# A100 Exploring the Universe Big Bang Theory and the Early Universe. Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy

Save this PDF as:
Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "A100 Exploring the Universe Big Bang Theory and the Early Universe. Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy"

## Transcription

1 A100 Exploring the Universe and the Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy December 02, 2014 Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 1

2 Assignment on Chaps 22 23, at the end of next week, is optional and will count as extra credit Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 2

3 Assignment on Chaps 22 23, at the end of next week, is optional and will count as extra credit Exam 3 on Thursday 4 Dec Covers Chapters Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 2

4 Assignment on Chaps 22 23, at the end of next week, is optional and will count as extra credit Exam 3 on Thursday 4 Dec Covers Chapters Final exam: Hasbrouck 20 (here!) on Thursday 11 December at 1:00pm Covers everything in the course Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 2

5 Assignment on Chaps 22 23, at the end of next week, is optional and will count as extra credit Exam 3 on Thursday 4 Dec Covers Chapters Final exam: Hasbrouck 20 (here!) on Thursday 11 December at 1:00pm Covers everything in the course The implied history of the universe Bang theory? Evidence for the Big Bang theory? Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 2

6 Assignment on Chaps 22 23, at the end of next week, is optional and will count as extra credit Exam 3 on Thursday 4 Dec Covers Chapters Final exam: Hasbrouck 20 (here!) on Thursday 11 December at 1:00pm Covers everything in the course The implied history of the universe Bang theory? Evidence for the Big Bang theory? Questions? Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 2

7 Extrapolate the expansion back in time The Universe is current expanding. Imagine reversing the arrow of time so that the Universe is then contracting... What happens? Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 3

8 Extrapolate the expansion back in time The Universe is current expanding. Imagine reversing the arrow of time so that the Universe is then contracting... What happens? The density increases. The temperature increases. Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 3

9 Extrapolate the expansion back in time The Universe is current expanding. Imagine reversing the arrow of time so that the Universe is then contracting... What happens? The density increases. The temperature increases. Universe becomes ionized, like the inside of a star Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 3

10 Extrapolate the expansion back in time The Universe is current expanding. Imagine reversing the arrow of time so that the Universe is then contracting... What happens? The density increases. The temperature increases. Universe becomes ionized, like the inside of a star As we keep going, fusion may occur. Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 3

11 Extrapolate the expansion back in time The Universe is current expanding. Imagine reversing the arrow of time so that the Universe is then contracting... What happens? The density increases. The temperature increases. Universe becomes ionized, like the inside of a star As we keep going, fusion may occur. Still later, the temperatures get so high that the baryons break up into constituent sub-particles (quarks). Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 3

12 Extrapolate the expansion back in time The Universe is current expanding. Imagine reversing the arrow of time so that the Universe is then contracting... What happens? The density increases. The temperature increases. Universe becomes ionized, like the inside of a star As we keep going, fusion may occur. Still later, the temperatures get so high that the baryons break up into constituent sub-particles (quarks).???? Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 3

13 Extrapolate the expansion back in time The Universe is current expanding. Imagine reversing the arrow of time so that the Universe is then contracting... What happens? The density increases. The temperature increases. Universe becomes ionized, like the inside of a star As we keep going, fusion may occur. Still later, the temperatures get so high that the baryons break up into constituent sub-particles (quarks).???? Realm of the Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 3

14 Extrapolate the expansion back in time Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 4

15 The early universe must have been extremely hot and dense Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 5

16 Photons converted into particle-antiparticle pairs and vice-versa E = mc 2 Early universe was full of particles and radiation because of its high temperature Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 6

17 Unification of fundamental physical forces Four known forces in Universe: (1) Strong Force (2) Electromagnetism (3) Weak Force (4) Gravity Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 7

18 Unification Do the forces unify at high temperatures? Four known forces in the Universe: (1) Strong Force (2) Electromagnetism (3) Weak Force (4) Gravity Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 8

19 Unification Do the forces unify at high temperatures? Four known forces in the Universe: (1) Strong Force (2) Electromagnetism (3) Weak Force (4) Gravity Electroweak (Yes!) Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 8

20 Unification Do the forces unify at high temperatures? Four known forces in the Universe: (1) Strong Force (2) Electromagnetism (3) Weak Force (4) Gravity Electroweak (Yes!) GUT (Maybe) Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 8

21 Unification Do the forces unify at high temperatures? Four known forces in the Universe: (1) Strong Force (2) Electromagnetism (3) Weak Force (4) Gravity Electroweak (Yes!) GUT (Maybe) String theory (???) Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 8

22 Particle colliders attempt to create early-universe conditions Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 9

23 Running the clock forward from the beginning... Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 10

24 1. Planck Era 2. GUT Era Before Planck time ( sec) No theory of quantum gravity Lasts from Planck time ( sec) to end of GUT force ( sec) 3. Electroweak Era Lasts from end of GUT force ( sec) to end of electroweak force ( sec) Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 11

25 4. Particle Era Matter and antimatter nearly equal 1 extra proton for 10 9 protonantiproton 5. Era of Begins when matter annihilates remaining antimatter at sec Nuclei begin to fuse 6. Era of Nuclei Helium nuclei form at this age 3 minutes Universe too cool to blast helium apart Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 12

26 7. Era of Atoms Atoms form at age 380,000 years Background radiation released 8. Era of Galaxies Galaxies form at age 1 billion years Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 13

27 Evidence for the Big Bang The Evidence Detected the leftover radiation from the Big Bang! Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 14

28 Evidence for the Big Bang The Evidence Detected the leftover radiation from the Big Bang! Radiation from the last photon scattering with matter (like photosphere of star) Radiation from this epoch will shift to larger wavelength as Universe expands Black body temperature radiation will decrease Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 14

29 Evidence for the Big Bang The Evidence Detected the leftover radiation from the Big Bang! 2. The Big Bang theory correctly predicts the abundance of helium and other light elements. Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 14

30 Evidence for the Big Bang The Evidence Detected the leftover radiation from the Big Bang! 2. The Big Bang theory correctly predicts the abundance of helium and other light elements. Observed helium abundance too large to be the result of supernovae Extrapolate backwards in time At some point: Universe as hot as star center Fuse H to He! Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 14

31 Universe now consists of protons and electrons (some He,... ): ionized H Universe continues to expand and cool At t = 300,000 years with T = 3000K: Photons no longer sufficiently energetic to keep H ionized Atoms form! Universe becomes transparent! Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 15

32 Background radiation from Big Bang has been freely streaming across Universe since atoms formed at temperature 3,000 K: visible/ir Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 16

33 Cosmic Microwave Background: Discovery CMB = Cosmic Microwave Background Engineers designed first microwave satellite uplink Signal independent of pointing antenna Assumed additional noise in their receivers that they could not understand Discovered relic cosmic radiation: T=2.73 K Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 17

34 Cosmic Background Explorer The microwave background is a precise blackbody! Expansion of universe has redshifted thermal radiation from that time to 1000 times longer wavelength: microwaves Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 18

35 Cosmic Background Explorer The microwave background is a precise blackbody! Temperature profile close to isotropic but not quite Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 18

36 BB temperature on the sky WMAP gives us detailed baby pictures of structure in the universe Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 19

37 Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 20

38 Abundance of the elements Protons and neutrons combined to make long-lasting helium nuclei when universe was 3 minutes old Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 21

39 Abundance of the elements Big Bang theory prediction: 75% H, 25% He (by mass) Matches observations of nearly primordial gases Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 22

40 Abundance of the elements Abundances of other light elements agree with Big Bang model having 4.4% normal matter more evidence for WIMPS! Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 23

41 : How do we observe the radiation left over from the Big Bang? Radiation left over from the Big Bang is now in the form of microwaves the cosmic microwave background which we can observe with a radio telescope. How do the abundances of elements support the Big Bang theory? Observations of helium and other light elements agree with the predictions for fusion in the Big Bang theory Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 24

42 Cosmological problems 1. Horizon or Isotropy problem Microwave background is extremely uniform But, photons reaching us today were emitted beyond their particle horizon Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 25

43 Cosmological problems 1. Horizon or Isotropy problem Microwave background is extremely uniform But, photons reaching us today were emitted beyond their particle horizon 2. Flatness problem: why is Ω o = 1? Unlikely to be random Must be a physical cause Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 25

44 of the Universe The Universe is flat with only a 0.4% margin of error This implies an infinite volume The Universe is much larger than the volume we can directly observe Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 26

45 ary Universe Rapid period of expansion: Lasted sec Scale factor R(t) increased by factor of Speculation: some change in the nature of physical laws created large amount of energy Like latent heat from in freezing water to ice Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 27

46 ary Universe Rapid period of expansion: Lasted sec Scale factor R(t) increased by factor of Speculation: some change in the nature of physical laws created large amount of energy Like latent heat from in freezing water to ice Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 27

### A100H Exploring the Universe: Big Bang Theory. Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy

A100H Exploring the : Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy astron100h-mdw@courses.umass.edu April 21, 2016 Read: Chap 23 04/26/16 slide 1 Early Final Exam: Friday 29 Apr at 10:30 am 12:30 pm, here! Emphasizes

### The Big Bang The Beginning of Time

The Big Bang The Beginning of Time What were conditions like in the early universe? The early universe must have been extremely hot and dense Photons converted into particle-antiparticle pairs and vice-versa

### Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time. Agenda. Presentation Tips. What were conditions like in the early universe? 23.1 The Big Bang.

Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time Agenda Announce: Observation April 19 Thursday 8pm APS Meeting April 17 no class (instead Fate of the Universe tutorial Presentation Tips Ch. 23 Presentation Tips Limit

### OUSSEP Final Week. If we run out of time you can look at uploaded slides Pearson Education, Inc.

OUSSEP Final Week Last week hopefully read Holiday-Week 23rd November Lecture notes Hand in your Hubble Deep Field Reports today! (If not today then in my mail box @ International College.) Today we will

### Cosmology. Big Bang and Inflation

Cosmology Big Bang and Inflation What is the Universe? Everything we can know about is part of the universe. Everything we do know about is part of the universe. Everything! The Universe is expanding If

### What is the evidence that Big Bang really occurred

What is the evidence that Big Bang really occurred Hubble expansion of galaxies Microwave Background Abundance of light elements but perhaps most fundamentally... Darkness of the night sky!! The very darkness

### Hubble s Law. Our goals for learning. What is Hubble s Law? How do distance measurements tell us the age of the universe?

Hubble s Law Our goals for learning What is Hubble s Law? How do distance measurements tell us the age of the universe? How does the universe s expansion affect our distance measurements? We measure speeds

### ASTR 101 General Astronomy: Stars & Galaxies

ASTR 101 General Astronomy: Stars & Galaxies ANNOUNCEMENTS FINAL EXAM: THURSDAY, May 14 th, 11:15am Last Astronomy public talk, May 8 th (up to 3% Extra class credit (see Blackboard announcement for details)

### The Beginning of the Universe 8/11/09. Astronomy 101

The Beginning of the Universe 8/11/09 Astronomy 101 Astronomy Picture of the Day Astronomy 101 Outline for Today Astronomy Picture of the Day Return Lab 11 Astro News Q&A Session Dark Energy Cosmic Microwave

### Early (Expanding) Universe. Average temperature decreases with expansion.

Early (Expanding) Universe Average temperature decreases with expansion. Particles & Anti-Particles Very short wavelength photons collide and form electron-positron pairs. E=mc 2 electron=matter positron=antimatter

### Assignments. Read all (secs ) of DocOnotes-cosmology. HW7 due today; accepted till Thurs. w/ 5% penalty

Assignments Read all (secs. 25-29) of DocOnotes-cosmology. HW7 due today; accepted till Thurs. w/ 5% penalty Term project due last day of class, Tues. May 17 Final Exam Thurs. May 19, 3:30 p.m. here Olber

### Chapter 22 Lecture. The Cosmic Perspective. Seventh Edition. The Birth of the Universe Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 22 Lecture The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition The Birth of the Universe The Birth of the Universe 22.1 The Big Bang Theory Our goals for learning: What were conditions like in the early universe?

### The Contents of the Universe (or/ what do we mean by dark matter and dark energy?)

The Contents of the Universe (or/ what do we mean by dark matter and dark energy?) Unseen Influences Dark Matter: An undetected form of mass that emits little or no light but whose existence we infer from

### Chapter 22 Back to the Beginning of Time

Chapter 22 Back to the Beginning of Time Expansion of Universe implies dense, hot start: Big Bang Back to the Big Bang The early Universe was both dense and hot. Equivalent mass density of radiation (E=mc

### ASTR 1120 General Astronomy: Stars & Galaxies. OUR Universe: Accelerating Universe

ASTR 1120 General Astronomy: Stars & Galaxies FINAL: Saturday, Dec 12th, 7:30pm, HERE ALTERNATE FINAL: Monday, Dec 7th, 5:30pm in Muenzinger E131 Last OBSERVING session, Tue, Dec.8th, 7pm Please check

### Lecture 24: Cosmology: The First Three Minutes. Astronomy 111 Monday November 27, 2017

Lecture 24: Cosmology: The First Three Minutes Astronomy 111 Monday November 27, 2017 Reminders Last star party of the semester tomorrow night! Online homework #11 due Monday at 3pm The first three minutes

### Chapter 22: Cosmology - Back to the Beginning of Time

Chapter 22: Cosmology - Back to the Beginning of Time Expansion of Universe implies dense, hot start: Big Bang Future of universe depends on the total amount of dark and normal matter Amount of matter

### Hubble's Law. H o = 71 km/s / Mpc. The further a galaxy is away, the faster it s moving away from us. V = H 0 D. Modern Data.

Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the origin and evolution of the Universe, addressing the grandest issues: How "big" is the Universe? Does it have an "edge"? What is its large-scale structure? How did

### ASTR 101 General Astronomy: Stars & Galaxies

ASTR 101 General Astronomy: Stars & Galaxies ANNOUNCEMENTS MIDTERM III: Tuesday, Nov 24 th Midterm alternate day: Fri, Nov 20th, 11am, ESS 450 At LAST: In the very Beginning BIG BANG: beginning of Time

### Astronomy 114. Lecture35:TheBigBang. Martin D. Weinberg. UMass/Astronomy Department

Astronomy 114 Lecture35:TheBigBang Martin D. Weinberg weinberg@astro.umass.edu UMass/Astronomy Department A114: Lecture 35 09 May 2005 Read: Ch. 28,29 Astronomy 114 1/18 Announcements PS#8 due Monday!

### Lecture 17: the CMB and BBN

Lecture 17: the CMB and BBN As with all course material (including homework, exams), these lecture notes are not be reproduced, redistributed, or sold in any form. Peering out/back into the Universe As

### Galaxy A has a redshift of 0.3. Galaxy B has a redshift of 0.6. From this information and the existence of the Hubble Law you can conclude that

Galaxy A has a redshift of 0.3. Galaxy B has a redshift of 0.6. From this information and the existence of the Hubble Law you can conclude that A) Galaxy B is two times further away than Galaxy A. B) Galaxy

### Lecture 36: The First Three Minutes Readings: Sections 29-1, 29-2, and 29-4 (29-3)

Lecture 36: The First Three Minutes Readings: Sections 29-1, 29-2, and 29-4 (29-3) Key Ideas Physics of the Early Universe Informed by experimental & theoretical physics Later stages confirmed by observations

### Planetarium/Observing: the clock is ticking! Don t forget to fill out your Planetarium/ Observing impression online.

Announcements HW #5 Due Wed, Dec. 10th. Planetarium/Observing: the clock is ticking! Don t forget to fill out your Planetarium/ Observing impression online. NOTE: Planetarium: Large dome you sit inside.

### Tuesday, Thursday 2:30-3:45 pm. Astronomy 100. Tom Burbine

Astronomy 100 Tuesday, Thursday 2:30-3:45 pm Tom Burbine tburbine@mtholyoke.edu www.xanga.com/astronomy100 Schedule Today (end and beginning of the universe) May 3 (Does Life Exist Elsewhere in the Universe)

### Lecture 19 Big Bang Nucleosynthesis

Lecture 19 Big Bang Nucleosynthesis As with all course material (including homework, exams), these lecture notes are not be reproduced, redistributed, or sold in any form. The CMB as seen by the WMAP satellite.!2

### The first 400,000 years

The first 400,000 years All about the Big Bang Temperature Chronology of the Big Bang The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) The VERY early universe Our Evolving Universe 1 Temperature and the Big Bang

### Lab Monday optional: review for Quiz 3. Lab Tuesday optional: review for Quiz 3.

Announcements SEIs! Quiz 3 Friday. Lab Monday optional: review for Quiz 3. Lab Tuesday optional: review for Quiz 3. Lecture today, Wednesday, next Monday. Final Labs Monday & Tuesday next week. Quiz 3

### Chapter 27 The Early Universe Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 27 The Early Universe Units of Chapter 27 27.1 Back to the Big Bang 27.2 The Evolution of the Universe More on Fundamental Forces 27.3 The Formation of Nuclei and Atoms 27.4 The Inflationary Universe

### What forms AGN Jets? Magnetic fields are ferociously twisted in the disk.

What forms AGN Jets? Magnetic fields are ferociously twisted in the disk. Charged particles are pulled out of the disk and accelerated like a sling-shot. Particles are bound to the magnetic fields, focussed

### Lecture #25: Plan. Cosmology. The early Universe (cont d) The fate of our Universe The Great Unanswered Questions

Lecture #25: Plan Cosmology The early Universe (cont d) The fate of our Universe The Great Unanswered Questions Announcements Course evaluations: CourseEvalUM.umd.edu Review sheet #3 was emailed to you

### The Expanding Universe

Cosmology Expanding Universe History of the Universe Cosmic Background Radiation The Cosmological Principle Cosmology and General Relativity Dark Matter and Dark Energy Primitive Cosmology If the universe

### The Early Universe. 1. Inflation Theory: The early universe expanded enormously in a brief instance in time.

The Early Universe The Early Universe 1. Inflation Theory: The early universe expanded enormously in a brief instance in time. 2. The fundamental forces change during the first second after the big bang.

### What is the 'cosmological principle'?

What is the 'cosmological principle'? Modern cosmology always starts from this basic assumption the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic. This idea seems strange there's empty space between me and the

### Lecture 32: Astronomy 101

Lecture 32: Evidence for the Big Bang Astronomy 101 The Three Pillars of the Big Bang Threefundamental pieces of evidence: Expansion of the Universe: Explains Hubble s Law Primordial Nucleosynthesis: Formation

### Chapter 27: The Early Universe

Chapter 27: The Early Universe The plan: 1. A brief survey of the entire history of the big bang universe. 2. A more detailed discussion of each phase, or epoch, from the Planck era through particle production,

### Inflationary Universe and. Quick survey about iclickers Review of Big Bang model of universe Review of Evidence for Big Bang Examining Inflation

Inflationary Universe and Quick survey about iclickers Review of Big Bang model of universe Review of Evidence for Big Bang Examining Inflation Survey questions 1. The iclickers used in class encouraged

### Survey questions. Inflationary Universe and. Survey Questions. Survey questions. Survey questions

Inflationary Universe and Quick survey about iclickers Review of Big Bang model of universe Review of Evidence for Big Bang Examining Inflation Survey questions 1. The iclickers used in class encouraged

### Chapter 22 Reading Quiz Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. The Birth of the Universe Pearson Education, Inc.

Reading Quiz Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition The Birth of the Universe 22.1 The Big Bang Theory What were conditions like in the early universe? How did the early universe change with time?

### i>clicker Quiz #14 Which of the following statements is TRUE?

i>clicker Quiz #14 Which of the following statements is TRUE? A. Hubble s discovery that most distant galaxies are receding from us tells us that we are at the center of the Universe B. The Universe started

### Astr 2320 Thurs. May 7, 2015 Today s Topics Chapter 24: New Cosmology Problems with the Standard Model Cosmic Nucleosynthesis Particle Physics Cosmic

Astr 2320 Thurs. May 7, 2015 Today s Topics Chapter 24: New Cosmology Problems with the Standard Model Cosmic Nucleosynthesis Particle Physics Cosmic Inflation Galaxy Formation 1 Chapter 24: #3 Chapter

### Astronomy 113. Dr. Joseph E. Pesce, Ph.D. The Big Bang & Matter. Olber s Paradox. Cosmology. Olber s Paradox. Assumptions 4/20/18

Astronomy 113 Dr. Joseph E. Pesce, Ph.D. The Big Bang & Matter Cosmology ³The study of the origins, structure, and evolution of the universe ³Key moments: ²Einstein General Theory of Relativity ²Hubble

### Astronomy 113. Dr. Joseph E. Pesce, Ph.D Joseph E. Pesce, Ph.D.

Astronomy 113 Dr. Joseph E. Pesce, Ph.D. The Big Bang & Matter 17-2 Cosmology ³ The study of the origins, structure, and evolution of the universe ³ Key moments: ² Einstein General Theory of Relativity

### Cosmology. An Analogy 11/28/2010. Cosmology Study of the origin, evolution and future of the Universe

Cosmology Cosmology Study of the origin, evolution and future of the Universe Obler s Paradox If the Universe is infinite why is the sky dark at night? Newtonian Universe The Universe is infinite and unchanging

### Cosmology: Building the Universe.

Cosmology: Building the Universe. The term has several different meanings. We are interested in physical cosmology - the study of the origin and development of the physical universe, and all the structure

### Chapter 17 Cosmology

Chapter 17 Cosmology Over one thousand galaxies visible The Universe on the Largest Scales No evidence of structure on a scale larger than 200 Mpc On very large scales, the universe appears to be: Homogenous

### Chapter 21 Evidence of the Big Bang. Expansion of the Universe. Big Bang Theory. Age of the Universe. Hubble s Law. Hubble s Law

Chapter 21 Evidence of the Big Bang Hubble s Law Universal recession: Slipher (1912) and Hubble found that all galaxies seem to be moving away from us: the greater the distance, the higher the redshift

### Lecture #24: Plan. Cosmology. Expansion of the Universe Olber s Paradox Birth of our Universe

Lecture #24: Plan Cosmology Expansion of the Universe Olber s Paradox Birth of our Universe Reminder: Redshifts and the Expansion of the Universe Early 20 th century astronomers noted: Spectra from most

### The slides with white background you need to know. The slides with blue background just have some cool information.

The slides with white background you need to know. The slides with blue background just have some cool information. The Big Bang cosmology the study of the origin, properties, processes, and evolution

### Astronomy 182: Origin and Evolution of the Universe

Astronomy 182: Origin and Evolution of the Universe Prof. Josh Frieman Lecture 11 Nov. 13, 2015 Today Cosmic Microwave Background Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Assignments This week: read Hawley and Holcomb,

### Homework 6 Name: Due Date: June 9, 2008

Homework 6 Name: Due Date: June 9, 2008 1. Where in the universe does the general expansion occur? A) everywhere in the universe, including our local space upon Earth, the solar system, our galaxy and

### Implications of the Hubble Law: - it is not static, unchanging - Universe had a beginning!! - could not have been expanding forever HUBBLE LAW:

Cosmology and the Evolution of the Universe Edwin Hubble, 1929: -almost all galaxies have a redshift -moving away from us -greater distance greater redshift Implications of the Hubble Law: - Universe is

### Cosmology and the Evolution of the Universe. Implications of the Hubble Law: - Universe is changing (getting bigger!) - it is not static, unchanging

Cosmology and the Evolution of the Edwin Hubble, 1929: -almost all galaxies have a redshift -moving away from us -exceptions in Local Group -with distance measurements - found a relationship greater distance

### The Cosmic Microwave Background

The Cosmic Microwave Background Class 22 Prof J. Kenney June 26, 2018 The Cosmic Microwave Background Class 22 Prof J. Kenney November 28, 2016 Cosmic star formation history inf 10 4 3 2 1 0 z Peak of

### Astronomy 162, Week 10 Cosmology Patrick S. Osmer Spring, 2006

Astronomy 162, Week 10 Cosmology Patrick S. Osmer Spring, 2006 Information Makeup quiz Wednesday, May 31, 5-6PM, Planetarium Review Session, Monday, June 5 6PM, Planetarium Cosmology Study of the universe

### Astronomy 182: Origin and Evolution of the Universe

Astronomy 182: Origin and Evolution of the Universe Prof. Josh Frieman Lecture 10 Nov. 11, 2015 Today Hot Big Bang I: Cosmic Microwave Background Assignments This week: read Hawley and Holcomb, Chapter

### BIG BANG SUMMARY NOTES

BIG BANG SUMMARY NOTES BIG BANG THEORY Studies of red-shifts of distant galaxies show that the universe is expanding. This and other observations has led to the Big Bang Theory The Big Bang Theory claims

### Announcements. Homework. Set 8now open. due late at night Friday, Dec 10 (3AM Saturday Nov. 11) Set 7 answers on course web site.

Homework. Set 8now. due late at night Friday, Dec 10 (3AM Saturday Nov. 11) Set 7 answers on course web site. Review for Final. In class on Thursday. Course Evaluation. https://rateyourclass.msu.edu /

### John Ellison University of California, Riverside. Quarknet 2008 at UCR

Overview of Particle Physics John Ellison University of California, Riverside Quarknet 2008 at UCR 1 Particle Physics What is it? Study of the elementary constituents of matter And the fundamental forces

### The best evidence so far in support of the Big Bang theory is:

Notes about the final exam: Saturday May 17th, 7:45 AM-9:45 AM Chamberlain 2103 If you have a CONFLICT email me or Ella before the end of this week. No excuses accepted after exam. Comprehensive, covering

### Formation of the Universe. What evidence supports current scientific theory?

Formation of the Universe What evidence supports current scientific theory? Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the Nature, Structure, Origin, And fate of the universe. How did it all begin? Astronomers

### Earlier in time, all the matter must have been squeezed more tightly together and a lot hotter AT R=0 have the Big Bang

Re-cap from last lecture Discovery of the CMB- logic From Hubble s observations, we know the Universe is expanding This can be understood theoretically in terms of solutions of GR equations Earlier in

### Katsushi Arisaka University of California, Los Angeles Department of Physics and Astronomy

11/14/12 Katsushi Arisaka 1 Katsushi Arisaka University of California, Los Angeles Department of Physics and Astronomy arisaka@physics.ucla.edu Seven Phases of Cosmic Evolution 11/14/12 Katsushi Arisaka

### Ay1 Lecture 18. The Early Universe and the Cosmic Microwave Background

Ay1 Lecture 18 The Early Universe and the Cosmic Microwave Background 18.1 Basic Ideas, and the Cosmic Microwave background The Key Ideas Pushing backward in time towards the Big Bang, the universe was

### Chapter 18. Cosmology in the 21 st Century

Chapter 18 Cosmology in the 21 st Century Guidepost This chapter marks a watershed in our study of astronomy. Since Chapter 1, our discussion has focused on learning to understand the universe. Our outward

### Introduction. How did the universe evolve to what it is today?

Cosmology 8 1 Introduction 8 2 Cosmology: science of the universe as a whole How did the universe evolve to what it is today? Based on four basic facts: The universe expands, is isotropic, and is homogeneous.

### Where we left off last time...

Where we left off last time... The Planck Era is pure speculation about topics that are being explored in detail today (gravity, string theory, etc.) The GUT era matches what physicists see in particle

### Astronomy 122 Outline

Astronomy 122 Outline This Class (Lecture 26): The Primeval Fireball Next Class: Dark Matter & Dark Energy ICES Form!!! HW10 due Friday Hubble s Law implications An expanding Universe! Run in movie in

### 2. The evolution and structure of the universe is governed by General Relativity (GR).

7/11 Chapter 12 Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the origin, evolution, and structure of the universe. We start with two assumptions: 1. Cosmological Principle: On a large enough scale (large compared

### Modeling the Universe A Summary

Modeling the Universe A Summary Questions to Consider 1. What does the darkness of the night sky tell us about the nature of the universe? 2. As the universe expands, what, if anything, is it expanding

### Cosmology. Jörn Wilms Department of Physics University of Warwick.

Cosmology Jörn Wilms Department of Physics University of Warwick http://astro.uni-tuebingen.de/~wilms/teach/cosmo Contents 2 Old Cosmology Space and Time Friedmann Equations World Models Modern Cosmology

### ASTRONOMY 5 Final Exam Spring 2001 (Edited for questions relevant to Astronomy Final)

ASTRONOMY 5 Final Exam Spring 2001 (Edited for questions relevant to Astronomy 5 2007 Final) Follow the directions in each section. Write all answers on this examination paper. Feel free to ask for clarification

### Cosmology: The History of the Universe

Cosmology: The History of the Universe The Universe originated in an explosion called the Big Bang. Everything started out 13.7 billion years ago with zero size and infinite temperature. Since then, it

### a)! 0-10 miles b)! miles c)! miles d)! miles

How far away from this classroom will you be for Thanksgiving? a)! 0-10 miles b)! 10-100 miles c)! 100-1000 miles d)! 1000+ miles This Class (Lecture 33): The Early Universe HW 11 due on Dec 5 th Music:

### Matter vs. Antimatter in the Big Bang. E = mc 2

Matter vs. Antimatter in the Big Bang Threshold temperatures If a particle encounters its corresponding antiparticle, the two will annihilate: particle + antiparticle ---> radiation * Correspondingly,

### Exploring the Early Universe. Chapter Twenty-Nine. Guiding Questions. The Isotropy Problem

Exploring the Early Universe Chapter Twenty-Nine Guiding Questions 1. Has the universe always expanded as it does today, or might it have suddenly inflated? 2. How did the fundamental forces of nature

### v = H o d Hubble s Law: Distant galaxies move away fastest Velocity (v) is proportional to Distance (d):

Hubble s Law: Distant galaxies move away fastest Velocity (v) is proportional to Distance (d): v = H o d The Hubble Constant was measured after decades of observation: H 0 = 70 km/s/mpc Velocity (km/s)

### Physics 133: Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology. Week 8

Physics 133: Extragalactic Astronomy and Cosmology Week 8 Outline for Week 8 Primordial Nucleosynthesis Successes of the standard Big Bang model Olbers paradox/age of the Universe Hubble s law CMB Chemical/Physical

### Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe

Dark Energy and the Accelerating Universe Dragan Huterer Department of Physics University of Michigan The universe today presents us with a grand puzzle: What is 95% of it made of? Shockingly, we still

### Cosmology: The Origin and Evolution of the Universe Chapter Twenty-Eight. Guiding Questions

Cosmology: The Origin and Evolution of the Universe Chapter Twenty-Eight Guiding Questions 1. What does the darkness of the night sky tell us about the nature of the universe? 2. As the universe expands,

### Astro 101 Fall 2013 Lecture 12. Cosmology. T. Howard

Astro 101 Fall 2013 Lecture 12 Cosmology T. Howard Cosmology = study of the Universe as a whole? What is it like overall?? What is its history? How old is it?? What is its future?? How do we find these

### The expansion of the Universe, and the big bang

The expansion of the Universe, and the big bang Q: What is Hubble s law? A. The larger the galaxy, the faster it is moving way from us. B. The farther away the galaxy, the faster it is moving away from

### Island Universes. Up to 1920 s, many thought that Milky Way encompassed entire universe.

Island Universes Up to 1920 s, many thought that Milky Way encompassed entire universe. Observed three types of nebulas (clouds): - diffuse, spiral, elliptical - many were faint, indistinct - originally

### The Big Bang Theory was first proposed in the late 1920 s. This singularity was incredibly dense and hot.

The Big Bang Theory was first proposed in the late 1920 s. It states that there was an infinitely small, infinitely dense point that contained everything that is the universe. This singularity was incredibly

### It is possible for a couple of elliptical galaxies to collide and become a spiral and for two spiral galaxies to collide and form an elliptical.

7/16 Ellipticals: 1. Very little gas and dust an no star formation. 2. Composed of old stars. 3. Masses range from hundreds of thousands to 10's of trillions of solar masses. 4. Sizes range from 3000 ly

### Big Bang Theory PowerPoint

Big Bang Theory PowerPoint Name: # Period: 1 2 3 4 5 6 Recombination Photon Epoch Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Hadron Epoch Hadron Epoch Quark Epoch The Primordial Era Electroweak Epoch Inflationary Epoch

### One of elements driving cosmological evolution is the presence of radiation (photons) Early universe

The Frontier Matter and Antimatter One of elements driving cosmological evolution is the presence of radiation (photons) Early universe Matter and antimatter But we live in universe full of matter -- where

### Lecture Outlines. Chapter 26. Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines Chapter 26 Astronomy Today 8th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 26 Cosmology Units of Chapter 26 26.1 The Universe on the Largest Scales 26.2 The Expanding Universe 26.3 The Fate of the

### 2) On a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, where would you find red giant stars? A) upper right B) lower right C) upper left D) lower left

Multiple choice test questions 2, Winter Semester 2015. Based on parts covered after mid term. Essentially on Ch. 12-2.3,13.1-3,14,16.1-2,17,18.1-2,4,19.5. You may use a calculator and the useful formulae

### Rapid Inflation of the Early Universe. 27. Exploring the Early Universe. The Isotropy Problem. Possible Causes of Cosmic Inflation

27. Exploring the Early Universe Rapid inflation of the early Universe Mass & energy formed during inflation Most matter & antimatter annihilated each other Neutrinos & helium are primordial fireball relics

### The Early Universe and the Big Bang

The Early Universe and the Big Bang Class 24 Prof J. Kenney June 28, 2018 Final Exam: Friday June 29 at 2-5pm in Watson A48 What the Final Exam will emphasize: Classroom lectures 10-24 (starting FRI June

### Astronomy 100 Exploring the Universe Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday. Tom Burbine

Astronomy 100 Exploring the Universe Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday Tom Burbine tomburbine@astro.umass.edu Mass-to-Light Ratio You can compare the measured mass to the luminosity of a galaxy Milky Way Milky

### The Cosmic Microwave Background

The Cosmic Microwave Background Our probe of the birth of the universe Will Handley wh260@cam.ac.uk Astrophysics Department Cavendish Laboratory University of Cambridge 20 th March 2013 Overview Light

### COSMOLOGY AND THE EARLY UNIVERSE

COSMOLOGY AND THE EARLY UNIVERSE [Note: these notes and the lectures cover chapters 26 and 27 together, with topics discussed in a somewhat different order than in the textbook. References to textbook

### Looking Back in Distance and Time Distant galaxy

Lecture 21 Quantum Mechanics, Fundamental Particles, and the First Three Minutes of the Universe A2020 Prof. Tom Megeath Review: Looking Back to the Big Bang Looking Back in Distance and Time Distant galaxy

### Astronomy: The Big Picture. Outline. What does Hubble s Law mean?

Last Homework is due Friday 11:50 am Honor credit need to have those papers this week! Estimated grades are posted. Does not include HW 8 or Extra Credit THE FINAL IS DECEMBER 15 th : 7-10pm! Astronomy:

### The Concept of Inflation

The Concept of Inflation Introduced by Alan Guth, circa 1980, to provide answers to the following 5 enigmas: 1. horizon problem. How come the cosmic microwave background radiation is so uniform in very

### Universe. Chapter 26. Exploring the Early Universe 8/17/2015. By reading this chapter, you will learn. Tenth Edition

Roger Freedman Robert Geller William Kaufmann III Universe Tenth Edition Chapter 26 Exploring the Early Universe By reading this chapter, you will learn 26 1 How the very young universe expanded enormously