1 Lecture Presentation Chapter 20 James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT
2 is the study of the relationships between electricity and chemical reactions. It includes the study of both spontaneous and nonspontaneous processes.
3 Synopsis of Assigning Oxidation Numbers (as a Reminder) 1. Elements = 0 2. Monatomic ion = charge 3. F: 1 4. O: 2 (unless peroxide = 1) 5. H: +1 (unless a metal hydride = 1) 6. The sum of the oxidation numbers equals the overall charge (0 in a compound).
4 Oxidation Numbers To keep track of what loses electrons and what gains them, we assign oxidation numbers. If the oxidation number increases for an element, that element is oxidized. If the oxidation number decreases for an element, that element is reduced.
5 Oxidation and Reduction A species is oxidized when it loses electrons. Zinc loses two electrons, forming the Zn 2+ ion. A species is reduced when it gains electrons. H + gains an electron, forming H 2. An oxidizing agent causes something else to be oxidized (H + ); a reducing agent causes something else to be reduced (Zn).
6 Half-Reactions The oxidation and reduction are written and balanced separately. We will use them to balance a redox reaction. For example, when Sn 2+ and Fe 3+ react,
7 Balancing Redox Equations: The Half-Reactions Method (a Synopsis) 1) Make two half-reactions (oxidation and reduction). 2) Balance atoms other than O and H. Then, balance O and H using H 2 O/H +. 3) Add electrons to balance charges. 4) Multiply by common factor to make electrons in halfreactions equal. 5) Add the half-reactions. 6) Simplify by dividing by common factor or converting H + to OH if basic. 7) Double-check atoms and charges balance!
8 The Half-Reaction Method Consider the reaction between MnO 4 and C 2 O 4 2 : MnO 4 (aq) + C 2 O 4 2 (aq) Mn 2+ (aq) + CO 2 (aq) Assigning oxidation numbers shows that Mn is reduced (+7 +2) and C is oxidized (+3 +4).
9 Oxidation Half-Reaction C 2 O 4 2 CO 2 To balance the carbon, we add a coefficient of 2: C 2 O CO 2
10 Oxidation Half-Reaction C 2 O CO 2 The oxygen is now balanced as well. To balance the charge, we must add two electrons to the right side: C 2 O CO 2 + 2e
11 Reduction Half-Reaction MnO 4 Mn 2+ The manganese is balanced; to balance the oxygen, we must add four waters to the right side: MnO 4 Mn H 2 O
12 Reduction Half-Reaction MnO 4 Mn H 2 O To balance the hydrogen, we add 8H + to the left side: 8 H + + MnO 4 Mn H 2 O
13 Reduction Half-Reaction 8 H + + MnO 4 Mn H 2 O To balance the charge, we add 5e to the left side: 5e + 8 H + + MnO 4 Mn H 2 O
14 Combining the Half-Reactions Now we combine the two half-reactions together: C 2 O CO 2 + 2e 5e + 8 H + + MnO 4 Mn H 2 O To make the number of electrons equal on each side, we will multiply the first reaction by 5 and the second by 2:
15 Combining the Half-Reactions 5 C 2 O CO e 10e + 16 H MnO 4 2 Mn H 2 O When we add these together, we get 10e + 16 H MnO C 2 O Mn H 2 O + 10 CO 2 +10e
16 Combining the Half-Reactions 10e + 16 H MnO C 2 O Mn H 2 O + 10 CO 2 +10e The only thing that appears on both sides is the electrons. Subtracting them, we are left with 16 H MnO C 2 O Mn H 2 O + 10 CO 2 (Verify that the equation is balanced by counting atoms and charges on each side of the equation.)
17 Balancing in Basic Solution A reaction that occurs in basic solution can be balanced as if it occurred in acid. Once the equation is balanced, add OH to each side to neutralize the H + in the equation and create water in its place. If this produces water on both sides, subtract water from each side so it appears on only one side of the equation.
18 Voltaic Cells In spontaneous redox reactions, electrons are transferred and energy is released. That energy can do work if the electrons flow through an external device. This is a voltaic cell.
19 Voltaic Cells The oxidation occurs at the anode. The reduction occurs at the cathode. When electrons flow, charges aren t balanced. So, a salt bridge, usually a U-shaped tube that contains a salt/agar solution, is used to keep the charges balanced.
20 Voltaic Cells In the cell, electrons leave the anode and flow through the wire to the cathode. Cations are formed in the anode compartment. As the electrons reach the cathode, cations in solution are attracted to the now negative cathode. The cations gain electrons and are deposited as metal on the cathode.
21 Electromotive Force (emf) Water flows spontaneously one way in a waterfall. Comparably, electrons flow spontaneously one way in a redox reaction, from high to low potential energy.
22 Electromotive Force (emf) The potential difference between the anode and cathode in a cell is called the electromotive force (emf). It is also called the cell potential and is designated E cell. It is measured in volts (V). One volt is one joule per coulomb (1 V = 1 J/C).
23 Standard Reduction Potentials Reduction potentials for many electrodes have been measured and tabulated. The values are compared to the reduction of hydrogen as a standard.
24 Standard Hydrogen Electrode Their reference is called the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE). By definition as the standard, the reduction potential for hydrogen is 0 V: 2 H + (aq, 1M) + 2e H 2 (g, 1 atm)
25 Standard Cell Potentials The cell potential at standard conditions can be found through this equation: E cell = E red (cathode) E red (anode) Because cell potential is based on the potential energy per unit of charge, it is an intensive property.
26 Cell Potentials For the anode in this cell, E red = 0.76 V For the cathode, E red = V So, for the cell, E cell = E red (anode) E red (cathode) = V ( 0.76 V) = V
27 Oxidizing and Reducing Agents The more positive the value of E red, the greater the tendency for reduction under standard conditions. The strongest oxidizers have the most positive reduction potentials. The strongest reducers have the most negative reduction potentials.
28 Free Energy and Redox Spontaneous redox reactions produce a positive cell potential, or emf. E = E red (reduction) E red (oxidation) Note that this is true for ALL redox reactions, not only for voltaic cells. Since Gibbs free energy is the measure of spontaneity, positive emf corresponds to negative ΔG. How do they relate? ΔG = nfe (F is the Faraday constant, 96,485 C/mol.)
29 Free Energy, Redox, and K How is everything related? ΔG = nfe = RT ln K
30 Nernst Equation Remember, ΔG = ΔG + RT ln Q So, nfe = nfe + RT ln Q Dividing both sides by nf, we get the Nernst equation: E = E (RT/nF) ln Q OR E = E (2.303 RT/nF) log Q Using standard thermodynamic temperature and the constants R and F, E = E (0.0592/n) log Q
31 Concentration Cells Notice that the Nernst equation implies that a cell could be created that has the same substance at both electrodes, called a concentration cell. For such a cell, E cell would be 0, but Q would not. Therefore, as long as the concentrations are different, E will not be 0.
32 Some Applications of Cells can be applied as follows: Batteries: a portable, self-contained electrochemical power source that consists of one or more voltaic cells. Batteries can be primary cells (cannot be recharged when dead the reaction is complete) or secondary cells (can be recharged). Prevention of corrosion ( rust-proofing ) Electrolysis
33 Some Examples of Batteries Lead acid battery: reactants and products are solids, so Q is 1 and the potential is independent of concentrations; however, made with lead and sulfuric acid (hazards). Alkaline battery: most common primary battery. Ni Cd and Ni metal hydride batteries: lightweight, rechargeable; Cd is toxic and heavy, so hydrides are replacing it. Lithium-ion batteries: rechargeable, light; produce more voltage than Ni-based batteries.
34 Some Batteries Lead Acid Battery Alkaline Battery
35 Lithium-Ion Battery
36 Fuel Cells When a fuel is burned, the energy created can be converted to electrical energy. Usually, this conversion is only 40% efficient, with the remainder lost as heat. The direct conversion of chemical to electrical energy is expected to be more efficient and is the basis for fuel cells. Fuel cells are NOT batteries; the source of energy must be continuously provided.
37 Hydrogen Fuel Cells In this cell, hydrogen and oxygen form water. The cells are twice as efficient as combustion. The cells use hydrogen gas as the fuel and oxygen from the air.
38 Corrosion Corrosion is oxidation. Its common name is rusting.
39 Preventing Corrosion Corrosion is prevented by coating iron with a metal that is more readily oxidized. Cathodic protection occurs when zinc is more easily oxidized, so that metal is sacrificed to keep the iron from rusting.
40 Preventing Corrosion Another method to prevent corrosion is used for underground pipes. A sacrificial anode is attached to the pipe. The anode is oxidized before the pipe.
41 Electrolysis Nonspontaneous reactions can occur in electrochemistry IF outside electricity is used to drive the reaction. Use of electrical energy to create chemical reactions is called electrolysis.
42 Electrolysis and Stoichiometry 1 coulomb = 1 ampere 1 second Q = It = nf Q = charge (C) I = current (A) t = time (s) n = moles of electrons that travel through the wire in the given time F = Faraday s constant NOTE: n is different than that for the Nernst equation!
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