# H(G(Q p )//G(Z p )) = C c (SL n (Z p )\ SL n (Q p )/ SL n (Z p )).

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1 Perverse sheaves on the affine Grassmannian Spherical Hecke algebra. The Hecke algebra H(G(Q p )//G(Z p )) resp. H(G(F q ((T ))//G(F q [[T ]])) etc. of locally constant compactly supported bi-invariant functions is called the spherical Hecke algebra, that is, H(G(Q p )//G(Z p )) = C c (SL n (Z p )\ SL n (Q p )/ SL n (Z p )). Recall that the representation ring R(G) of a (complex) reductive group G is isomorphic isomorphic to the Weyl invariants R(G) = Z[χ (T)] W in the group of characters of a maximal torus T. In fact, a fundamental domain for the action of W on χ (T) is given by the positive Weyl chamber, χ (T) +. To such a character λ χ (T) + one associates the irreducible representation V λ with highest weight λ. Its trace is a character of T. As a consequence, there are many equivalent ways to view this Hecke algebra. (1) By theorems of Satake and MacDonald, there is a natural isomorphism H(G(Q p )//G(Z p )) = C[X (T)] W of the Hecke algebra with the Weyl invariants in the group algebra of the cocharacter group of the maximal torus. (2) This in turn may be identified with the Weyl invariants C[X ( T)] W in the characters of the dual torus. (3) Which, by the adjoint quotient map, is isomorphic to the group of conjugation-invariant polynomial functions on PGL n. (Recall that we previously identified this as a polynomial algebra, given by the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial.) (4) This may be identified with C K(Rep PGLn ) (that is, the Grothendieck group of the category of finite dimensional (rational) representations of PGL n ) by associating, to any representation ρ its character (or trace), which is a Weyl invariant polynomial function. (5) In fact, these identifications can be made over the integers. See [Gross] who considers the Hecke algebra H G of Z-valued functions on this double coset and describes isomorphisms ( ) W H T Z[q 1 2, q 1 2 ] Rep( Ĝ) Z[q 1 2, q 1 2 ]. H G Here Ĝ is the Langlands dual group of the group G. (The dual of SL n is P GL n.) Digression: Dual group (from Wikipedia, who took it from [Springer]) A root datum consists of a quadruple (X, Φ, X, Φ ) where X, X are free abelian groups of finite rank together with a perfect pairing, : X X Z, where Φ X and Φ X

2 are finite subsets, and where there is a bijection Φ Φ, denoted α α, and satisfying the following conditions: (1) α, α = 2 for all α Φ (2) The map x x x, α α takes Φ to Φ and (3) the induced action on X takes Φ to Φ. If G is a reductive algebraic group over an algebraically closed field then it defines a root datum where X is the lattice of characters of a (split) maximal torus T, where X is the lattice of cocharacters of T, where Φ is the set of roots and Φ is the set of coroots. A connected reductive algebraic group over an algebraically closed field K is determined up to isomorphism by its root datum and every root datum corresponds to such a group. Let G be a connected reductive algebraic group with root datum (X, Φ, X, Φ ). Then the connected reductive algebraic group with root datum (X, Φ, X, Φ) is called the Langlands dual group and it is denoted L G. Langlands duality switches adjoint groups with simply connected groups. Takes type A n to A n but it switches types Sp(2n) with SO(2n + 1). It preserves the type SO(2n) Lusztig s character formula. As above let G = SL n (C((T ))), let K = SL n (C[[T ]]), let I K be the Iwahori subgroup. The affine flag manifold Y = G/I fibers over the affine Grassmannian X = G/K with fiber isomorphic to K/I = SL n (C)/B(C) the finite dimensional flag manifold, which is smooth. Consequently the singularities of I-orbit closures in X are the same as the singularities of I orbit closures in Y. The K orbits on X are indexed by cocharacters in the positive cone. If λ = diag(a 1, a 2,, a n ) Z n is in the positive cone (and a i = 0) let x λ = diag(t a 1, T a 2,, T an ) SL n (C((T ))). The K orbit X λ corresponding to a is X λ = Kx λ K/K G/K. If µ λ then the point x µ lies in the closure of the stratum X λ and the local intersection cohomology Poincaré polynomial dim(ih 2i x µ (X λ ))t i = P µ,λ (t) i 0 is given by the Kazhdan Lusztig polynomial P µ,λ for the affine Weyl group. Lusztig [Lu] proves Theorem. Let µ λ χ (T) + = χ (T ) +. Let V λ be the representation (of L G(C)) of highest weight λ. It decomposes into weight spaces (V λ )(µ) under the action of the maximal torus. Then dim(v λ (µ)) = P µλ (1). That is, the local intersection cohomology Euler characteristic of the affine Schubert varieties (and of the affine K orbits) equals the weight multiplicity in the irreducible representation. (If you wish to add up these polynomials in order to get the intersection cohomology of the whole orbit closure, then you must do so with a shift t l(λ) l(µ) corresponding to the codimension in X λ of the I-orbit that contains the point x µ.) Consequently Lusztig considers the full Kazhdan Lusztig polynomial P µλ (q) be a q-analog of the weight multiplicity. The individual coefficients were 93

3 94 eventually shown (by R. Brylinski, Lusztig, others) to equal the multiplicity of the weight µ in a certain layer Vλ r of the filtration of V λ that is induced by the principal nilpotent element. /V r 1 λ Moment map. The complex torus {(a 1,, a n ) C n i a i = 1} = (C ) n 1 acts on X with a the moment map (for the action of (S 1 ) n 1 ) µ : X a. Each fixed point x λ = (T λ 1,, T λn ) corresponds to a cocharacter λ = (λ 1,, λ n ) Z n (with i λ i = 0). The torus action preserves both stratifications and the image of each stratum closure is a convex polyhedron. We can put all this information on the same diagram. Fix λ χ (T) +. Let V λ be the irreducible representation of PGL 3 with highest weight λ. Let X λ be the K-orbit of the point x λ. Then µ(x λ ) is the convex polyhedron spanned by the W orbit of the point λ. The lattice points µ inside this polyhedron correspond to the weight spaces V λ (µ). At each of these points the Kazhdan Lusztig polynomial P µ,λ (t) gives the dimension of this weight space. For SL 3 the moment map image gives the triangular lattice which can be interpreted as the weight lattice for PGL 3. The moment map image of the first stratum is a hexagon and in fact the first stratum has the structure of a vector bundle over the flag manifold F 1,2 (C 3 ). The closure of this stratum consists of adding a single point, so it is the Thom space of this bundle. The local intersection cohomology at the vertex (which appears at the origin in the diagram) is the primitive cohomology of the flag manifold (that is, 1 + t). The following diagram represents the moment map image of the affine Grassmannian for SL 3 ; it also equals the weight diagram for PGL 3 (C). The dotted red lines are reflecting hyperplanes for the Weyl group. The red dot is a highest weight λ for PGL e ; the other dots are their Weyl images. The blue hexagon is the outline of the moment map images; it is also the collection of weights in the irreducible representation of highest weight λ. The 1 and 1 + t beneth the dots are the Kazhdan Lusztig polynomials.

4 95 (0, 1, 1) 1 1 (0, 1, 1) 1 (1, 1, 0) 1 + t 1 (1, 0, 1) ( 1, 1, 0) 1 1 ( 1, 0, 1) Perverse sheaves on X. Throughout this section, to simplify notation, let G = SL n (C((T ))), K = SL n (C[[T ]]) and X = G/K. We would like to imitate the construction with the flag manifold, and create a convolution product for sheaves on X X that are constructible with respect to the stratification by G orbits, that is, if p ij : X X X X X as before, set A B = Rp 13 (p 12(A ) p 23(B )). Unfortunately the orbits of G on X X have infinite dimension and infinite codimension so this simply does not make sense. V. Ginzburg and (later) K. Vilonen and I. Mirkovič found a way around this problem. Let P(X) denote the category of perverse sheaves, constructible with respect to the above orbit stratification of X. (Ginzburg shows this is equivalent to the category of K-equivariant perverse

5 96 sheaves on X.) Since each stratum is simply connected the local systems associated to these sheaves are trivial. It turns out that the intersection cohomology sheaves live only in even degrees and this implies that every perverse sheaf is isomorphic to a direct sum of IC sheaves of stratum closures. Mirkovič and Vilonen define a tensor product structure on P(X) as follows. Consider the diagram X X p G X q G K X m X Here, k.(g, x) = (gk, k 1 x) so that G K X is a bundle over X whose fibers are copies of X, and m(g, x) = gx. If A, B P (X) it turns out that there exists C a perverse sheaf on G K X, constructible with respect to the G orbits on this space, such that q (C ) = p (π 1(A ) π 2(B ) where π 1, π 2 : X X X are the two projections. Then set A B = Rm (C ) Theorem. If A, B P(X) then so is A B. The functor h : A H (X; A ) is exact and it induces an equivalence of categories P(X) Rep( L G) which takes A B to the tensor product h(a ) h(b ) of the associated representations. If λ χ (T) + then h(ic (X λ )) = V λ is the irreducible representation of highest weight λ Although it sounds intimidating, the convolution product of sheaves is exactly parallel to the previous case of the finite (dimensional) flag manifold. Consider the weight diagram for SL 3 and the moment map image of torus fixed points in the affine Grassmannian for PGL 3. The coordinate lattices are indicated on Figure 12, for example, the point (1, 0, 0) corresponds to the T 2 T 1 lattice sk = T 0 where s is a certain simple reflection in the affine Weyl group. So the T 1 T 2 orbit of G(C[[T ]]) in X X corresponding to this element consists of the set of pairs of lattices s L 0 L that are in relative position s, that is, { (L0, L 1 ) L 0 L 1 T 1 L 0 and dim(l 1 /L 0 ) = 1 }. If we fix L 0 to be the standard lattice, then we see that the orbit O s X is isomorphic to P 1 so its IC sheaf is the constant sheaf. Let us consider the convolution product of this sheaf with itself. Thus the total space of the correspondence consists of triples of lattices C = { (L 0, L 1, L 2 ) L 0 s L 1 } s L 2

6 97 (0,1,0) (1,1,0) (0,1,1) (1,0,0) (0,0,1) (1,0,1) Figure 12. SL 3 : Reflecting hyperplanes and moment map image of O (1,1,0) in their appropriate relative positions. Apply π 13 to obtain the correspondence π 23 (C) = { (L 0, L 2 ) L 0 L 2 T 2 L 0 and dim(l 2 /L 0 ) = 2 }. Again, taking L 0 to be the standard lattice, we need to understand the decomposition into orbits of Rπ 23 (Q C ). There are two types of such lattices: the first type consists of those lattices in T 3 T 2 the orbit xk that was considered in 18.6, that is, lattices like this: T 1 T 0 which project T 1 T 2 under the moment map to an image that contains the W -translates of (2, 0, 0). The second type

7 98 is lattices like this: T 3 T 2 T 1 T 0 T 1 T 2 which project under the moment map to an image containing (1, 1, 0). That is, m : C O (2,0,0) O (1,1,0). The map m is guaranteed to be semi-small and Rm (Q C ) breaks into a direct sum of copies of IC sheaves of these two strata the multiplicities equal to the number of components of the fiber. One checks that the multiplicity equals one. (0,2,0) (0,1,0) (1,1,0) (0,1,1) (1,0,0) (2,0,0) (0,0,1) (1,0,1) (0,0,2) Figure 13. O (1,0,0) O (1,0,0) = O (2,0,0) + O (1,1,0) By taking the cohomology of these sheaes we obtain highest weight representations: V (1,0,0) = std, V (1,1,0) = std, and V (2,0,0) = 2 (std) (where std is the standard representation) so that std std = std 2 (std).

8 19.8. Remarks. Theorem 19.6 should be regarded as a categorification of Satake s isomorphism. In fact, taking the K group of the Grothendieck group on both sides gives K(P(X)) = H(G, K) = χ (T) W which is the classical Satake isomorphism. If we could duplicate the construction in the finite dimensional case we would consider G orbits on X X. Ginzburg, Mirkovič and Vilonen replace X X with G K X which is a fiber bundle over X with fiber isomorphic to X. They replace the G orbits with the strata S λ,µ which is a fiber bundle over X µ with fiber isomorphic to X λ. It is totally nonobvious that the convolution of perverse sheaves is perverse. This depends on the fact that the mapping m : G K X X is semi-small in a very strong sense. For each λ, µ χ (T) + let S λ,µ = p 1 (X λ ) K X µ. These form a stratification of G K X. It turns out that the restriction m : S λ,µ X is semi-small (onto its image, which is a union of strata X τ ). This implies that Rm (L[d λ,µ ]) is perverse, for any locally constant sheaf L on S λ,µ (where d λ,µ = dim(s λ,µ ) Tannakian category. (see [Deligne & Milne]) There is a general theorem that a reductive algebraic group (say, over an algebraically closed field) can be recovered from its cartegory of representations. More generally if C is a tensor category, that is, an abelian category together with a tensor structure (A, B C = A B C) that is commutative and associative in a functorial way (satisfies the em associativity constraint and the commutativity constraint, and if h : C {V S} is a rigid fiber functor (that is, an exact functor to vector spaces such that h(a B) = h(a) h(b)) then the group of automorphisms of h (that is, the group of natural transformations h h) is an algebraic group G whose category of representations is equivalent to the original category C. It turns out that P(X) is such a Tannakian category and that h is a rigid fiber functor. Therefore the group of automorphisms of h is isomorphic to the Langlands dual group L G. 99

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