Supplement of Evaluation of air soil temperature relationships simulated by land surface models during winter across the permafrost region

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1 Supplement of The Cryosphere, 0, 7 77, 06 doi:0.9/tc supplement Author(s) 06. CC Attribution.0 License. Supplement of Evaluation of air soil temperature relationships simulated by land surface models during winter across the permafrost region Wenli Wang et al. Correspondence to: Duoying Ji The copyright of individual parts of the supplement might differ from the CC-BY.0 licence.

2 Supplementary Tables SI Table. Climate data sets used to drive each model. Model Climate forcing data CLM. CRUNCEP CoLM Princeton ISBA WATCH (90-00) JULES WATCH (90-00) LPJ-GUESS CRU TS. MIROC-ESM CMIP Drivers, WATCH (90-978) ORCHIDEE WFDEI ( ) 6 UVic CRUNCEP, CRU 7, UDel 8 UW-VIC NCEP-NCAR 9 Viovy and Ciais (0) ( Sheffield et al. (006) ( Weedon et al. (0) ( Harris et al. (0), University of East Anglia Climate Research Unit Watanabe et al. (0) Mitchell and Jones (00) for temperature 8 Willmott and Matsura (00) for precipitation 9 Kalnay et al. (006) Harris, I., Jones, P.D., Osborn, T.J., and Lister, D.H.: Updated high-resolution grids of monthly climatic observations. Int. J. Clim., doi: 0.00/joc.7, 0. Kalnay, E. et al.: The NCEP Climate Forecast System. J. Clim., 9, 8.7, 006. Mitchell, T.D., and Jones, P.D.: An improved method of constructing a database of monthly climate observations and associated high-resolution grids, Int. J. Clim., (6), 69-7, doi: 0.00/joc.8, 00. Sheffield, J., Goteti, G., and Wood, E.F.: Development of a 0-yr high-resolution global dataset of meteorological forcings for land surface modeling, J. Clim., 9, 088-, 006. Viovy, N. and Ciais, P.: CRUNCEP data set for , Tech. Rep. Version, Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l Environnement, 078,, 0. Watanabe, S. et al.: MIROC-ESM 00: model description and basic results of CMIP-0cm experiments. Geosci. Model Dev.,, 8 87, doi:0.9/gmd--8-0, 0.

3 6 7 8 Weedon, G.P., Gomes, S., Viterbo, P., Shuttleworth, W.J., Blyth, E., Österle, H., Adam, J.C., Bellouin, N., Boucher, O., and Best, M.: Creation of the WATCH Forcing data and its use to assess global and regional reference crop evaporation over land during the twentieth century. J. Hydromet.,, 8-88, doi: 0.7/0JHM69., 0. Willmott, C.J., and Matsuura, K.: Terrestrial air temperature and precipitation: monthly and annual time series (90-999) (version.0), Center for Climate Research, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, 00.

4 SI Table. Russian-station-location averaged error statistics for air temperature ( C ) and precipitation (mm/d) for winter For each variable, the maximum available number of observations (n) is used. meanobs and stdevobs are the station-observed mean and interannual variability (standard deviation), while stdev is the standard deviations of each model. Both, air temperature and precipitation are from the climate forcing data sets for all models, except for MIROC-ESM which simulates both. BIAS is the mean error model minus observation, RMSE is the root-mean-square error, and both represent biases in the climate forcing compared to the station observations (except for MIROC-ESM). Air temperature (n=8) mean obs= -6. C stdev obs=. C Precipitation (n=) mean obs=0.89 mm/d stdev obs=0. mm/d BIAS RMSE stdev BIAS RMSE stdev CLM CoLM ISBA JULES LPJ-GUESS MIROC-ESM ORCHIDEE UVic UW-VIC

5 Supplementary Figures SI Figure.Histogram of seasonal winter mean snow depth from 68 Russian stations between

6 6 7 SI Figure.Variation of ΔT ( C ) (the difference between soil temperature at 0 cm depth and air temperature) with snow depth (cm) for winter The dots represent the medians of cm snow depth bins and the upper and lower bars indicate the th and 7 th percentiles, calculated from all Russian station grid points (n=68) and individual winters. Color represents two different air temperature regimes (redish: - C<AirT - C, blueish: AirT - C) for early (Nov.-Dec.; ND) and late (Jan.-Feb.; JF) winter.

7 6 SI Figure.Spatial maps of the correlation coefficients between soil temperature at 0 cm depth and air temperature for winter Regions with greater than 9% significance are hashed. 6

8 7 SI Figure.Spatial maps of the correlation coefficients between soil temperature at 0 cm depth and snow depth for winter Regions with greater than 9% significance are hashed. 7

9 8 SI Figure. Spatial maps of mean air temperature ( C) for winter

10 9 SI Figure 6. Spatial maps of mean precipitation (mm/d) for winter

11 0 SI Figure 7. Spatial maps of snow fall (mm/d) for winter

12 SI Figure 8. Spatial maps of ΔT ( C ) (difference between soil temperature at 0 cm depth and air temperature) for winter

13 SI Figure 9. Spatial maps of snow density (kg m - ) (calculated by the quotient of snow water equivalent and snow depth, if not directly output) for winter