an example of a projective. Lemma 1.5. The object (0) is projective in O 0. Proof. Recall that Hom O0 ( (0), M) = {m M 0 nm = 0}. But 0 is the maximal weight of an object in O 0 (because w 0 0 for all w). Since the action of n increases weights, we see that M0 n = M 0. The functor M M 0 is exact and so (0) is projective. Now let w W have reduced expression s i1... s il. Let w denote the sequence (s i1,..., s il ). Set P w := P il... P i1 (0). Proposition 1.6. The category O 0 has enough projectives. Moreover, the object P w decomposes into the direct sum of the projective cover of L(w 0) (it appears with multiplicity 1) and of the projective covers of L(u 0) with u w (in the Bruhat order). Below P (w 0) denotes the projective cover of L(w 0). Proof. The functors P i are self-adjoint and so map projectives to projectives. Hence P w is projective. So it is enough to show that dim Hom O0 (P w, L(w 0)) = 1 and Hom O0 (P w, L(w 0)) 0 implies w w. The object P w has a filtration with successive Verma quotients. Set w k = s i1... s ik and w k := (s i1,..., s ik ). By induction on k (where the step follows from Lemma 1.1), we see that (1) (w k 0) is a quotient of P wk.

5 LECTURE 11: SOERGEL BIMODULES 5 The motivation is as follows. The Soergel modules are precisely the images of the projectives in O 0 under the functor V. Taking the tensor product with B si corresponds to the functor P i. So we should view Soergel bimodules as graded analogs of the projective functors. The following result of Soergel classifies the indecomposable Soergel (bi)modules. Theorem 2.8. The indecomposable Soergel (bi)modules (up to a grading shift) are parameterized by W. More precisely, let w W, and w = (s i1,..., s il ) give a reduced expression of W. Then there is a unique indecomposable summand of B w depending only on w that does not occur in B u, where l(u) < l. Further, a Soergel bimodule B is indecomposable if and only if C C[h] B is indecomposable. The classification of the indecomposable Soergel modules can be deduced from their connection to the projective objects in O. For bimodules, the claim is more complicated. Example 2.9. Consider the bimodule B s = C[h] C[h] s C[h]. It is indecomposable. Indeed, C C[h] B s = C[h]/(C[h] s +) is indecomposable as a C[h]-module and the graded Nakayma lemma implies that B s is indecomposable. On the other hand, for W = S 3, the bimodule B (s,t,s) is not indecomposable, it is the direct sum of B s and C[h] C[h] W C[h] with suitable grading shifts, both summands are indecomposable Tensor structure and graded K 0. By definition, BS w C[h] BS u = BS wu, where we write wu for the concatenation of w and u. Because of this, Sbim is closed under taking tensor products over C[h]. We write B B for B C[h] B. The category Sbim is not abelian (it does not have kernels and cokernels). But it is additive and is closed under taking direct summand. For such a category C, we can define the split Grothendieck group, the quotient of the free group on the isomorphism classes of objects by M = M + M if M = M M. We still denote this group by K 0 (C) (for an abelian category, the split Grothendieck group is huge and not useful at all, so this abuse of notation does not harm) and write [M] for a class of M. A basis in K 0 (C) is formed by the (graded isomorphism classes of) indecomposable objects. Since we have the grading shifts on Sbim, the group K 0 (Sbim) is a Z[q ±1 ]-module. We can define a Z[q ±1 ]-algebra structure on K 0 (Sbim) by [B] [B ] = [B B ]. The following result is due to Soergel (a.k.a. Soergel s categorification theorem). Theorem We have a Z[q ±1 ]-isomorphism K 0 (Sbim) = H q (W ) that sends [B s ] to q 1 T s + q 2. Sketch of proof. Both sides are free Z[q ±1 ]-modules of rank W. So the only thing that we need to prove is that q[b s ] q 1 satisfies the relations for the elements T s. We have relations of two kinds: quadratic relations Ts 2 = 1 + (q q 1 )T s and the braid relations T s T t T s... = T t T s T t.... The former are easy and we will check them, the latter are more complicated (the case m st = 2 is still easy, the case of m st = 3 follows from Example 2.9). What we need to check is an isomorphism B s B s = B s B s { 2}. This is easily reduced to the case of sl 2. There B s = C[x] C[x 2 ] C[x] and B s B s = (C[x] C[x 2 ] C[x]) C[x] (C[x] C[x 2 ] C[x]) = C[x] C[x 2 ] C[x] C[x 2 ] C[x]. As a C[x 2 ]-bimodule, C[x] decomposes as C[x 2 ] C[x 2 ]{ 2} (the second summand is xc[x 2 ] and, by our convention, deg x = 2). We conclude that B s B s = B s B s { 2}.

6 6 IVAN LOSEV 2.5. Kazhdan-Lusztig conjecture via Soergel bimodules. A reasonable question is what are the classes of the indecomposable Soergel bimodules in H q (W ). Let B w denote the indecomposable summand in BS w {l(w)} that does not appear in BS u with l(u) < l(w). We want to describe the classes of B w (note that we have normalized the choice of grading). It turns out that these classes are very closely related to the basis elements C w. Namely, we have a ring involution of H q (W ) defined on the generators by T s T s, q q 1 (this clearly preserves the relations). Theorem We have [B w ] = C w. This theorem can be shown to imply the Kazhdan-Lusztig conjecture (and determines the classes of [P (w 0)] ZW = K 0 (O 0 )). It was first proved by Soergel (using the geometric methods such as perverse sheaves). An alternative proof follows from the work of Elias and Williamson, see [EW1], and also a survey [EW2]. The main new ingredient of that work is a very clever emulation of Hodge theory in the context of Soergel bimodules. 3. Complements 3.1. Hecke algebras with unequal parameters. We have used the specialization of all Hecke algebra parameters v s to q 2. One can consider more general specializations: v s gets specialized to q 2L(s), where L : S Z 0 is a function that is constant on the conjugacy classes of reflections. The Kazhdan-Lusztig basis in the corresponding specialization is defined as before. However, these bases are much more mysterious. For example, let P u w(q) be the coefficient of T u in C w. In the equal parameter case it is known that ( 1) l(w) l(u) P u w(q) has nonnegative coefficients. This is not known in general Multiplicities for algebraic groups. The Kazhdan-Lusztig basis in a suitable Hecke algebra controls the characters of irreducible G F -modules L(λ), where G F is a semisimple algebraic group over an algebraically closed field F of characteristic p, where p is very large comparing to the rank of G F (the dimension of the maximal torus). The Hecke algebra is taken for the affine Weyl group W aff = W Q, where W is the Weyl group of G and Q is the root lattice, i.e., the group in h generated by the simple roots, compare to Problem 5 in Homework 2. We refer to Section 2 of [F] for details. References [EW1] B. Elias, G. Williamson. The Hodge theory of Soergel bimodules, Ann. of Math. (2) 180 (2014), no. 3, arxiv: [EW2] B. Elias, G. Williamson. Kazhdan-Lusztig conjectures and shadows of Hodge theory, arxiv: [F] P. Fiebig. Lusztig s conjecture as a moment graph problem. Bull. London Math. Soc. 42(6) (2010), arxiv: [S1] W. Soergel. Kategorie O, perverse Garben und Moduln über den Koinvarianten zur Weylgruppe. J. Amer. Math. Soc. 3 (1990), no. 2, [S2] W. Soergel. Kazhdan-Lusztig-Polynome und unzerlegbare Bimoduln über Polynomringen, J. Inst. Math. Jussieu, 6(3) (2007),

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