1 Lecture Presentation Chapter 20 James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT
2 is the study of the relationships between electricity and chemical reactions. It includes the study of both spontaneous and nonspontaneous processes.
3 20.1 Oxidation States and Oxidation-Reduction Reaction 896 Synopsis of Assigning Oxidation Numbers (as a Reminder) 1. Elements = 0 2. Monatomic ion = charge 3. F: 1 4. O: 2 (unless peroxide = 1) 5. H: +1 (unless a metal hydride = 1) 6. The sum of the oxidation numbers equals the overall charge (0 in a compound).
4 Oxidation Numbers To keep track of what loses electrons and what gains them, we assign oxidation numbers. If the oxidation number increases for an element, that element is oxidized. If the oxidation number decreases for an element, that element is reduced.
5 Oxidation and Reduction A species is oxidized when it loses electrons. Zinc loses two electrons, forming the Zn 2+ ion. A species is reduced when it gains electrons. H + gains an electron, forming H 2. An oxidizing agent causes something else to be oxidized (H + ); a reducing agent causes something else to be reduced (Zn).
6 Sample Exercise 20.1 Identifying Oxidizing and Reducing Agents The nickel cadmium (nicad) battery uses the following redox reaction to generate electricity: Solution Analyze We are given a redox equation and asked to identify the substance oxidized and the substance reduced and to label the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent. Plan First, we use the rules outlined earlier (Section 4.4) to assign oxidation states, or numbers, to all the atoms and determine which elements change oxidation state. Second, we apply the definitions of oxidation and reduction. Solve Cd(s) + NiO 2 (s) + 2H 2 O(l) Cd(OH) 2 (s) + Ni(OH) 2 (s) Identify the substances that are oxidized and reduced, and indicate which is the oxidizing agent and which is the reducing agent. The oxidation state of Cd increases from 0 to +2, and that of Ni decreases from +4 to +2. Thus, the Cd atom is oxidized (loses electrons) and is the reducing agent. The oxidation state of Ni decreases as NiO 2 is converted into Ni(OH) 2. Thus, NiO 2 is reduced (gains electrons) and is the oxidizing agent.
7 Sample Exercise 20.1 Identifying Oxidizing and Reducing Agents Continued Comment A common mnemonic for remembering oxidation and reduction is LEO the lion says GER : losing electrons is oxidation; gaining electrons is reduction. Practice Exercise 1 What is the reducing agent in the following reaction? 2 Br (aq) + H 2 O 2 (aq) + 2 H + (aq) Br 2 (aq) + 2 H 2 O(l) (a) Br (aq) (b) H 2 O 2 (aq) (c) H + (aq) (d) Br 2 (aq) (e) Na + (aq) Practice Exercise 2 Identify the oxidizing and reducing agents in the reaction 2 H 2 O(l) + Al(s) + MnO 4 (aq) Al(OH) 4 (aq) + MnO 2 (s)
8 20.2 Balancing Redox Equations 898 Half-Reactions The oxidation and reduction are written and balanced separately. We will use them to balance a redox reaction. For example, when Sn 2+ and Fe 3+ react,
9 Balancing Redox Equations: The Half-Reactions Method (a Synopsis) 1) Make two half-reactions (oxidation and reduction). 2) Balance atoms other than O and H. Then, balance O and H using H 2 O/H +. 3) Add electrons to balance charges. 4) Multiply by common factor to make electrons in halfreactions equal. 5) Add the half-reactions. 6) Simplify by dividing by common factor or converting H + to OH if basic. 7) Double-check atoms and charges balance!
10 The Half-Reaction Method Consider the reaction between MnO 4 and C 2 O 4 2 : MnO 4 (aq) + C 2 O 4 2 (aq) Mn 2+ (aq) + CO 2 (aq) Assigning oxidation numbers shows that Mn is reduced (+7 +2) and C is oxidized (+3 +4).
11 Oxidation Half-Reaction C 2 O 4 2 CO 2 To balance the carbon, we add a coefficient of 2: C 2 O CO 2
12 Oxidation Half-Reaction C 2 O CO 2 The oxygen is now balanced as well. To balance the charge, we must add two electrons to the right side: C 2 O CO 2 + 2e
13 Reduction Half-Reaction MnO 4 Mn 2+ The manganese is balanced; to balance the oxygen, we must add four waters to the right side: MnO 4 Mn H 2 O
14 Reduction Half-Reaction MnO 4 Mn H 2 O To balance the hydrogen, we add 8H + to the left side: 8 H + + MnO 4 Mn H 2 O
15 Reduction Half-Reaction 8 H + + MnO 4 Mn H 2 O To balance the charge, we add 5e to the left side: 5e + 8 H + + MnO 4 Mn H 2 O
16 Combining the Half-Reactions Now we combine the two half-reactions together: C 2 O CO 2 + 2e 5e + 8 H + + MnO 4 Mn H 2 O To make the number of electrons equal on each side, we will multiply the first reaction by 5 and the second by 2:
17 Combining the Half-Reactions 5 C 2 O CO e 10e + 16 H MnO 4 2 Mn H 2 O When we add these together, we get 10e + 16 H MnO C 2 O Mn H 2 O + 10 CO 2 +10e
18 Combining the Half-Reactions 10e + 16 H MnO C 2 O Mn H 2 O + 10 CO 2 +10e The only thing that appears on both sides is the electrons. Subtracting them, we are left with 16 H MnO C 2 O Mn H 2 O + 10 CO 2 (Verify that the equation is balanced by counting atoms and charges on each side of the equation.)
19 Balancing in Basic Solution A reaction that occurs in basic solution can be balanced as if it occurred in acid. Once the equation is balanced, add OH to each side to neutralize the H + in the equation and create water in its place. If this produces water on both sides, subtract water from each side so it appears on only one side of the equation.
20 Sample Exercise 20.2 Balancing Redox Equations in Acidic Solution Complete and balance this equation by the method of half-reactions: Cr 2 O 7 2 (aq) + Cl (aq) Cr 3+ (aq) + Cl 2 (g) (acidic solution) Solution Analyze We are given an incomplete, unbalanced (skeleton) equation for a redox reaction occurring in acidic solution and asked to complete and balance it. Plan We use the half-reaction procedure we just learned. Solve Step 1: We divide the equation into two half-reactions: Cr 2 O 7 2 (aq) Cr 3+ (aq) Cl (aq) Cl 2 (g) Step 2: We balance each half-reaction. In the first half-reaction the presence of one Cr 2 O 7 2 among the reactants requires two Cr 3+ among the products. The seven oxygen atoms in Cr 2 O 7 2 are balanced by adding seven H 2 O to the products. The 14 hydrogen atoms in 7 H 2 O are then balanced by adding 14 H + to the reactants: 14 H + (aq) + Cr 2 O 7 2 (aq) 2 Cr 3+ (aq) + 7 H 2 O(l)
21 Sample Exercise 20.2 Balancing Redox Equations in Acidic Solution Continued We then balance the charge by adding electrons to the left side of the equation so that the total charge is the same on the two sides: 6 e + 14 H + (aq) + Cr 2 O 7 2 (aq) 2 Cr 3+ (aq) + 7 H 2 O(l) We can check this result by looking at the oxidation state changes. Each chromium atom goes from +6 to +3, gaining three electrons; therefore, the two Cr atoms in Cr 2 O 7 2 gain six electrons, in agreement with our halfreaction. In the second half-reaction, two Cl are required to balance one Cl 2 : 2 Cl (aq) Cl 2 (g) We add two electrons to the right side to attain charge balance: 2 Cl (aq) Cl 2 (g) + 2 e This result agrees with the oxidation state changes. Each chlorine atom goes from 1 to 0, losing one electron; therefore, the two chlorine atoms lose two electrons.
22 Sample Exercise 20.2 Balancing Redox Equations in Acidic Solution Continued Step 3: We equalize the number of electrons transferred in the two half-reactions. To do so, we multiply the Cl halfreaction by 3 so that the number of electrons gained in the Cr half-reaction (6) equals the number lost in the Cl halfreaction, allowing the electrons to cancel when the half-reactions are added: 6 Cl (aq) 3 Cl 2 (g) + 6 e Step 4: The equations are added to give the balanced equation: 14 H + (aq) + Cr 2 O 7 2 (aq) + 6 Cl (aq) 2 Cr 3+ (aq) + 7 H 2 O(l) + 3 Cl 2 (g) Step 5: There are equal numbers of atoms of each kind on the two sides of the equation (14 H, 2 Cr, 7 O, 6 Cl). In addition, the charge is the same on the two sides (6+). Thus, the equation is balanced. Practice Exercise 1 If you complete and balance the following equation in acidic solution Mn 2+ (aq) + NaBiO 3 (s) Bi 3+ (aq) + MnO 4 (aq) + Na + (aq) how many water molecules are there in the balanced equation (for the reaction balanced with the smallest wholenumber coefficients)? (a) Four on the reactant side, (b) Three on the product side, (c) One on the reactant side, (d) Seven on the product side, (e) Two on the product side.
23 Sample Exercise 20.2 Balancing Redox Equations in Acidic Solution Continued Practice Exercise 2 Complete and balance the following equation in acidic solution using the method of half-reactions. Cu(s) + NO 3 (aq) Cu 2+ (aq) + NO 2 (g)
24 Sample Exercise 20.3 Balancing Redox Equations in Acidic Solution Complete and balance this equation for a redox reaction that takes place in basic solution: Solution Analyze We are given an incomplete equation for a basic redox reaction and asked to balance it. Plan We go through the first steps of our procedure as if the reaction were occurring in acidic solution. We then add the appropriate number of OH to each side of the equation, combining H + and OH to form H 2 O. We complete the process by simplifying the equation. Solve Step 1: We write the incomplete, unbalanced half-reactions: Step 2: We balance each half-reaction as if it took place in acidic solution: CN (aq) + MnO 4 (aq) CNO (aq) + MnO 2 (s) (basic solution) CN (aq) CNO (aq) MnO 4 (aq) MnO 2 (s) CN (aq) + H 2 O(l) CNO (aq) + 2 H + (aq) + 2 e 3 e + 4 H + (aq) + MnO 4 (aq) MnO 2 (s) + 2 H 2 O(l)
25 Sample Exercise 20.3 Balancing Redox Equations in Acidic Solution Continued Now we must take into account that the reaction occurs in basic solution, adding OH to both sides of both half-reactions to neutralize H + : We neutralize H + and OH by forming H 2 O when they are on the same side of either half-reaction: Next, we cancel water molecules that appear as both reactants and products: CN (aq) + H 2 O(l) + 2 OH (aq) CNO (aq) + 2 H + (aq) + 2 e + 2 OH (aq) 3 e + 4 H + (aq) + MnO 4 (aq) + 4 OH (aq) MnO 2 (s) + 2 H 2 O(l) + 4 OH (aq) CN (aq) + H 2 O(l) + 2 OH (aq) CNO (aq) + 2 H 2 O(l) + 2 e 3 e + 4 H 2 O(l) + MnO 4 (aq) MnO 2 (s) + 2 H 2 O(l) + 4 OH (aq) CN (aq) + 2 OH (aq) CNO (aq) + H 2 O(l) + 2 e 3 e + 2 H 2 O(l) + MnO 4 (aq) MnO 2 (s) + 4 OH (aq) Both half-reactions are now balanced. You can check the atoms and the overall charge.
26 Sample Exercise 20.3 Balancing Redox Equations in Acidic Solution Continued Step 3: We multiply the cyanide half-reaction by 3, which gives 6 electrons on the product side, and multiply the permanganate half-reaction by 2, which gives 6 electrons on the reactant side: Step 4: We add the two half-reactions together and simplify by canceling species that appear as both 3 CN (aq) + 6 OH (aq) 3 CNO (aq) + 3 H 2 O(l) + 6 e 6 e + 4 H 2 O(l) + 2 MnO 4 (aq) 2 MnO 2 (s) + 8 OH (aq) reactants and products: 3 CN (aq) + H 2 O(l) + 2 MnO 4 (aq) 3 CNO (aq) + 2 MnO 2 (s) + 2 OH (aq) Step 5: Check that the atoms and charges are balanced. There are 3 C, 3 N, 2 H, 9 O, 2 Mn, and a charge of 5 on both sides of the equation. Comment It is important to remember that this procedure does not imply that H + ions are involved in the chemical reaction. Recall that in aqueous solutions at 20, K w = [H + ][OH ] = Thus, [H + ] is very small in this basic solution. (Section 16.3)
27 Sample Exercise 20.3 Balancing Redox Equations in Acidic Solution Continued Practice Exercise 1 If you complete and balance the following oxidation reduction reaction in basic solution NO 2 (aq) + Al(s) NH 3 (aq) + Al(OH) 4 (aq) how many hydroxide ions are there in the balanced equation (for the reaction balanced with the smallest wholenumber coefficients)? (a) One on the reactant side, (b) One on the product side, (c) Four on the reactant side, (d) Seven on the product side, (e) None. Practice Exercise 2 Complete and balance the following oxidation reduction reaction in basic solution: Cr(OH) 3 (s) + ClO (aq) CrO 4 2 (aq) + Cl 2 (g)
28 20.3 Voltaic Cells 903 Voltaic Cells In spontaneous redox reactions, electrons are transferred and energy is released. That energy can do work if the electrons flow through an external device. This is a voltaic cell.
29 Voltaic Cells The oxidation occurs at the anode. The reduction occurs at the cathode. When electrons flow, charges aren t balanced. So, a salt bridge, usually a U-shaped tube that contains a salt/agar solution, is used to keep the charges balanced.
30 Voltaic Cells In the cell, electrons leave the anode and flow through the wire to the cathode. Cations are formed in the anode compartment. As the electrons reach the cathode, cations in solution are attracted to the now negative cathode. The cations gain electrons and are deposited as metal on the cathode.
31 Sample Exercise 20.4 Describing a Voltaic Cell The oxidation reduction reaction Solution Cr 2 O 7 2 (aq) + 14 H + (aq) + 6 I (aq) 2 Cr 3+ (aq) + 3 I 2 (s) + 7 H 2 O(l) is spontaneous. A solution containing K 2 Cr 2 O 7 and H 2 SO 4 is poured into one beaker, and a solution of KI is poured into another. A salt bridge is used to join the beakers. A metallic conductor that will not react with either solution (such as platinum foil) is suspended in each solution, and the two conductors are connected with wires through a voltmeter or some other device to detect an electric current. The resultant voltaic cell generates an electric current. Indicate the reaction occurring at the anode, the reaction at the cathode, the direction of electron migration, the direction of ion migration, and the signs of the electrodes. Analyze We are given the equation for a spontaneous reaction that takes place in a voltaic cell and a description of how the cell is constructed. We are asked to write the half-reactions occurring at the anode and at the cathode, as well as the directions of electron and ion movements and the signs assigned to the electrodes. Plan Our first step is to divide the chemical equation into halfreactions so that we can identify the oxidation and the reduction processes. We then use the definitions of anode and cathode and the other terminologies summarized in Figure 20.6.
32 Sample Exercise 20.4 Describing a Voltaic Cell Continued Solve In one half-reaction, Cr 2 O 7 2 (aq) is converted into Cr 3+ (aq). Starting with these ions and then completing and balancing the half-reaction, we have In the other half-reaction, I (aq) is converted to I 2 (s): Cr 2 O 7 2 (aq) + 14 H + (aq) + 6 e 2 Cr 3+ (aq) + 7 H 2 O(l) 6 I (aq) 3 I 2 (s) + 6 e Now we can use the summary in Figure 20.6 to help us describe the voltaic cell. The first half-reaction is the reduction process (electrons on the reactant side of the equation). By definition, the reduction process occurs at the cathode. The second half-reaction is the oxidation process (electrons on the product side of the equation), which occurs at the anode. The I ions are the source of electrons, and the Cr 2 O 7 2 ions accept the electrons. Hence, the electrons flow through the external circuit from the electrode immersed in the KI solution (the anode) to the electrode immersed in the K 2 Cr 2 O 7 H 2 SO 4 solution (the cathode). The electrodes themselves do not react in any way; they merely provide a means of transferring electrons from or to the solutions. The cations move through the solutions toward the cathode, and the anions move toward the anode. The anode (from which the electrons move) is the negative electrode, and the cathode (toward which the electrons move) is the positive electrode.
33 Sample Exercise 20.4 Describing a Voltaic Cell Continued Practice Exercise 1 The following two half-reactions occur in a voltaic cell: Ni(s) Ni 2+ (aq) + 2 e Cu 2+ (aq) + 2 e Cu(s) (electrode = Ni) (electrode = Cu) Which one of the following descriptions most accurately describes what is occurring in the half-cell containing the Cu electrode and Cu 2+ (aq) solution? (a) The electrode is losing mass and cations from the salt bridge are flowing into the half-cell. (b) The electrode is gaining mass and cations from the salt bridge are flowing into the half-cell. (c) The electrode is losing mass and anions from the salt bridge are flowing into the half-cell. (d) The electrode is gaining mass and anions from the salt bridge are flowing into the half-cell.
34 Sample Exercise 20.4 Describing a Voltaic Cell Continued Practice Exercise 2 The two half-reactions in a voltaic cell are Zn(s) Zn 2+ (aq) + 2 e ClO 3 (aq) + 6 H + (aq) + 6 e Cl (aq) + 3 H 2 O(l) (electrode = Zn) (electrode = Pt) (a) Indicate which reaction occurs at the anode and which at the cathode. (b) Does the zinc electrode gain, lose, or retain the same mass as the reaction proceeds? (c) Does the platinum electrode gain, lose, or retain the same mass as the reaction proceeds? (d) Which electrode is positive?
35 20.4 Cell Potentials Under Standard Conditions 906 Electromotive Force (emf) Water flows spontaneously one way in a waterfall. Comparably, electrons flow spontaneously one way in a redox reaction, from high to low potential energy.
36 Electromotive Force (emf) The potential difference between the anode and cathode in a cell is called the electromotive force (emf). It is also called the cell potential and is designated E cell. It is measured in volts (V). One volt is one joule per coulomb (1 V = 1 J/C).
37 Standard Reduction Potentials Reduction potentials for many electrodes have been measured and tabulated. The values are compared to the reduction of hydrogen as a standard.
38 Standard Hydrogen Electrode Their reference is called the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE). By definition as the standard, the reduction potential for hydrogen is 0 V: 2 H + (aq, 1M) + 2e H 2 (g, 1 atm)
39 Standard Cell Potentials The cell potential at standard conditions can be found through this equation: E cell = E red (cathode) E red (anode) Because cell potential is based on the potential energy per unit of charge, it is an intensive property.
40 Cell Potentials For the anode in this cell, E red = 0.76 V For the cathode, E red = V So, for the cell, E cell = E red (anode) E red (cathode) = V ( 0.76 V) = V
41 Oxidizing and Reducing Agents The more positive the value of E red, the greater the tendency for reduction under standard conditions. The strongest oxidizers have the most positive reduction potentials. The strongest reducers have the most negative reduction potentials.
42 Sample Exercise 20.5 Calculating E red from E cell For the Zn Cu 2+ voltaic cell shown in Figure 20.5, we have Zn(s) + Cu 2+ (aq, 1 M) Zn 2+ (aq, 1 M) + Cu(s) E cell = 1.10 V Given that the standard reduction potential of Zn 2+ to Zn(s) is 0.76 V, calculate the E red for the reduction of Cu 2+ to Cu: Cu 2+ (aq, 1 M) + 2 e Cu(s) Solution Analyze We are given E cell and E red for Zn 2+ and asked to calculate E red for Cu 2+. Plan In the voltaic cell, Zn is oxidized and is therefore the anode. Thus, the given E red for Zn 2+ is E red (anode). Because Cu 2+ is reduced, it is in the cathode half-cell. Thus, the unknown reduction potential for Cu 2+ is E red (cathode). Knowing E cell and E red (anode), we can use Equation 20.8 to solve for E red (cathode).
43 Sample Exercise 20.5 Calculating E red from E cell Continued Solve E cell = E red (cathode) E red (anode) 1.10 V = E red (cathode) ( 0.76 V) E red (cathode) = 1.10 V 0.76 V = 0.34 V Check This standard reduction potential agrees with the one listed in Table Comment The standard reduction potential for Cu 2+ can be represented as E Cu 2+ = 0.34 V and that for Zn 2+ as E Zn 2+ = 0.76 V. The subscript identifies the ion that is reduced in the reduction half-reaction.
44 Sample Exercise 20.5 Calculating E red from E cell Continued Practice Exercise 1 A voltaic cell based on the reaction 2 Eu 2+ (aq) + Ni 2+ (aq) 2 Eu 3+ (aq) + Ni(s) generates E cell = 0.07 V. Given the standard reduction potential of Ni 2+ given in Table 20.1 what is the standard reduction potential for the reaction Eu 3+ (aq) + e Eu 2+ (aq)? (a) 0.35 V, (b) 0.35 V, (c) 0.21 V, (d) 0.21 V, (e) 0.07 V. Practice Exercise 2 The standard cell potential is 1.46 V for a voltaic cell based on the following half-reactions: In + (aq) In 3+ (aq) + 2 e Br 2 (l) + 2 e 2 Br (aq) Using Table 20.1, calculate E red for the reduction of In 3+ to In +.
45 Sample Exercise 20.6 Calculating E cell from E red Use Table 20.1 to calculate E cell for the voltaic cell described in Sample Exercise 20.4, which is based on the reaction Cr 2 O 7 2 (aq) + 14 H + (aq) + 6 I (aq) 2 Cr 3+ (aq) + 3 I 2 (s) + 7 H 2 O(l)
46 Sample Exercise 20.6 Calculating E cell from E red Continued Solution Analyze We are given the equation for a redox reaction and asked to use data in Table 20.1 to calculate the standard cell potential for the associated voltaic cell. Plan Our first step is to identify the half-reactions that occur at the cathode and anode, which we did in Sample Exercise Then we use Table 20.1 and Equation 20.8 to calculate the standard cell potential. Solve The half-reactions are Cathode: Cr 2 O 2 7 (aq) + 14 H + (aq) + 6 e 2 Cr 3+ (aq) + 7 H 2 O(l) Anode: 6 I (aq) 3 I 2 (s) + 6 e According to Table 20.1, the standard reduction potential for the reduction of Cr 2 O 7 2 to Cr 3+ is V and the standard reduction potential for the reduction of I 2 to I (the reverse of the oxidation half-reaction) is V. We use these values in Equation 20.8: E cell = E red (cathode) E red (anode) = 1.33 V 0.54 V = 0.79 V Although we must multiply the iodide half-reaction by 3 to obtain a balanced equation, we do not multiply the E red value by 3. As we have noted, the standard reduction potential is an intensive property and so is independent of the stoichiometric coefficients.
47 Sample Exercise 20.6 Calculating E cell from E red Continued Check The cell potential, 0.79 V, is a positive number. As noted earlier, a voltaic cell must have a positive potential. Practice Exercise 1 Using the data in Table 20.1 what value would you calculate for the standard emf (E cell ) for a voltaic cell that employs the overall cell reaction 2 Ag + (aq) + Ni(s) 2 Ag(s) + Ni 2+ (aq)? (a) V, (b) 0.52 V, (c) V, (d) 1.08 V, (e) V. Practice Exercise 2 Using data in Table 20.1, calculate the standard emf for a cell that employs the overall cell reaction 2 Al(s) + 3 I 2 (s) 2 Al 3+ (aq) + 6 I (aq).
48 Sample Exercise 20.7 Determining Half-Reactions at Electrodesand Calculating Cell Potentials A voltaic cell is based on the two standard half-reactions Solution Cd 2+ (aq) + 2 e Cd(s) Sn 2+ (aq) + 2 e Sn(s) Use data in Appendix E to determine (a) which half-reaction occurs at the cathode and which occurs at the anode and (b) the standard cell potential. Analyze We have to look up E red for two half-reactions. We then use these values first to determine the cathode and the anode and then to calculate the standard cell potential, E cell. Plan The cathode will have the reduction with the more positive E red value, and the anode will have the less positive E red. To write the half-reaction at the anode, we reverse the half-reaction written for the reduction, so that the half-reaction is written as an oxidation.
49 Sample Exercise 20.7 Determining Half-Reactions at Electrodesand Calculating Cell Potentials Continued The anode reaction, therefore, is the loss of electrons by Cd: Anode: Cd(s) Cd 2+ (aq) + 2 e (b) The cell potential is given by the difference in the standard reduction potentials at the cathode and anode (Equation 20.8): E cell = E red (cathode) E red (anode) = ( V) ( V) = V Notice that it is unimportant that the E red values of both half-reactions are negative; the negative values merely indicate how these reductions compare to the reference reaction, the reduction of H + (aq). Check The cell potential is positive, as it must be for a voltaic cell.
50 Sample Exercise 20.7 Determining Half-Reactions at Electrodesand Calculating Cell Potentials Continued Practice Exercise 1 Consider three voltaic cells, each similar to the one shown in Figure In each voltaic cell, one half-cell contains a 1.0 M Fe(NO 3 ) 2 (aq) solution with an Fe electrode. The contents of the other half-cells are as follows: Cell 1: a 1.0 M CuCl 2 (aq) solution with a Cu electrode Cell 2: a 1.0 M NiCl 2 (aq) solution with a Ni electrode Cell 3: a 1.0 M ZnCl 2 (aq) solution with a Zn electrode In which voltaic cell(s) does iron act as the anode? (a) Cell 1, (b) Cell 2, (c) Cell 3, (d) Cells 1 and 2, (e) All three cells. Practice Exercise 2 A voltaic cell is based on a Co 2+ /Co half-cell and a AgCl/Ag half-cell. (a) What half-reaction occurs at the anode? (b) What is the standard cell potential?
51 Sample Exercise 20.8 Determining Relative Strengths of Oxidizing Agents Using Table 20.1, rank the following ions in the order of increasing strength as oxidizing agents: NO 3 (aq), Ag + (aq), Cr 2 O 7 2.
52 Sample Exercise 20.8 Determining Relative Strengths of Oxidizing Agents Continued Solution Analyze We are asked to rank the abilities of several ions to act as oxidizing agents. Plan The more readily an ion is reduced (the more positive its E red value), the stronger it is as an oxidizing agent. Solve From Table 20.1, we have NO 3 (aq) + 4 H + (aq) + 3 e NO(g) + 2 H 2 O(l) E red = V Ag + (aq) + e Ag(s) E red = V Cr 2 O 2 7 (aq) + 14 H + (aq) + 6 e 2 Cr 3+ (aq) + 7 H 2 O(l) E red = V Because the standard reduction potential of Cr 2 O 7 2 is the most positive, Cr 2 O 7 2 is the strongest oxidizing agent of the three. The rank order is Ag + < NO 3 < Cr 2 O 7 2.
53 Sample Exercise 20.8 Determining Relative Strengths of Oxidizing Agents Continued Practice Exercise 1 Based on the data in Table 20.1 which of the following species would you expect to be the strongest oxidizing agent? (a) Cl (aq), (b) Cl 2 (g), (c) O 2 (g), (d) H + (aq), (e) Na + (aq). Practice Exercise 2 Using Table 20.1, rank the following species from the strongest to the weakest reducing agent: I (aq), Fe(s), Al(s).
54 20.5 Free Energy and Redox Reactions 914 Free Energy and Redox Spontaneous redox reactions produce a positive cell potential, or emf. E = E red (reduction) E red (oxidation) Note that this is true for ALL redox reactions, not only for voltaic cells. Since Gibbs free energy is the measure of spontaneity, positive emf corresponds to negative ΔG. How do they relate? ΔG = nfe (F is the Faraday constant, 96,485 C/mol.)
55 Free Energy, Redox, and K How is everything related? ΔG = nfe = RT ln K
56 Sample Exercise 20.9 Determining Spontaneity Use Table 20.1 to determine whether the following reactions are spontaneous under standard conditions. (a) Cu(s) + 2 H + (aq) Cu 2+ (aq) + H 2 (g) (b) Cl 2 (g) + 2 I (aq) 2 Cl (aq) + I 2 (s)
57 Sample Exercise 20.9 Determining Spontaneity Continued Solution Analyze We are given two reactions and must determine whether each is spontaneous. Plan To determine whether a redox reaction is spontaneous under standard conditions, we first need to write its reduction and oxidation half-reactions. We can then use the standard reduction potentials and Equation to calculate the standard emf, E, for the reaction. If a reaction is spontaneous, its standard emf must be a positive number. Solve (a) We first must identify the oxidation and reduction half-reactions that when combined give the overall reaction. We look up standard reduction potentials for both half-reactions and use them to calculate E using Equation 20.10: Because E is negative, the reaction is not spontaneous in the direction written. Copper metal does not react with acids as written in Equation (a). The reverse reaction, however, is spontaneous and has a positive E value: Thus, Cu 2+ can be reduced by H 2. Reduction: 2 H + (aq) + 2 e H 2 (g) Oxidation: Cu(s) Cu 2+ (aq) + 2 e E = E red (reduction process) E red (oxidation process) = (0 V) (0.34 V) = 0.34 V Cu 2+ (aq) + H 2 (g) Cu(s) + 2 H + (aq) E = V
58 Sample Exercise 20.9 Determining Spontaneity Continued (b) We follow a procedure analogous to that in (a): Reduction: Cl 2 (g) + 2 e 2 Cl (aq) Oxidation: 2 I (aq) I 2 (s) + 2 e In this case E = (1.36 V) (0.54 V) = V Because the value of E is positive, this reaction is spontaneous and could be used to build a voltaic cell. Practice Exercise 1 Which of the following elements is capable of oxidizing Fe 2+ (aq) ions to Fe 3+ (aq) ions: chlorine, bromine, iodine? (a) I 2, (b) Cl 2, (c) Cl 2 and I 2, (d) Cl 2 and Br 2, (e) all three elements. Practice Exercise 2 Using the standard reduction potentials listed in Appendix E, determine which of the following reactions are spontaneous under standard conditions: (a) I 2 (s) + 5 Cu 2+ (aq) + 6 H 2 O(l) 2 IO 3 (aq) + 5 Cu(s) + 12 H + (aq) (b) Hg 2+ (aq) + 2 I (aq) Hg(l) + I 2 (s) (c) H 2 SO 3 (aq) + 2 Mn(s) + 4 H + (aq) S(s) + 2 Mn 2+ (aq) + 3 H 2 O(l)
59 Sample Exercise Using Standard Reduction Potentials to Calculate G and K (a) Use the standard reduction potentials in Table 20.1 to calculate the standard free-energy change, G, and the equilibrium constant, K, at 298 K for the reaction 4 Ag(s) + O 2 (g) + 4 H + (aq) 4 Ag + (aq) + 2 H 2 O(l) (b) Suppose the reaction in part (a) is written 2 Ag(s) + O 2 (g) + 2 H + (aq) 2 Ag + (aq) + H 2 O(l) What are the values of E, G, and K when the reaction is written in this way?
60 Sample Exercise Using Standard Reduction Potentials to Calculate G and K Continued Solution Analyze We are asked to determine G and K for a redox reaction, using standard reduction potentials. Plan We use the data in Table 20.1 and Equation to determine E for the reaction and then use E in Equation to calculate G. We can then use either Equation or Equation to calculate K. Solve (a) We first calculate E by breaking the equation into two half-reactions and obtaining E red values from Table 20.1 (or Appendix E): Reduction: O 2 (g) + 4 H + (aq) + 4 e 2 H 2 O(l) E red = V Oxidation: 4 Ag(s) 4 Ag + (aq) + 4 e E red = V Even though the second half-reaction has 4 Ag, we use the E red value directly from Table 20.1 because emf is an intensive property. Using Equation 20.10, we have E = (1.23 V) (0.80 V) = 0.43 V
61 Sample Exercise Using Standard Reduction Potentials to Calculate G and K Continued The half-reactions show the transfer of four electrons. Thus, for this reaction n = 4. We now use Equation to calculate G : G = nfe = (4)(96,485 J/V-mol)(+0.43 V) = J/mol = 170 kj/mol Now we need to calculate the equilibrium constant, K, using G = RT ln K. Because G is a large negative number, which means the reaction is thermodynamically very favorable, we expect K to be large.
62 Sample Exercise Using Standard Reduction Potentials to Calculate G and K Continued (b) The overall equation is the same as that in part (a), multiplied by The half-reactions are Reduction: O 2 (g) + 2 H + (aq) + 2 e H 2 O(l) E red = V Oxidation: 2 Ag(s) 2 Ag + (aq) + 2 e E red = V The values of E red are the same as they were in part (a); they are not changed by multiplying the half-reactions by. Thus, E has the same value as in part (a): E = V. Notice, though, that the value of n has changed to n = 2, which is one-half the value in part (a). Thus, G is half as large as in part (a): G = (2)(96,485 J/V-mol)(+0.43 V) = 83 kj/mol The value of G is half that in part (a) because the coefficients in the chemical equation are half those in (a). Now we can calculate K as before: J/mol = (8.314 J/K mol)(298 K) ln K K =
63 Sample Exercise Using Standard Reduction Potentials to Calculate G and K Continued Comment E is an intensive quantity, so multiplying a chemical equation by a certain factor will not affect the value of E. Multiplying an equation will change the value of n, however, and hence the value of G. The change in free energy, in units of J/mol of reaction as written, is an extensive quantity. The equilibrium constant is also an extensive quantity. Practice Exercise 1 For the reaction 3 Ni 2+ (aq) + 2 Cr(OH) 3 (s) + 10 OH (aq) 3 Ni(s) + 2 CrO 4 2 (aq) + 8 H 2 O(l) G = +87 kj/mol. Given the standard reduction potential of Ni 2+ (aq) in Table 20.1, what value do you calculate for the standard reduction potential of the half-reaction CrO 4 2 (aq) + 4 H 2 O(l) + 3 e Cr(OH) 3 (s) + 5 OH (aq)? (a) 0.43 V (b) 0.28 V (c) 0.02 V (d) 0.13 V (e) 0.15 V
64 Sample Exercise Using Standard Reduction Potentials to Calculate G and K Continued Practice Exercise 2 Consider the reaction 2 Ag + (aq) + H 2 (g) 2 Ag(s) + 2 H + (aq). Calculate G f for the Ag + (aq) ion from the standard reduction potentials in Table 20.1 and the fact that G f for H 2 (g), Ag(s), and H + (aq) are all zero. Compare your answer with the value given in Appendix C.
65 20.6 Cell Potentials Under Nonstandard Conditions 903 Nernst Equation Remember, ΔG = ΔG + RT ln Q So, nfe = nfe + RT ln Q Dividing both sides by nf, we get the Nernst equation: E = E (RT/nF) ln Q OR E = E (2.303 RT/nF) log Q Using standard thermodynamic temperature and the constants R and F, E = E (0.0592/n) log Q
66 Concentration Cells Notice that the Nernst equation implies that a cell could be created that has the same substance at both electrodes, called a concentration cell. For such a cell, E cell would be 0, but Q would not. Therefore, as long as the concentrations are different, E will not be 0.
67 Sample Exercise Cell Potential under Nonstandard Conditions Calculate the emf at 298 K generated by a voltaic cell in which the reaction is when Solution Cr 2 O 7 2 (aq) + 14 H + (aq) + 6 I (aq) 2 Cr 3+ (aq) + 3 I 2 (s) + 7 H 2 O(l) [Cr 2 O 7 2 ] = 2.0 M, [H + ] = 1.0 M, [I ] = 1.0 M, and [Cr 3+ ] = M Analyze We are given a chemical equation for a voltaic cell and the concentrations of reactants and products under which it operates. We are asked to calculate the emf of the cell under these nonstandard conditions. Plan To calculate the emf of a cell under nonstandard conditions, we use the Nernst equation in the form of Equation
68 Sample Exercise Cell Potential under Nonstandard Conditions Continued Solve We calculate E for the cell from standard reduction potentials (Table 20.1 or Appendix E). The standard emf for this reaction was calculated in Sample Exercise 20.6: E = 0.79 V. As that exercise shows, six electrons are transferred from reducing agent to oxidizing agent, so n = 6. The reaction quotient, Q, is
69 Sample Exercise Cell Potential under Nonstandard Conditions Continued Using Equation 20.18, we have Check This result is qualitatively what we expect: Because the concentration of Cr 2 O 7 2 (a reactant) is greater than 1 M and the concentration of Cr 3+ (a product) is less than 1 M, the emf is greater than E. Because Q is about 10 10, log Q is about 10. Thus, the correction to E is about /6, which is 0.1, in agreement with the more detailed calculation. Practice Exercise 1 Consider a voltaic cell whose overall reaction is Pb 2+ (aq) + Zn(s) Pb(s) + Zn 2+ (aq). What is the emf generated by this voltaic cell when the ion concentrations are [Pb 2+ ] = M and [Zn 2+ ] = 0.55 M? (a) 0.71 V, (b) 0.56 V, (c) 0.49 V, (d) 0.79 V, (e) 0.64 V.
70 Sample Exercise Cell Potential under Nonstandard Conditions Continued Practice Exercise 2 For the Zn Cu voltaic cell depicted in Figure 20.5 would the emf increase, decrease, or stay the same, if you increased the Cu 2+ (aq) concentration by adding CuSO 4 5H 2 O to the cathode compartment?
71 Sample Exercise Calculating Concentrations in a Voltaic Cell If the potential of a Zn H + cell (like that in Figure 20.9) is 0.45 V at 25 when [Zn 2+ ] = 1.0 M and P H2 = 1.0 atm, what is the ph of the cathode solution? Solution Analyze We are given a description of a voltaic cell, its emf, the concentration of Zn 2+, and the partial pressure of H 2 (both products in the cell reaction). We are asked to calculate the ph of the cathode solution, which we can calculate from the concentration of H +, a reactant. Plan We write the equation for the cell reaction and use standard reduction potentials to calculate E for the reaction. After determining the value of n from our reaction equation, we solve the Nernst equation, Equation 20.18, for Q. We use the equation for the cell reaction to write an expression for Q that contains [H + ] to determine [H + ]. Finally, we use [H + ] to calculate ph.
72 Sample Exercise Calculating Concentrations in a Voltaic Cell Continued Solve The cell reaction is Zn(s) + 2 H + (aq) Zn 2+ (aq) + H 2 (g) The standard emf is E = E red (reduction) E red (oxidation) = 0 V ( 0.76 V) = V Because each Zn atom loses two electrons, n = 2 Using Equation 20.18, we can solve for Q: Q = = Q has the form of the equilibrium constant for the reaction: Solving for [H + ], we have Finally, we use [H + ] to calculate the ph of the cathode solution. ph = log [H + ] = log ( ) = 5.2
73 Sample Exercise Calculating Concentrations in a Voltaic Cell Continued Comment A voltaic cell whose cell reaction involves H + can be used to measure [H + ] or ph. A ph meter is a specially designed voltaic cell with a voltmeter calibrated to read ph directly. (Section 16.4) Practice Exercise 1 Consider a voltaic cell where the anode half-reaction is Zn(s) Zn 2+ (aq) + 2 e and the cathode half-reaction is Sn 2+ (aq) + 2e Sn(s). What is the concentration of Sn 2+ if Zn 2+ is M and the cell emf is V? Use the reduction potentials in Appendix E that are reported to three significant figures. (a) M, (b) M, (c) M, (d) M, (e) M. Practice Exercise 2 What is the ph of the solution in the cathode half-cell in Figure 20.9 when P H2 = 1.0 atm, [Zn 2+ ] in the anode half-cell is 0.10 M, and the cell emf is V?
74 Sample Exercise Determining ph Using a Concentration Cell A voltaic cell is constructed with two hydrogen electrodes. Electrode 1 has P H2 = 1.00 atm and an unknown concentration of H + (aq). Electrode 2 is a standard hydrogen electrode (P H2 = 1.00 atm, [H + ] = 1.00 M). At 298 K the measured cell potential is V, and the electrical current is observed to flow from electrode 1 through the external circuit to electrode 2. Calculate [H + ] for the solution at electrode 1. What is the ph of the solution? Solution Analyze We are given the potential of a concentration cell and the direction in which the current flows. We also have the concentrations or partial pressures of all reactants and products except for [H + ] in half-cell 1, which is our unknown. Plan We can use the Nernst equation to determine Q and then use Q to calculate the unknown concentration. Because this is a concentration cell, E cell = 0 V. Solve Using the Nernst equation, we have
75 Sample Exercise Determining ph Using a Concentration Cell Continued Because electrons flow from electrode 1 to electrode 2, electrode 1 is the anode of the cell and electrode 2 is the cathode. The electrode reactions are therefore as follows, with the concentration of H + (aq) in electrode 1 represented with the unknown x: Thus, At electrode 1, therefore, the ph of the solution is ph = log[h + ] = log( ) = 3.57 Comment The concentration of H + at electrode 1 is lower than that in electrode 2, which is why electrode 1 is the anode of the cell: The oxidation of H 2 to H + (aq) increases [H + ] at electrode 1.
76 Sample Exercise Determining ph Using a Concentration Cell Continued Practice Exercise 1 A concentration cell constructed from two hydrogen electrodes, both with P H2 = One electrode is immersed in pure H 2 O and the other in 6.0 M hydrochloric acid. What is the emf generated by the cell and what is the identity of the electrode that is immersed in hydrochloric acid? (a) 0.23 V, cathode, (b) 0.46 V, anode, (c) V, anode, (d) 0.23 V, cathode, (e) 0.23 V, anode. Practice Exercise 2 A concentration cell is constructed with two Zn(s) Zn 2+ (aq) half-cells. In one half-cell [Zn 2+ ] = 1.35 M, and in the other [Zn 2+ ] = M. (a) Which half-cell is the anode? (b) What is the emf of the cell?
77 20.7 Batteries and Fuel Cells 924 Some Applications of Cells can be applied as follows: Batteries: a portable, self-contained electrochemical power source that consists of one or more voltaic cells. Batteries can be primary cells (cannot be recharged when dead the reaction is complete) or secondary cells (can be recharged). Prevention of corrosion ( rust-proofing ) Electrolysis
78 Some Examples of Batteries Lead acid battery: reactants and products are solids, so Q is 1 and the potential is independent of concentrations; however, made with lead and sulfuric acid (hazards). Alkaline battery: most common primary battery. Ni Cd and Ni metal hydride batteries: lightweight, rechargeable; Cd is toxic and heavy, so hydrides are replacing it. Lithium-ion batteries: rechargeable, light; produce more voltage than Ni-based batteries.
79 Some Batteries Lead Acid Battery Alkaline Battery
80 Lithium-Ion Battery
81 Fuel Cells When a fuel is burned, the energy created can be converted to electrical energy. Usually, this conversion is only 40% efficient, with the remainder lost as heat. The direct conversion of chemical to electrical energy is expected to be more efficient and is the basis for fuel cells. Fuel cells are NOT batteries; the source of energy must be continuously provided.
82 Hydrogen Fuel Cells In this cell, hydrogen and oxygen form water. The cells are twice as efficient as combustion. The cells use hydrogen gas as the fuel and oxygen from the air.
83 20.8 Corrosion 929 Corrosion Corrosion is oxidation. Its common name is rusting.
84 Preventing Corrosion Corrosion is prevented by coating iron with a metal that is more readily oxidized. Cathodic protection occurs when zinc is more easily oxidized, so that metal is sacrificed to keep the iron from rusting.
85 Preventing Corrosion Another method to prevent corrosion is used for underground pipes. A sacrificial anode is attached to the pipe. The anode is oxidized before the pipe.
86 Electrolysis Nonspontaneous reactions can occur in electrochemistry IF outside electricity is used to drive the reaction. Use of electrical energy to create chemical reactions is called electrolysis.
87 Electrolysis and Stoichiometry 1 coulomb = 1 ampere 1 second Q = It = nf Q = charge (C) I = current (A) t = time (s) n = moles of electrons that travel through the wire in the given time F = Faraday s constant NOTE: n is different than that for the Nernst equation!
88 Sample Exercise Relating Electrical Charge and Quantity of Electrolysis Calculate the number of grams of aluminum produced in 1.00 h by the electrolysis of molten AlCl 3 if the electrical current is 10.0 A. Solution Analyze We are told that AlCl 3 is electrolyzed to form Al and asked to calculate the number of grams of Al produced in 1.00 h with 10.0 A. Plan Figure provides a roadmap for this problem. Using the current, time, a balanced half-reaction, and the atomic weight of aluminum we can calculate the mass of Al produced.
89 Sample Exercise Relating Electrical Charge and Quantity of Electrolysis Continued Solve First, we calculate the coulombs of electrical charge passed into the electrolytic cell: Second, we calculate the number of moles of electrons that pass into the cell: Third, we relate number of moles of electrons to number of moles of aluminum formed, using the halfreaction for the reduction of Al 3+ : Al e Al Thus, 3 mol of electrons are required to form 1 mol of Al: Finally, we convert moles to grams:
90 Sample Exercise Relating Electrical Charge and Quantity of Electrolysis Continued Because each step involves multiplication by a new factor, we can combine all the steps: Practice Exercise 1 How much time is needed to deposit 1.0 g of chromium metal from an aqueous solution of CrCl 3 using a current of 1.5 A? (a) s, (b) 21 min, (c) 62 min, (d) 139 min, (e) min. Practice Exercise 2 (a) The half-reaction for formation of magnesium metal upon electrolysis of molten MgCl 2 is Mg e Mg. Calculate the mass of magnesium formed upon passage of a current of 60.0 A for a period of s. (b) How many seconds would be required to produce 50.0 g of Mg from MgCl 2 if the current is A?
91 Sample Integrative Exercise Putting Concepts Together The K sp at 298 K for iron(ii) fluoride is (a) Write a half-reaction that gives the likely products of the two-electron reduction of FeF 2 (s) in water. (b) Use the K sp value and the standard reduction potential of Fe 2+ (aq) to calculate the standard reduction potential for the half-reaction in part (a). (c) Rationalize the difference between the reduction potential in part (a) and the reduction potential for Fe 2+ (aq). Solution Analyze We are going to combine what we know about equilibrium constants and electrochemistry to obtain reduction potentials. Plan For (a) we need to determine which ion, Fe 2+ or F, is more likely to be reduced by two electrons and complete the overall reaction FeF e?. For (b) we need to write the chemical equation associated with the K sp and see how it relates to E for the reduction half-reaction in (a). For (c) we need to compare E from (b) with the value for the reduction of Fe 2+. Solve (a) Iron(II) fluoride is an ionic substance that consists of Fe 2+ and F ions. We are asked to predict where two electrons could be added to FeF 2. We cannot envision adding the electrons to the F ions to form F 2, so it seems likely that we could reduce the Fe 2+ ions to Fe(s). We therefore predict the half-reaction FeF 2 (s) + 2 e Fe(s) + 2 F (aq)
92 Sample Integrative Exercise Putting Concepts Together Continued (b) The K sp for FeF 2 refers to the following equilibrium: (Section 17.4) FeF 2 (s) Fe 2+ (aq) + 2 F (aq) K sp = [Fe 2+ ][F ] 2 = We were also asked to use the standard reduction potential of Fe 2+, whose half-reaction and standard reduction potentials are listed in Appendix E: Fe 2+ (aq) + 2 e Fe(s) E = V According to Hess s law, if we can add chemical equations to get a desired equation, then we can add their associated thermodynamic state functions, like H or G, to determine the thermodynamic quantity for the desired reaction. (Section 5.6) So we need to consider whether the three equations we are working with can be combined in a similar fashion. Notice that if we add the K sp reaction to the standard reduction half-reaction for Fe 2+, we get the halfreaction we want: Reaction 3 is still a half-reaction, so we do see the free electrons.
93 Sample Integrative Exercise Putting Concepts Together Continued If we knew G for reactions 1 and 2, we could add them to get G for reaction 3. We can relate G to E by G = nfe (Equation 20.12) and to K by G = RT ln K (Equation 19.20, see also Figure 20.13). Furthermore, we know that K for reaction 1 is the K sp of FeF 2, and we know E for reaction 2. Therefore, we can calculate G for reactions 1 and 2: Reaction 1: G = RT ln K = (8.314 J/K mol)(298 K) ln( ) = J/mol Reaction 2: G = nfe = (2)(96,485 C/mol)( J/C) = J/mol (Recall that 1 volt is 1 joule per coulomb.) Then G for reaction 3, the one we want, is the sum of the G values for reactions 1 and 2: J/mol J/mol = J/mol
94 Sample Integrative Exercise Putting Concepts Together Continued We can convert this to E from the relationship G = nfe : (c) The standard reduction potential for FeF 2 ( V) is more negative than that for Fe 2+ ( V), telling us that the reduction of FeF 2 is the less favorable process. When FeF 2 is reduced, we not only reduce the Fe 2+ but also break up the ionic solid. Because this additional energy must be overcome, the reduction of FeF 2 is less favorable than the reduction of Fe 2+.
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Unit 6 Electrochemistry Chemistry 020, R. R. Martin Electrochemistry Electrochemistry is the study of the interconversion of electrical and chemical energy. We can use chemistry to generate electricity...
Lecture Notes 3 rd Series: Electrochemistry Oxidation number or states When atoms gain or lose electrons they are said to change their oxidation number or oxidation state. If an element has gained electrons
Chapter 17 Oxidation-Reduction Cu (s) + 2AgNO 3(aq) 2Ag (s) + Cu(NO 3 ) 2(aq) copper wire colorless solution silver crystals pale blue solution Introduction to General, Organic, and Biochemistry 10e John
Redox and Electrochemistry (BLB chapter 20, p.723) Redox is short for reduction/oxidation Redox chemistry deals with changes in the oxidation states of atoms Oxidation States All atoms have an oxidation
Oxidation-Reduction Oxidation numbers are charges on each atom. 1 2 Electrochemical Reactions Oxidation Numbers In electrochemical reactions, electrons are transferred from one species to another. In order
www.tutor-homework.com (for tutoring, homework help, or help with online classes) 1. chem10b 20.4-3 In a voltaic cell electrons flow from the anode to the cathode. Value 2. chem10b 20.1-35 How many grams
Oxidation & Reduction (Redox) Notes Chemical Activity (or Chemical Reactivity) is the measure of the reactivity of elements. If an element has high activity, then it means that the element is willing to
1 of 20 4/11/2016 1:00 PM Electrochemical Reactions Electrochemical Reactions Electrical Work From Spontaneous Oxidation- Reduction Reactions Predicting Spontaneous Redox Reactions from the Sign of E Line
Chapter 21: Electrochemistry: Chemical Change and Electrical Work CHEM 1B: GENERAL CHEMISTRY Instructor: Dr. Orlando E. Raola Santa Rosa Junior College 21-1 Chapter 21 Electrochemistry: Chemical Change
Chapter Objectives Larry Brown Tom Holme Describe at least three types of corrosion and identify chemical reactions responsible for corrosion. www.cengage.com/chemistry/brown Chapter 13 Electrochemistry
http://redoxanswers.weebly.com REDOX LESSON LEARNING GOALS http://redoxanswers.weebly.com Lesson 1: Introduction to Redox Relate to examples of oxidation-reduction reactions in the real-world. Understand
Topic 19 Redox 19.1 Standard Electrode Potentials IB Chemistry T09D04 19.1 Standard Electrode Potentials 19.1.1 Describe the standard hydrogen electrode. (2) 19.1.2 Define the term standard electrode potential,
Oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions Reactions in which there are changes in oxidation state (oxidation number) between reactants and products 2 MnO 4- + 10 Br - + 16 H + 2 Mn 2+ + 5 Br 2 + 8 H 2 O One
Name AP CHEM / / Collected Essays Chapter 17 1980 - #2 M(s) + Cu 2+ (aq) M 2+ (aq) + Cu(s) For the reaction above, E = 0.740 volt at 25 C. (a) Determine the standard electrode potential for the reaction
Chapter 7 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions Chapter Map Oxidation Historically oxidation meant reacting with oxygen. 2Zn(s) + O 2 (g) 2ZnO(s) Zn Zn 2+ + 2e or 2Zn 2Zn 2+ + 4e O + 2e O 2 or O 2 + 4e 2O 2 Oxidation