# Magnetic Fields Permanent Magnets

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2 Magnetic Fields Permanent Magnets Magnetic fields are continuous loops leaving a North pole and entering a South pole they point in direction that an isolated North would move Highest strength near poles (highest concentration of field lines 2

3 Magnetic field lines are closed loops they pass through permanent magnets due to domains in metal 3

4 World s Largest Magnet? compass is a magnetized needle that aligns with the Earth s magnetic field loops 4

5 Magnetic Fields Magnetic field vector B points in the direction that an isolated North pole would move N B S B B vector arrowhead is the North, tail is the South 5

6 Magnetic Force Law 6

7 Electricity and Magnetism are inseparable Basic theme to chapters 20, 21 changing electric field (current flow) creates magnetic field changing magnetic field (generator) creates electric field (current flow) 7

8 Electric current creates magnetic field Oersted s discovery Right Hand Rule Thumb points in direction of current (motion of + charges) Fingers curl in direction of B vector 8

9 B field vector out of page X B field vector into the page 9

10 Magnetic field created by a loop of current carrying wire same RHR as with wire 10

11 Circular loop of current carrying wire solenoid is multiple loop coil of current carrying wire Circular loop carrying current creates magnetic field like a permanent bar magnet 11

12 Field Strength is a Ratio weight g mass gravitational field strength E F q electric field strength 0 B Force? what experiences a force when placed in a magnetic field? A current carrying wire 12

13 B field strength Force sin B F I ( L sin ) B I L Units: Force in newtons, I in Amperes, L in meters, B in Teslas is angle between current in wire and B field vector B L Lsin B the component of current/wire that is to B contributes to force 13

14 text version of RHR Force is maximum when = 90 o Force is zero when = 0 o 14

15 Practice RHR with your hand? RIGHT 15

16 demo 16

17 DC Motor 17

18 Magnetic Force on charge moving through B field charge moving parallel to B field experiences zero magnetic force F B charge moving perpendicular to B field experiences maximum force component of velocity vector contributes to force 18

19 Right Hand Rule Fingers point in direction of B vector (North leaving fingertips) thumb points in direction of velocity vector of + charge force is normal to palm F q( v sin ) B B + point thumb 180 o opposite direction for electron (flip hand over) 19

20 Practice RHR with your hand? RIGHT Flip hand over for electron never use the left hand v + 20

21 CRT demo RHR-1 practice 21

22 Crossed E, B fields balancing the F B with and F E from electric field qe E qvb vb kinematic equations also used when particle is deflected by F B or F E a certain distance y constant speed in x direction 22

23 Accelerating charged particle 1 Work mv 2 qv 2 23

24 Circulating Charged Particles electric field will cause parabolic path parallel to field magnetic field will cause circular path since F B is ALWAYS perpendicular to B and v 24

25 UCM of charged particle in B field qvb mv r 2 r mv qb 25

26 electron in B field 26

27 Trajectories When moving in a uniform field, the path of a charge depends in a simple way on its direction with respect to the field. There are three cases: v B F 0 1) Uniform motion (no acceleration) 2) v B F qvb This leads to uniform circular motion B out of page 27

28 3) Both and v present v ll 28

29 RHR practice for moving charge problem 11 problem 12 29

30 20.5 Magnetic Field Due to a Long Straight Wire The field is inversely proportional to the distance from the wire: The constant μ 0 is called the permeability of free space, and has the value: 30

31 Superposition principle applies to magnetic fields just as with electric fields Net B field at a point is a VECTOR sum of individual fields 31

32 Force between parallel wires anti-parallel currents repel parallel currents attract 32

33 Force on parallel wires wire 1 wire 2 R Two competing influences when determining force on wire 2 due to current in wire 1 and wire 2 B 2 x B 1 x x x x x x x B 1 is increasing linearly with current but decreasing with separation distance R B i1 R F 2 is increasing linearly with current in wire and B 1 it is in F 2 i 1 F 1 I s in same direction i F2 i2lb1 L 2 ii R 33

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