# CHEM J-14 June 2014

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1 CHEM J-14 June 2014 An electrochemical cell consists of an Fe 2+ /Fe half cell with unknown [Fe 2+ ] and a Sn 2+ /Sn half-cell with [Sn 2+ ] = 1.10 M. The electromotive force (electrical potential) of the cell was measured at 25 C to be 0.35 V. What is the concentration of Fe 2+ in the Fe 2+ /Fe half-cell? 6 From the reduction potential table, E cell o (Fe 2+ (aq) + e Fe(s)) = V E cell o (Sn 2+ (aq) + e Sn 2+ (aq)) = V The Fe 2+ /Fe half cell has the more negative reduction potential so it is the half cell that is turned around to act as the oxidation half cell: E cell o (Fe(s) Fe 2+ (aq) + e ) = V In combination with the Sn 2+ /Sn reduction half cell, this gives an overall reaction and cell potential of: Fe(s) + Sn 2+ (aq) Fe 2+ (aq) + Sn(s) E o = ((+0.44) + (-0.136)) V = 0.30 V For this reaction with [Sn 2+ (aq)] = 1.10 M: Q = [Fe2! aq ] = [Fe2! aq ] [Sn 2! aq ] (1.10) For the 2e - reaction, the Nernst equation gives the cell potential as: E cell = E - RT nf lnq = (0.30 V) (8.314 J K!1 mol!1 )(298 K) ( C mol!1 ) Solving this gives, [Fe 2+ (aq)] = M. ln [Fe2+ aq ] (1.10) Answer: M Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction at 25 C. Using E o = (RT/nF) lnk: = 0.35 V 0.30 V = (8.314 J K!1 mol!1 )(298 K) ( C mol!1 ) lnk Solving this gives K = Answer: ANSWER CONTINUES ON THE NEXT PAGE

2 CHEM J-14 June 2014 Calculate the standard Gibbs free energy change for the reaction at 25 C. Using ΔG o = nfe o : ΔG o = -2 (96485 C mol -1 ) (0.30 V) = -59 kj mol -1 Answer: -59 kj mol -1

3 CHEM J-15 June 2014 A concentration cell is constructed from two beakers containing 1 M NiCl 2 and M NiCl 2. Describe the overall change that occurs as the concentration cell runs. 3 [Ni 2+ (aq)] will reduce in the more concentrated solution and Ni(s) will be deposited on the electrode. Simultaneously, [Ni 2+ (aq)] will increase in the less concentrated solution and the Ni(s) electrode will dissolve. What would be the major driving force for the overall reaction, enthalpy or entropy? Explain your answer. Entropy The overall enthalpy change of the reaction is zero. Maximum entropy is reached when the concentrations of the two cells are equal. THE REMAINDER OF THIS PAGE IS FOR ROUGH WORKING ONLY.

4 CHEM N-14 November 2014 An electrochemical cell consisting of a Ni 2+ /Ni half-cell with unknown [Ni 2+ ] and a Cu 2+ /Cu half-cell with [Cu 2+ ] = 2.5 M has a cell voltage of 0.64 V at 298 K. What is the initial concentration of Ni 2+ in the Ni 2+ /Ni half-cell? 6 From the reduction potential table, E cell o (Ni 2+ (aq) + e Ni(s)) = V E cell o (Cu 2+ (aq) + e Cu 2+ (aq)) = V The Ni 2+ /Ni half cell has the more negative reduction potential so it is the half cell that is turned around to act as the oxidation half cell: E cell o (Ni(s) Ni 2+ (aq) + e ) = V In combination with the Cu 2+ /Cu reduction half cell, this gives an overall reaction and cell potential of: Ni(s) + Cu 2+ (aq) Ni 2+ (aq) + Cu(s) E o = ((+0.24) + (0.34)) V = 0.58 V For this reaction with [Cu 2+ (aq)] = 2.5 M: Q = [Ni2! aq ] = [Ni2! aq ] [Cu 2! aq ] (2.5) For the 2e - reaction, the Nernst equation gives the cell potential as: E cell = E - RT nf lnq = (0.58 V) (8.314 J K!1 mol!1 )(298 K) ( C mol!1 ) ln [Ni2+ aq ] (2.5) = 0.64 V Solving this gives, [Ni 2+ (aq)] = M. Answer: M Calculate the equilibrium constant for the reaction at 25 C. Using E o = RT nf lnk: 0.58 V = (8.314 J K!1 mol!1 )(298 K) ( C mol!1 ) K = lnk Answer: ANSWER CONTINUES ON THE NEXT PAGE

5 CHEM N-14 November 2014 Calculate the standard Gibbs free energy change for the reaction at 25 C. Using ΔG o = -nfe o : ΔG o = - 2 (96485 C mol -1 ) (0.58 V) = -110 kj mol -1 Answer: +110 kj mol -1

6 CHEM N-16 November 2014 What is the voltage of a concentration cell constructed from two beakers containing 2.5 M CuSO 4 and M CuSO 4 at 298 K? 3 Answer: Explain the changes necessary for the cell to reach equilibrium. THE REMAINDER OF THIS PAGE IS FOR ROUGH WORKING ONLY.

7 CHEM N-14 November 2013 Balance the following redox reaction, which is carried out in an acidic solution. Working I + IO 3 I 2 3 IO 3 (aq) + 6H + (aq) + 5I (aq) 3I 2 (aq) + 3H 2 O(l) The unbalanced has I - being oxidised to I 2. This involves 1 e - as the oxidation number is changing from -1 in I - to 0 in I 2. The unbalanced equation has IO 3 - being reduced to I 2. This involves 5 e - as the oxidation number is changing from +5 in IO 3 - to 0 in I 2. To balance the oxidation and reduction processes, 5I - are therefore required. This gives a total charge of -6 on the left hand side (from IO 3 - and 5I - ) and no charged species on the right hand side. To balance the charges, 6H + are added to the left hand side. Note that the solution is acidic so there are H + in the solution. Lastly, there are now 6H and 3O on the left hand side so 3H 2 O is added to the right hand side to ensure atom balance.

8 CHEM N-15 November 2013 The following redox reaction occurs in a voltaic cell: 2Al(s) + Cr 2 O 7 2 (aq) + 14H + (aq) 2Al 3+ (aq) + 2Cr 3+ (aq) + 7H 2 O(l) Calculate the standard cell potential, E cell, for the cell at 25 C. 7 From the standard reduction potentials table: Al 3+ (aq) + 3e Al(s) Cr 2 O 2 7 (aq) + 14H + (aq) + 6e 2Cr 3+ (g) + 7H 2 O E red = 1.68 V E red = V In the reaction, the Al 3+ / Al half cell is reversed and is acting as the oxidation half cell with E ox = V. Hence: E cell = E ox + E red = (+1.68 V) + (1.36 V) = V Answer: V Calculate the cell potential, E cell, at 25 C when [Cr 2 O 7 2 (aq)] = M, [Al 3+ (aq)] = 0.55 M, [Cr 3+ (aq)] = 0.75 M and the ph is As ph = -log 10 [H + (aq)], when ph = 2.35, [H + (aq)] = The reaction involves transfer of 6 e - : n = 6. Using the Nernst equation for this reaction: E cell = E - RT nf lnq = E - RT nf ln Al3! 2 aq Cr 3! aq [Cr 2 O 2! 7 aq ] H! aq (8.314)(298 K) (0.55) 2 (0.75) 2 = (+3.04) ln (6)(96485) (7.2 10!5 )(10!2.35 ) 14 = V Answer: V What is the effect on the E cell of decreasing the concentration of Cr 2 O 7 2 in the cathode compartment? From the Nernst equation, decreasing [Cr 2 O 7 2- ] will increase Q and decrease E cell. In the concentration of this reactant is decreased, the reaction will shift slightly towards reactants and E cell will decrease. What is the effect on the E cell of adding a 0.35 M solution of Al(NO 3 ) 3 to the anode compartment? Adding a 0.35 M solution of Al 3+ to a 0.55 M solution of Al 3+ will increase the number of moles of Al 3+ but decrease the concentration. It is a dilution. This will reduce Q and increase E cell. In the concentration of this product is decreased, the reaction will shift slightly towards products and E cell will increase. 2 14

9 CHEM J-13 June 2012 Consider a voltaic cell in which oxidation of Cr to Cr 3+ by O 2 in the presence of acid occurs. Write the half-reaction that occurs at each electrode and the overall balanced redox reaction. Reaction at anode Reaction at cathode Overall balanced reaction Cr(s) à Cr 3+ (aq) + 3e - O 2 (g) + 4H + (aq) + 4e - à 2H 2 O(l) 4Cr(s) + 3O 2 (g) + 12H + (aq) à 4Cr 3+ (aq) + 6H 2 O(l) Is O 2 a stronger oxidizing agent under acidic or basic conditions? Give reasons for your answer. 3 2 Acidic. Increasing the concentration of H + (aq) will favour the products in the reaction. At standard conditions, [H + (aq)] = 1 M. From the Nernst equation, the potential depends on the H + (aq) as E cell = E - RT RT lnq = E - nf 12F ln 1 [H! aq ] 12 where [Cr 3+ (aq)] and P(O 2 ) have been taken to be standard conditions for simplicity. At low ph, [H + (aq)] is high so Q is small. The reduction potential is decreased so the oxidation potential is increased. At high ph, [H + (aq)] is low so Q is large. The reduction potential is increased so the oxidation potential is decreased. THE REMAINDER OF THIS PAGE IS FOR ROUGH WORKING ONLY

10 CHEM N-14 November 2012 The CrO 4 2 ion can oxidise the I 3 ion in acidic solution. The products of the reaction are Cr 3+ and I 2. Show the separate balanced half-equations for the oxidation and reduction as well as the net balanced redox equation. 3 Oxidation half-equation 2I 3 (aq) 3I 2 (aq) + 2e Reduction half-equation Balanced redox equation CrO 4 2 (aq) + 8H + + 3e Cr H 2 O(l) 2CrO 4 2 (aq) + 16H + + 6I 3 (aq) 2Cr H 2 O(l) + 9I 2 (aq) THE REMAINDER OF THIS PAGE IS FOR ROUGH WORKING ONLY.

11 CHEM J-12 June 2010 Hydrogen peroxide, H 2 O 2, can decompose to water and oxygen. Using the following redox potentials, determine whether this decomposition reaction is spontaneous or not. 2 H 2 O 2 + 2H + + 2e 2H 2 O E = 1.76 V O 2 + 2H + + 2e H 2 O 2 E = 0.70 V The decomposition reaction is: 2H 2 O 2 (l) 2H 2 O(l) + O 2 (g) This is combines the first half cell as the reduction half cell and the second half cell as the oxidation half cell: E = (+1.76 V) + (-0.70 V) = V As E > 0, the reaction is spontaneous.

12 CHEM N-12 November 2010 The following redox reaction occurs in a voltaic cell: 2Sc(s) + Cr 2 O 2 7 (aq) + 14H + (aq) 2Sc 3+ (aq) + 2Cr 3+ (aq) + 7H 2 O(l) Calculate the cell potential, E cell, at 25 C when [Cr 2 O 2 7 (aq)] = M, [Sc 3+ (aq)] = 0.35 M, [Cr 3+ (aq)] = 0.75 M and the ph is The standard cell potential, E cell, for this cell is 3.70 V. 6 Using ph = -log 10 [H + (aq), [H + (aq)] = M. The reaction involves transfer of 6 e -, as 2Sc 2Sc 3+, so n = 6. For the reaction, Q = = The cell potential is given by the Nernst equation:.... = E cell = E - lnq = (3.70 V). ln( ) = V Answer: V What is the effect on the E cell of decreasing the concentration of Cr 2 O 7 2 in the cathode compartment? This change will increase the value of Q and so E cell decreases. What is the effect on the E cell of adding a 0.35 M solution of Sc(NO 3 ) 3 to the anode compartment? This will not change [Sc 3+ (aq)] so there is no effect on the value of E cell.

13 CHEM J-15 June 2009 Consider the galvanic cell Zn(s) Zn 2+ (aq) Ag + (aq) Ag(s) with initial concentrations of [Zn 2+ ] = 1.00 M and [Ag + ] = 0.50 M. Draw the cell and clearly label which electrode is the anode and which electrode is the cathode. 6 Voltmeter Zn Salt Bridge Ag anode cathode 1.00 M M Ag + Write the equation for the reaction. Zn(s) + 2Ag + (aq) Zn 2+ (aq) + 2Ag(s) Calculate the cell potential at 298 K. The two half cells are: Zn(s) Zn 2+ (aq) + 2e - Ag + (aq) + e - Ag(s) E = V (reversed from reduction potential) E = V The standard cell potential is therefore, E = ( ) V = 1.56 V As the cell is working at non-standard concentrations, the Nernst equation must be used to work out the cell potential: E cell = E logq The reaction is a 2 electron process, n = 2, with Q =. The cell potential is thus: E cell = 1.56 V log = 1.54 V Answer: V ANSWER CONTINUES ON THE NEXT PAGE

14 CHEM J-15 June 2009 Is this a spontaneous voltaic cell? Give a reason for your answer. The cell is spontaneous as E > 0. As G = nfe, if E is positive then G must be negative. Reactions in which G < 0 are spontaneous.

15 CHEM N-13 November 2009 The measured potential of the following cell is V at 298 K. Ag(s) AgNO 3 (0.010 M) NaI (0.030 M) AgI(s) Ag(s) Calculate the standard cell potential and determine the equilibrium constant, K sp, for the following reaction at 298K. AgI(s) Ag + (aq) + I (aq) 4 The two half cell reactions are: Ag(s) Ag + (aq) + e - and AgI(s) + e - Ag(s) + I - (aq) The overall cell reaction is: AgI(s) Ag + (aq) + I - (aq) The cell potential is given by the Nernst equation: E cell = E logq The reaction is a 1 electron process, n = 1, with Q = Q sp = [Ag + (aq)][i - (aq)] As E cell = V, [Ag + (aq)] = M and [I - (aq)] = M: V = E log( ) E = V At equilibrium, E = 0 and E = logk sp: = logk sp K sp = E cell = V K sp = Circle the molecule in the following pairs that has the stronger intermolecular forces. Identify the types of forces present for the species selected. 2 molecule pair types of intermolecular forces H 2 or N 2 dispersion (more electrons in N 2 ) CH 3 Cl or CH 4 SO 2 or CO 2 dipole-dipole and dispersion (dipole present and more electrons in CH 3 Cl) dipole-dipole and dispersion (dipole present and more electrons in SO 2 ) H 2 O or H 2 S hydrogen bonding (only present in H 2 O)

16 CHEM N-14 November 2009 How does nitric oxide, NO(g), form in a car engine? What happens to the NO once emitted from the tailpipe? Make sure you include the appropriate chemical reactions in your answer. 2 NO(g) forms from the reaction of N 2 (g) with O 2 (g): N 2 (g) + O 2 (g) 2NO(g) ΔH = +180 kj mol 1 The formation of NO(g) is endothermic, so it is favoured at the high temperatures that exist in the car engine. The high temperatures also speed up the reaction. NO(g) reacts with oxygen in the atmosphere to give NO 2 (g). 2NO(g) + O 2 (g) 2NO 2 (g) Calculate the standard potential at 298 K of the following electrochemical cell. Cu(s) Cu 2+ (aq) Fe 3+ (aq), Fe 2+ (aq) Pt(s) 5 Data: Δ f H / (kj mol 1 ) S / (J K 1 mol 1 ) The reaction is: Fe 3+ (aq) Fe 2+ (aq) Cu 2+ (aq) Cu(s) Fe 3+ (aq) + Cu(s) 2Fe 2+ (aq) + Cu 2+ (aq) Using Δ rxn H = ΣmΔ f H (products) - ΣnΔ f H (reactants), Δ rxn H = [( ) ( )] kj mol -1 = -15 kj mol -1 Using Δ rxn S = ΣS (products) - ΣS (reactants), Δ rxn S = [( ) ( )] J K -1 mol -1 = 223 J K -1 mol -1 As Δ rxn G = Δ rxn H - TΔ rxn S, at T = 298 K: Δ rxn G = ( J mol -1 ) (298 K)(223 J K -1 mol -1 ) = J mol -1 The reaction is a 2 electron process as it involves Cu 2+ (aq) + 2e - Cu(s) and as Δ rxn G = -nfe : J mol -1 = -2 (96485 C mol -1 ) E E = V Answer: V

17 CHEM N-12 November 2008 In the chlor-alkali process, three useful products are formed, including two of the top ten chemicals. Write the overall reaction, identify the two top ten chemicals, and propose why the third useful product is not usually harnessed in this process. 3 2Cl (aq) + 2H 2 O(l) Cl 2 (g) + H 2 (g) + 2OH (aq) The two "top ten" chemicals produced are NaOH and Cl 2. H 2 is not harnessed as it is produced more cheaply in other ways. Explain why the Na + (aq) is not reduced to Na(s) in this process. Water is reduced preferentially. The reduction potentials are: 2H 2 O(l) + 2e H 2 (g) + 2OH (aq) E red = 0.83 V Na + (aq) + e Na(s) E red = 2.71 V Even with an overpotential, it is much easier to reduce water than Na + (aq). (An equivalent explanation is that if Na(s) were produced, it would react very readily with H 2 O to produce H 2 (g) and OH - (aq).)

18 CHEM N-15 November 2008 The standard dry cell (battery) has the following shorthand notation: Zn(s) Zn 2+ (aq) MnO 2 (s), Mn 2 O 3 (s) graphite(s) 6 Which component of the battery is the anode? Zn is being oxidized and hence this is the anode. Give the balanced half equation that takes place at the anode. Zn(s) Zn 2+ (aq) + 2e - Which component of the battery is the cathode? Graphite (an inert electrode). Give the balanced half equation that takes place at the cathode. 2MnO 2 (s) + 2H + (aq) + 2 e Mn 2 O 3 (s) + H 2 O(l) What is the role of the salt bridge in a voltaic cell and how is this accomplished? The salt bridge completes the circuit and thus allows electrical neutrality to be maintained. The flow of electrons from anode to cathode is countered by the flow of anions to the anode and the flow of cations to the cathode. This is accomplished by the ions in solution carrying the current. In a standard dry cell, NH 4 Cl is used: NH 4 + (aq) is the cation and Cl - (aq) is the anion.

19 CHEM J-11 June 2007 Give balanced ionic equations for the reactions that occur in each of the following cases. 3 Potassium metal is added to excess water. When added to water, potassium produces an alkaline solution and hydrogen gas which is ignited by the exothermicity of the reaction: 2K(s) + 2H 2 O(l) 2K + (aq) + 2OH (aq) + H 2 (g) Solutions of zinc nitrate and sodium phosphate are mixed. A white precipitate is produced (Table E2-3 in the Laboratory Manual). The zinc ion has a +2 charge and phosphate, PO 4 3-, has a -2 charge: 3Zn 2+ (aq) + 2PO 4 3 (aq) Zn 3 (PO 4 ) 2 (s) Solid strontium carbonate is dissolved in dilute nitric acid. Carbonates produce CO 2 (g) when treated with acid: SrCO 3 (s) + 2H + (aq) Sr 2+ (aq) + CO 2 (g) + H 2 O(l) Explain why the voltage of the lead acid battery (E = 2.05 V) decreases when it discharges, whereas the zinc/silver button battery (E = 1.6 V) does not. Pb(s), PbSO 4 (s) H + (aq), HSO 4 (aq) H + (aq), HSO 4 (aq) PbO 2 (s), PbSO 4 (s) Zn(s), ZnO(s) OH (aq) OH (aq) Ag 2 O(s), Ag(s) 2 The overall reaction for the zinc/silver button battery is: Zn(s) + Ag 2 O(s) ZnO(s) + 2Ag(s) All components are solids and hence do not enter in to equilibrium constant expression for the reaction or into the Nernst equation for the cell. The voltage will remain constant as concentrations of all products and reactants remains constant. In contrast, the overall reaction for the lead acid battery is: PbO 2 (s) + Pb(s) + 2H + (aq) + 2HSO 4 (aq) 2PbSO 4 (s) + 2H 2 O Here the concentrations of H + (aq) and HSO 4 (aq) decrease as the battery discharges and hence the voltage drops.

20 CHEM J-11 June 2006 Balance the following redox equation in acidic medium. HBrO 3 (aq) + Bi(s) HBrO 2 (aq) + Bi 2 O 3 (s) 4 3HBrO 3 (aq) + 2Bi(s) 3HBrO 2 (aq) + Bi 2 O 3 (s) In an acidic medium, the HBrO 3 (aq) will be the pre-dominant species rather than the conjugate base BrO 3 - (aq). Which species is the oxidizing agent? HBrO 3 Which element is reduced? Br What is the oxidation number of Br before the reaction? +V How many electrons does each Bi gain or lose? it loses 3 e - What is the role of the salt bridge in a voltaic cell and how is this accomplished? 4 The salt bridge completes the circuit by allowing electrical neutrality to be maintained via the movement of ions. How is this role achieved in the lead acid battery? The sulfuric acid solution provides H + and HSO 4 - ions to conduct the current. The reactants (Pb and PbO 2 ) and products (PbSO 4 ) are all solids so no physical separation other than initial placement is required.

21 CHEM J-11 June 2005 Calculate the standard electrochemical potential for the following reaction. 3Zn(s) + 2Cr 3+ (aq) 3Zn 2+ (aq) + 2Cr(s) 3 The half reactions and potentials are: Cr 3+ (aq) + 3e - Cr(s) Zn(s) Zn 2+ (aq) + 2e - E = 0.74 V E = 0.76 V (reversed for oxidation required) Hence, E = (( 0.74) + ( 0.76)) V = 0.02 V Answer: V Use the Nernst equation to calculate the relative cation concentrations at 298 K for which the cell potential, E = 0. The Nernst equation gives = 0 RT Ecell E log( Q). E cell = 0 when: nf 0 RT RT E = log( Q ) = log( Keq ) nf nf The ratio of cation concentrations is just Q = 2+ 3 [Zn (aq)] 2+ 2 [Cr (aq)]. The process involves 6e - so n = 6 and Q can be obtained using the E = 0.02 V: Q = 10 nfe RT =10 ( ) ( ) =100 Answer: 100 Fluorine and chlorine are both in Group 17. Briefly explain why HF exhibits hydrogen bonding but HCl does not. 2 Fluorine is more electronegative than chlorine so the H-F molecule is much more polar; the partial negative charge on F in HF is larger than that on Cl in HCl, as is the partial positive charge on H. This leads to a stronger H-bonding interaction. In addition, the smaller size of F allows closer approach between HF molecules and stronger interactions.

22 CHEM J-10 June 2004 The standard dry cell (battery) has the following shorthand notation: Zn(s) Zn 2+ (aq) MnO 2 (s), Mn 2 O 3 (s) graphite(s) 4 Which component of the battery is the anode? Zn(s) electrode Give the balanced half equation that takes place at the anode. Oxidation at the anode: Zn(s) Zn 2+ (aq) + 2e - Which component of the battery is the cathode? Graphite electrode Give the balanced half equation that takes place at the cathode. Reduction at the cathode: 2MnO 2 (s) + 2H + (aq) + 2e - Mn 2 O 3 + H 2 O(l)

23 CHEM N-8 November 2004 The mechanism of copper toxicity to aquatic organisms is unknown. Most theories attribute the toxicity to the Cu 2+ species because Cu + is unstable in aqueous solution. Given the half-reactions and half-cell potentials on the data page, show that it is electrochemically favourable for Cu + (aq) to react with itself to form Cu 2+ (aq) and Cu(s). 3 The reaction of interest is: 2Cu + (aq) Cu(s) + Cu 2+ (aq) It can be considered as a reduction of 2Cu + (aq) to make 2Cu(s), followed by the oxidation of one of the Cu(s) to make Cu 2+ (aq). The half cell reactions and potentials are: Cu + (aq) + e Cu(s) Cu(s) Cu 2+ (aq) + 2e E = V E = 0.34 V (reversed as oxidation required) Hence the reaction: 2Cu + (aq) Cu(s) + Cu 2+ (aq) has a cell potential E = ((+0.53) + ( 0.34)) V = V As E > 0, the reaction is spontaneous The Co 3+ ion is unstable in aqueous solution, but for a different reason to Cu + above. Using the table of reduction potentials on the data page, propose the reason why this might be so. 2 The Co 3+ / Co 2+ half cell is: Co 3+ (aq) + e - Co 2+ (aq) E =+1.82 V This is sufficiently positive to be able to oxidise water: 2H 2 O(l) O 2 (g) + 4H + (aq) + 4e - E = 1.23 V The overall reaction is: 4Co H 2 O(l) 4Co 2+ (aq) + O 2 (g) + 4H + (aq) The electrode potential is E = ((+1.82) + ( 1.23)) V = V As E > 0, the reaction is spontaneous

24 CHEM N-13 November 2004 A concentration cell is constructed of two hydrogen electrodes; one immersed in a solution with [H + ] = 1.0 M and the other in hydrochloric acid of unknown concentration. The observed cell potential was 0.25 V. What is the ph of the unknown hydrochloric acid? 3 The half cell is 2H + + 2e - H 2 for both electrodes so E = 0. The cell potential arises from the different [H + (aq)] concentrations in solutions a and b. The Nernst equation gives = 0 RT Ecell E log( Q) nf with E = 0, Q = + 2 [H (aq)] a + 2 [H (aq)] b and n = 2. Hence, -1-1 [H + (aq)] 2 (8.314 J K mol ) (298 K) E = log( a cell )= 0.25 V ( C mol -1 ) (1.0) 2 This gives, [H (aq)] a M. As ph = -log[h + (aq)], the ph = -log( ) = 4.2 Answer: 4.2 Consider the organic solvents ethanol (CH 3 CH 2 OH) and ether (CH 3 CH 2 OCH 2 CH 3 ). Which liquid will have the higher vapour pressure? Give a brief reason for your answer. 3 Ether: major intermolecular forces are dispersion forces and dipole-dipole forces. Ethanol: major intermolecular force is H-bonding. Ether has the weaker intermolecular forces and therefore has the lower boiling point and higher vapour pressure. Consider the liquids mercury and water. Which liquid will have the higher surface tension? Give a brief reason for your answer. Mercury: major intermolecular forces are metallic bonds. Water: major intermolecular force is H-bonding. Mercury has the stronger intermolecular forces and therefore has the greater surface tension.

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