# Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time. Agenda. Presentation Tips. What were conditions like in the early universe? 23.1 The Big Bang.

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time. Agenda. Presentation Tips. What were conditions like in the early universe? 23.1 The Big Bang."

## Transcription

1 Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time Agenda Announce: Observation April 19 Thursday 8pm APS Meeting April 17 no class (instead Fate of the Universe tutorial Presentation Tips Ch. 23 Presentation Tips Limit text: no paragraphs no complete sentences Better to use graphics Simple backgrounds (no distractions) Explain graphs Visible colors; Large fonts Organize/Structure material 23.1 The Big Bang What were conditions like in the early universe? Our goals for learning What were conditions like in the early universe? What is the history of the universe according to the Big Bang theory? 1

2 Universe must have been much hotter and denser early in time The early universe must have been extremely hot and dense Photons converted into particle-antiparticle pairs and vice-versa What is the history of the universe according to the Big Bang theory? E = mc 2 Early universe was full of particles and radiation because of its high temperature Planck Era Before Planck time (~10-43 sec) No theory of quantum gravity 2

3 Four known forces in universe: Strong Force Electromagnetism Weak Force Gravity Thought Question Which of the four forces keeps you from sinking to the center of the Earth? A. Gravity B. Electromagnetism C. Strong Force D. Weak Force Thought Question Which of the four forces keeps you from sinking to the center of the Earth? A. Gravity B. Electromagnetism C. Strong Force D. Weak Force Do forces unify at high temperatures? Four known forces in universe: Strong Force Electromagnetism Weak Force Gravity Do forces unify at high temperatures? Four known forces in universe: Strong Force Electromagnetism Weak Force Gravity Do forces unify at high temperatures? Four known forces in universe: Strong Force Electromagnetism Weak Force Gravity Yes! (Electroweak) Yes! (Electroweak) Maybe (GUT) 3

4 Do forces unify at high temperatures? Four known forces in universe: Strong Force Electromagnetism Weak Force Gravity GUT Era Lasts from Planck time (~10-43 sec) to end of GUT force (~10-38 sec) Yes! (Electroweak) Maybe (GUT) Who knows? (String Theory) Electroweak Era Lasts from end of GUT force (~10-38 sec) to end of electroweak force (~10-10 sec) Particle Era Amounts of matter and antimatter nearly equal (Roughly 1 extra proton for every 10 9 protonantiproton pairs!) Era of Nucleosynthesis Begins when matter annihilates remaining antimatter at ~ sec Nuclei begin to fuse Era of Nuclei Helium nuclei form at age ~ 3 minutes Universe has become too cool to blast helium apart 4

5 Era of Atoms Atoms form at age ~ 380,000 years Background radiation released Era of Galaxies Galaxies form at age ~ 1 billion years Primary Evidence 1) We have detected the leftover radiation from the Big Bang. 2) The Big Bang theory correctly predicts the abundance of helium and other light elements. What have we learned? What were conditions like in the early universe? The early universe was so hot and so dense that radiation was constantly producing particle-antiparticle pairs and vice versa What is the history of the universe according to the Big Bang theory? As the universe cooled, particle production stopped, leaving matter instead of antimatter Fusion turned remaining neutrons into helium Radiation traveled freely after formation of atoms 23.2 Evidence for the Big Bang Our goals for learning How do we observe the radiation left over from the Big Bang? How do the abundances of elements support the Big Bang theory? How do we observe the radiation left over from the Big Bang? 5

6 The cosmic microwave background the radiation left over from the Big Bang was detected by Penzias & Wilson in 1965 Background radiation from Big Bang has been freely streaming across universe since atoms formed at temperature ~ 3,000 K: visible/ir Background has perfect thermal radiation spectrum at temperature 2.73 K Expansion of universe has redshifted thermal radiation from that time to ~1000 times longer wavelength: microwaves CLICK TO PLAY MOVIE How do the abundances of elements support the Big Bang theory? WMAP gives us detailed baby pictures of structure in the universe 6

7 Protons and neutrons combined to make long-lasting helium nuclei when universe was ~ 3 minutes old Big Bang theory prediction: 75% H, 25% He (by mass) Matches observations of nearly primordial gases Abundances of other light elements agree with Big Bang model having 4.4% normal matter more evidence for WIMPS! What have we learned? How do we observe the radiation left over from the Big Bang? Radiation left over from the Big Bang is now in the form of microwaves the cosmic microwave background which we can observe with a radio telescope. How do the abundances of elements support the Big Bang theory? Observations of helium and other light elements agree with the predictions for fusion in the Big Bang theory 23.3 Inflation Our goals for learning What aspects of the universe were originally unexplained with the Big Bang theory? How does inflation explain these features? How can we test the idea of inflation? What aspects of the universe were originally unexplained with the Big Bang theory? 7

8 Mysteries Needing Explanation 1) Where does structure come from? 2) Why is the overall distribution of matter so uniform? 3) Why is the density of the universe so close to the critical density? Mysteries Needing Explanation 1) Where does structure come from? 2) Why is the overall distribution of matter so uniform? 3) Why is the density of the universe so close to the critical density? An early episode of rapid inflation can solve all three mysteries! How does inflation explain these features? Inflation can make all the structure by stretching tiny quantum ripples to enormous size These ripples in density then become the seeds for all structures How can microwave temperature be nearly identical on opposite sides of the sky? Regions now on opposite sides of the sky were close together before inflation pushed them far apart 8

9 Density = Critical Density > Critical Density < Critical Overall geometry of the universe is closely related to total density of matter & energy Inflation of universe flattens overall geometry like the inflation of a balloon, causing overall density of matter plus energy to be very close to critical density How can we test the idea of inflation? Patterns of structure observed by WMAP show us the seeds of universe Seeds Inferred from CMB Overall geometry is flat Total mass+energy has critical density Ordinary matter ~ 4.4% of total Total matter is ~ 27% of total Dark matter is ~ 23% of total Dark energy is ~ 73% of total Age of 13.7 billion years Observed patterns of structure in universe agree (so far) with the seeds that inflation would produce 9

10 Seeds Inferred from CMB Overall geometry is flat Total mass+energy has critical density Ordinary matter ~ 4.4% of total Total matter is ~ 27% of total Dark matter is ~ 23% of total Dark energy is ~ 73% of total Age of 13.7 billion years In excellent agreement with observations of present-day universe and models involving inflation and WIMPs! What have we learned? What aspects of the universe were originally unexplained with the Big Bang theory? The origin of structure, the smoothness of the universe on large scales, the nearly critical density of the universe How does inflation explain these features? Structure comes from inflated quantum ripples Observable universe became smooth before inflation, when it was very tiny Inflation flattened the curvature of space, bringing expansion rate into balance with the overall density of mass-energy What have we learned? How can we test the idea of inflation? We can compare the structures we see in detailed observations of the microwave background with predictions for the seeds that should have been planted by inflation So far, our observations of the universe agree well with models in which inflation planted the seeds 23.4 Observing the Big Bang for Yourself Our goals for learning Why is the darkness of the night sky evidence for the Big Bang? Why is the darkness of the night sky evidence for the Big Bang? Olbers Paradox If universe were 1) infinite 2) unchanging 3) everywhere the same Then, stars would cover the night sky 10

11 Olbers Paradox Night sky is dark because the universe changes with time If universe were 1) infinite 2) unchanging As we look out in space, we can look back to a time when there were no stars 3) everywhere the same Then, stars would cover the night sky Night sky is dark because the universe changes with time As we look out in space, we can look back to a time when there were no stars What have we learned? Why is the darkness of the night sky evidence for the Big Bang? If the universe were eternal, unchanging, and everywhere the same, the entire night sky would be covered with stars The night sky is dark because we can see back to a time when there were no stars 11

### The Big Bang The Beginning of Time

The Big Bang The Beginning of Time What were conditions like in the early universe? The early universe must have been extremely hot and dense Photons converted into particle-antiparticle pairs and vice-versa

### What is the evidence that Big Bang really occurred

What is the evidence that Big Bang really occurred Hubble expansion of galaxies Microwave Background Abundance of light elements but perhaps most fundamentally... Darkness of the night sky!! The very darkness

### Cosmology. Big Bang and Inflation

Cosmology Big Bang and Inflation What is the Universe? Everything we can know about is part of the universe. Everything we do know about is part of the universe. Everything! The Universe is expanding If

### Hubble s Law. Our goals for learning. What is Hubble s Law? How do distance measurements tell us the age of the universe?

Hubble s Law Our goals for learning What is Hubble s Law? How do distance measurements tell us the age of the universe? How does the universe s expansion affect our distance measurements? We measure speeds

### A100H Exploring the Universe: Big Bang Theory. Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy

A100H Exploring the : Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy astron100h-mdw@courses.umass.edu April 21, 2016 Read: Chap 23 04/26/16 slide 1 Early Final Exam: Friday 29 Apr at 10:30 am 12:30 pm, here! Emphasizes

### A100 Exploring the Universe Big Bang Theory and the Early Universe. Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy

A100 Exploring the Universe and the Martin D. Weinberg UMass Astronomy astron100-mdw@courses.umass.edu December 02, 2014 Read: Chap 23 12/04/14 slide 1 Assignment on Chaps 22 23, at the end of next week,

### Chapter 22 Back to the Beginning of Time

Chapter 22 Back to the Beginning of Time Expansion of Universe implies dense, hot start: Big Bang Back to the Big Bang The early Universe was both dense and hot. Equivalent mass density of radiation (E=mc

### Inflationary Universe and. Quick survey about iclickers Review of Big Bang model of universe Review of Evidence for Big Bang Examining Inflation

Inflationary Universe and Quick survey about iclickers Review of Big Bang model of universe Review of Evidence for Big Bang Examining Inflation Survey questions 1. The iclickers used in class encouraged

### The Beginning of the Universe 8/11/09. Astronomy 101

The Beginning of the Universe 8/11/09 Astronomy 101 Astronomy Picture of the Day Astronomy 101 Outline for Today Astronomy Picture of the Day Return Lab 11 Astro News Q&A Session Dark Energy Cosmic Microwave

### Chapter 22 Reading Quiz Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. The Birth of the Universe Pearson Education, Inc.

Reading Quiz Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition The Birth of the Universe 22.1 The Big Bang Theory What were conditions like in the early universe? How did the early universe change with time?

### The Expanding Universe

Cosmology Expanding Universe History of the Universe Cosmic Background Radiation The Cosmological Principle Cosmology and General Relativity Dark Matter and Dark Energy Primitive Cosmology If the universe

### Hubble's Law. H o = 71 km/s / Mpc. The further a galaxy is away, the faster it s moving away from us. V = H 0 D. Modern Data.

Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the origin and evolution of the Universe, addressing the grandest issues: How "big" is the Universe? Does it have an "edge"? What is its large-scale structure? How did

### The Big Bang Theory was first proposed in the late 1920 s. This singularity was incredibly dense and hot.

The Big Bang Theory was first proposed in the late 1920 s. It states that there was an infinitely small, infinitely dense point that contained everything that is the universe. This singularity was incredibly

### The expansion of the Universe, and the big bang

The expansion of the Universe, and the big bang Q: What is Hubble s law? A. The larger the galaxy, the faster it is moving way from us. B. The farther away the galaxy, the faster it is moving away from

### BIG BANG SUMMARY NOTES

BIG BANG SUMMARY NOTES BIG BANG THEORY Studies of red-shifts of distant galaxies show that the universe is expanding. This and other observations has led to the Big Bang Theory The Big Bang Theory claims

### The best evidence so far in support of the Big Bang theory is:

Notes about the final exam: Saturday May 17th, 7:45 AM-9:45 AM Chamberlain 2103 If you have a CONFLICT email me or Ella before the end of this week. No excuses accepted after exam. Comprehensive, covering

### Galaxy A has a redshift of 0.3. Galaxy B has a redshift of 0.6. From this information and the existence of the Hubble Law you can conclude that

Galaxy A has a redshift of 0.3. Galaxy B has a redshift of 0.6. From this information and the existence of the Hubble Law you can conclude that A) Galaxy B is two times further away than Galaxy A. B) Galaxy

### If there is an edge to the universe, we should be able to see our way out of the woods. Olber s Paradox. This is called Olber s Paradox

Suppose the Universe were not expanding, but was in some kind of steady state. How should galaxy recession velocities correlate with distance? They should a) be directly proportional to distance. b) reverse

### Cosmology. What is Cosmology?

Cosmology What is Cosmology? The study of the structure and evolution of the entire universe The idea is to form picture of the entire Universe: origin, size, and future We will make assumptions that what

### Implications of the Hubble Law: - it is not static, unchanging - Universe had a beginning!! - could not have been expanding forever HUBBLE LAW:

Cosmology and the Evolution of the Universe Edwin Hubble, 1929: -almost all galaxies have a redshift -moving away from us -greater distance greater redshift Implications of the Hubble Law: - Universe is

### Lecture 17: the CMB and BBN

Lecture 17: the CMB and BBN As with all course material (including homework, exams), these lecture notes are not be reproduced, redistributed, or sold in any form. Peering out/back into the Universe As

### What is the 'cosmological principle'?

What is the 'cosmological principle'? Modern cosmology always starts from this basic assumption the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic. This idea seems strange there's empty space between me and the

### Lecture 32: Astronomy 101

Lecture 32: Evidence for the Big Bang Astronomy 101 The Three Pillars of the Big Bang Threefundamental pieces of evidence: Expansion of the Universe: Explains Hubble s Law Primordial Nucleosynthesis: Formation

### Doppler Effect. Sound moving TOWARDS. Sound moving AWAY 9/22/2017. Occurs when the source of sound waves moves towards or away

Burkey- ESS QUIZ Thursday At the instant of the Big Bang, all the matter, energy, time, & space in the Universe was condensed into a single, tiny point. We call this Singularity. Doppler Effect Occurs

### Homework 6 Name: Due Date: June 9, 2008

Homework 6 Name: Due Date: June 9, 2008 1. Where in the universe does the general expansion occur? A) everywhere in the universe, including our local space upon Earth, the solar system, our galaxy and

### Astro 101 Fall 2013 Lecture 12. Cosmology. T. Howard

Astro 101 Fall 2013 Lecture 12 Cosmology T. Howard Cosmology = study of the Universe as a whole? What is it like overall?? What is its history? How old is it?? What is its future?? How do we find these

### Olbers Paradox. Lecture 14: Cosmology. Resolutions of Olbers paradox. Cosmic redshift

Lecture 14: Cosmology Olbers paradox Redshift and the expansion of the Universe The Cosmological Principle Ω and the curvature of space The Big Bang model Primordial nucleosynthesis The Cosmic Microwave

### The Big Bang. Olber s Paradox. Hubble s Law. Why is the night sky dark? The Universe is expanding and We cannot see an infinite Universe

The Big Bang Olber s Paradox Why is the night sky dark? The Universe is expanding and We cannot see an infinite Universe Hubble s Law v = H0 d v = recession velocity in km/sec d = distance in Mpc H 0 =

### The Standard Big Bang What it is: Theory that the universe as we know it began billion years ago. (Latest estimate: 13:82 ± 0:05 billion years!)

The Standard Big Bang What it is: Theory that the universe as we know it began 13-14 billion years ago. (Latest estimate: 13:82 ± 0:05 billion years!) Initial state was a hot, dense, uniform soup of particles

### Lecture 37 Cosmology [not on exam] January 16b, 2014

1 Lecture 37 Cosmology [not on exam] January 16b, 2014 2 Structure of the Universe Does clustering of galaxies go on forever? Looked at very narrow regions of space to far distances. On large scales the

### Ay1 Lecture 18. The Early Universe and the Cosmic Microwave Background

Ay1 Lecture 18 The Early Universe and the Cosmic Microwave Background 18.1 Basic Ideas, and the Cosmic Microwave background The Key Ideas Pushing backward in time towards the Big Bang, the universe was

### Part I: The Dawn of Time

Part I: The Dawn of Time Topics within Part I. 1. Origins of the Universe: from the Infinite to the Subatomic. 2. Planets and Meteorites: Neighbors in Space 3. Birth of the Earth and Moon: a Coupled System

### Cosmology: The History of the Universe

Cosmology: The History of the Universe The Universe originated in an explosion called the Big Bang. Everything started out 13.7 billion years ago with zero size and infinite temperature. Since then, it

### I V E R S U N. The Hot Big Bang I T Y T H E O F E. Andrew Liddle R G. Image: NASA/WMAP Science Team

The Hot Big Bang Andrew Liddle T H E O F E U N D I I V E R S N U B R G I T Y H Image: NASA/WMAP Science Team The Standard Model The discovery of the Higgs particle completes the Standard Model of Particle

### Big Bang Planck Era. This theory: cosmological model of the universe that is best supported by several aspects of scientific evidence and observation

Big Bang Planck Era Source: http://www.crystalinks.com/bigbang.html Source: http://www.odec.ca/index.htm This theory: cosmological model of the universe that is best supported by several aspects of scientific

### The Big Bang. Mr. Mike Partridge Earth & Space Science J.H. Reagan High School, Houston, TX

The Big Bang Mr. Mike Partridge Earth & Space Science J.H. Reagan High School, Houston, TX Notes Outlines Theories of the Universe Static Universe What is the Big Bang Theory What is the evidence supporting

### Beginning of Universe

Cosmology Origin, early history, and fate of the Universe Does the Universe have a beginning? An end? What physics processes caused the Universe to be what it is? Are other universes possible? Would they

### FXA ρ 0 = 3(H 0 ) 2. UNIT G485 Module Universe Evolution. Candidates should be able to : age of the universe 1/H 0

1 Candidates should be able to : Explain that the standard (hot big bang) model of the universe implies a finite age for the universe. Select and use the expression : age of the universe 1/H 0 Describe

### Brief Introduction to Cosmology

Brief Introduction to Cosmology Matias Zaldarriaga Harvard University August 2006 Basic Questions in Cosmology: How does the Universe evolve? What is the universe made off? How is matter distributed? How

### 2. The evolution and structure of the universe is governed by General Relativity (GR).

7/11 Chapter 12 Cosmology Cosmology is the study of the origin, evolution, and structure of the universe. We start with two assumptions: 1. Cosmological Principle: On a large enough scale (large compared

### 1PRELUDE: THE MYSTERY OF

1PRELUDE: THE MYSTERY OF THE MISSING ANTIMATTER In the beginning what was the beginning? Every culture asks this question. Traditionally each finds some answer, a creation myth, a cosmology. These stories

### Astronomy 182: Origin and Evolution of the Universe

Astronomy 182: Origin and Evolution of the Universe Prof. Josh Frieman Lecture 11 Nov. 13, 2015 Today Cosmic Microwave Background Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Assignments This week: read Hawley and Holcomb,

### Cosmology. Clusters of galaxies. Redshift. Late 1920 s: Hubble plots distances versus velocities of galaxies. λ λ. redshift =

Cosmology Study of the structure and origin of the universe Observational science The large-scale distribution of galaxies Looking out to extremely large distances The motions of galaxies Clusters of galaxies

### 3. It is expanding: the galaxies are moving apart, accelerating slightly The mystery of Dark Energy

II. Cosmology: How the universe developed Outstanding features of the universe today: 1. It is big, and full of galaxies. 2. It has structure: the galaxies are clumped in filaments and sheets The structure

### Spectrographs: instrument to separate white light into the bands of color.

(BIG BANG PACKET 2) Name: Period: wavelength and lowest frequencies Broadcast waves and microwaves Infrared Rays Wavelength shorter than radio waves The invisible you feel Visible Light You can see The

### COSMOLOGY The Universe what is its age and origin?

COSMOLOGY The Universe what is its age and origin? REVIEW (SUMMARY) Oppenheimer Volkhoff limit: upper limit to mass of neutron star remnant more than 1.4 M à neutron degeneracy Supernova à extremely dense

### Astronomy 122 Outline

Astronomy 122 Outline This Class (Lecture 26): The Primeval Fireball Next Class: Dark Matter & Dark Energy ICES Form!!! HW10 due Friday Hubble s Law implications An expanding Universe! Run in movie in

### The Cosmic Microwave Background

The Cosmic Microwave Background The Cosmic Microwave Background Key Concepts 1) The universe is filled with a Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). 2) The microwave radiation that fills the universe is nearly

### Light. Transverse electromagnetic wave, or electromagnetic radiation. Includes radio waves, microwaves, infra-red, visible, UV, X-rays, and gamma rays

Light Transverse electromagnetic wave, or electromagnetic radiation Includes radio waves, microwaves, infra-red, visible, UV, X-rays, and gamma rays The type of light is determined purely by wavelength.

### Exploring the Early Universe. Chapter Twenty-Nine. Guiding Questions. The Isotropy Problem

Exploring the Early Universe Chapter Twenty-Nine Guiding Questions 1. Has the universe always expanded as it does today, or might it have suddenly inflated? 2. How did the fundamental forces of nature

### The Concept of Inflation

The Concept of Inflation Introduced by Alan Guth, circa 1980, to provide answers to the following 5 enigmas: 1. horizon problem. How come the cosmic microwave background radiation is so uniform in very

### COSMOLOGY AND THE EARLY UNIVERSE

COSMOLOGY AND THE EARLY UNIVERSE [Note: these notes and the lectures cover chapters 26 and 27 together, with topics discussed in a somewhat different order than in the textbook. References to textbook

### o Terms to know o Big Bang Theory o Doppler Effect o Redshift o Universe

Standard 1: Students will understand the scientific evidence that supports theories that explain how the universe and the solar system developed. They will compare Earth to other objects in the solar system.

### One of elements driving cosmological evolution is the presence of radiation (photons) Early universe

The Frontier Matter and Antimatter One of elements driving cosmological evolution is the presence of radiation (photons) Early universe Matter and antimatter But we live in universe full of matter -- where

### ASTRONOMY 5 Final Exam Spring 2001 (Edited for questions relevant to Astronomy Final)

ASTRONOMY 5 Final Exam Spring 2001 (Edited for questions relevant to Astronomy 5 2007 Final) Follow the directions in each section. Write all answers on this examination paper. Feel free to ask for clarification

### It is possible for a couple of elliptical galaxies to collide and become a spiral and for two spiral galaxies to collide and form an elliptical.

7/16 Ellipticals: 1. Very little gas and dust an no star formation. 2. Composed of old stars. 3. Masses range from hundreds of thousands to 10's of trillions of solar masses. 4. Sizes range from 3000 ly

### Module 3: Astronomy The Universe Topic 1 Content: Cosmology Presentation Notes

Pretend that you have been given the opportunity to travel through time to explore cosmology. Cosmology is the study of how the universe formed and what will happen to it. Watch through your viewport as

### Unity in the Whole Structure

Cosmology II Unity in the Whole Structure How is it possible by any methods of observation yet known to the astronomer to learn anything about the universe as a whole? It is possible only because the universe,

### 26. Cosmology. Significance of a dark night sky. The Universe Is Expanding

26. Cosmology Significance of a dark night sky The Universe is expanding The Big Bang initiated the expanding Universe Microwave radiation evidence of the Big Bang The Universe was initially hot & opaque

### Physics 133: Extragalactic Astronomy ad Cosmology

Physics 133: Extragalactic Astronomy ad Cosmology Lecture 2; January 8 2014 Previously on PHYS133 Units in astrophysics Olbers paradox The night sky is dark. Inconsistent with and eternal, static and infinite

### VU lecture Introduction to Particle Physics. Thomas Gajdosik, FI & VU. Big Bang (model)

Big Bang (model) What can be seen / measured? basically only light _ (and a few particles: e ±, p, p, ν x ) in different wave lengths: microwave to γ-rays in different intensities (measured in magnitudes)

### 2) On a Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, where would you find red giant stars? A) upper right B) lower right C) upper left D) lower left

Multiple choice test questions 2, Winter Semester 2015. Based on parts covered after mid term. Essentially on Ch. 12-2.3,13.1-3,14,16.1-2,17,18.1-2,4,19.5. You may use a calculator and the useful formulae

### ASTR 200 : Lecture 33. Structure formation & Cosmic nuceleosynthesis

ASTR 200 : Lecture 33 Structure formation & Cosmic nuceleosynthesis 1 At the time of decoupling, the CMB tells us that the universe was very uniform, but that there were 10-5 fluctuations Known because

### Ta-Pei Cheng PCNY 9/16/2011

PCNY 9/16/2011 Ta-Pei Cheng For a more quantitative discussion, see Relativity, Gravitation & Cosmology: A Basic Introduction (Oxford Univ Press) 2 nd ed. (2010) dark matter & dark energy Astronomical

### Mass (Energy) in the Universe:

Mass (Energy) in the Universe: smooth (vacuum) clumping Parameters of our Universe present values H = (71±4)km/s/Mpc = 1.0±0.0 m = 0.7±0.0 incl. b = 0.044±0.004 and < 0.014 photons r = 4.9-5 dark energy

### Hawking & the Universe

Hawking & the Universe This is a supplement to the lecture given on Jan 26, 2015, by Dr. Mounib El Eid, Physics department, AUB. It may motivate the reader to explore some of the presented issues. There

### Nucleosíntesis primordial

Tema 5 Nucleosíntesis primordial Asignatura de Física Nuclear Curso académico 2009/2010 Universidad de Santiago de Compostela Big Bang cosmology 1.1 The Universe today The present state of the Universe

### Astronomy 114. Lecture35:TheBigBang. Martin D. Weinberg. UMass/Astronomy Department

Astronomy 114 Lecture35:TheBigBang Martin D. Weinberg weinberg@astro.umass.edu UMass/Astronomy Department A114: Lecture 35 09 May 2005 Read: Ch. 28,29 Astronomy 114 1/18 Announcements PS#8 due Monday!

### Cosmology. Thermal history of the universe Primordial nucleosynthesis WIMPs as dark matter Recombination Horizon problem Flatness problem Inflation

Cosmology Thermal history of the universe Primordial nucleosynthesis WIMPs as dark matter Recombination Horizon problem Flatness problem Inflation Energy density versus scale factor z=1/a-1 Early times,

### Origin of the Universe

Origin of the Universe Shortcomings of the Big Bang Model There is tremendous evidence in favor of the Big Bang Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation Abundance of Deuterium, Helium, Lithium, all cooked

### Chapter 26: Cosmology

Chapter 26: Cosmology Cosmology means the study of the structure and evolution of the entire universe as a whole. First of all, we need to know whether the universe has changed with time, or if it has

### Origin, early history, and fate of the Universe Does the Universe have a beginning? An end? What physics processes caused the Universe to be what it

Cosmology Origin, early history, and fate of the Universe Does the Universe have a beginning? An end? What physics processes caused the Universe to be what it is? Are other universes possible? Would they

### Cosmic Microwave Background. References: COBE web site WMAP web site Web sites of Wayne Hu, Max Tegmark, Martin White, Ned Wright and Yuki Takahashi

Cosmic Microwave Background References: COBE web site WMAP web site Web sites of Wayne Hu, Max Tegmark, Martin White, Ned Wright and Yuki Takahashi R&L Problem 4.13 Show that an observer moving with respect

### The Physics Behind the Cosmic Microwave Background

The Physics Behind the Cosmic Microwave Background Without question, the source of the most precise information about the universe as a whole and about its early state is the cosmic microwave background

### Universe. Chapter 26. Exploring the Early Universe 8/17/2015. By reading this chapter, you will learn. Tenth Edition

Roger Freedman Robert Geller William Kaufmann III Universe Tenth Edition Chapter 26 Exploring the Early Universe By reading this chapter, you will learn 26 1 How the very young universe expanded enormously

### Some Notes on Dark Matter. and Cosmology

Some Notes on Dark Matter and Cosmology Galaxy clusters can lens the light of more distant galaxies, producing arcs of light. Analysis shows that clusters of galaxies contain much more mass than is attributable

### Cosmology & the CMB - Cosmology: Overview - Cosmic Microwave Background - Large Scale Structure (Wed) - CMB Fluctuations (Wed)

Oct 16, 2017 Cosmology & the CMB - Cosmology: Overview - Cosmic Microwave Background - Large Scale Structure (Wed) - CMB Fluctuations (Wed) Wednesday: HW#5 due History of the universe Discovery of Quasars

### I intend this lecture to be an overview of the big bang model of the universe from the standpoint of the observational motivation.

I intend this lecture to be an overview of the big bang model of the universe from the standpoint of the observational motivation. Nowadays, the big bang model is overwhelmingly preferred over other alternatives;

### Complete Cosmos Chapter 24: Big Bang, Big Crunch Outline Sub-chapters

Complete Cosmos Chapter 24: Big Bang, Big Crunch Theory of the Big Bang. From that cataclysmic explosion, the Universe continues to expand. But will it stop and reverse? Outline How did the Universe begin?

### Planck toolkit introduction

Planck toolkit introduction Welcome to the Planck toolkit a series of short questions and answers designed to equip you with background information on key cosmological topics addressed by the Planck science

### Chapter 25: Beyond our Solar System The Universe pp

Chapter 25: Beyond our Solar System 25.3 The Universe pp 715-721 The Milky Way Galaxy On a clear and moonless night, away from city lights, you might see a a band of light in the sky. This band is The

### The Millennium Simulation: cosmic evolution in a supercomputer. Simon White Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics

The Millennium Simulation: cosmic evolution in a supercomputer Simon White Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics The COBE satellite (1989-1993) Two instruments made maps of the whole sky in microwaves

### Big Bang Theory. How did this theory develop, and what is the evidence for it?

Big Bang Theory Big Bang Theory Big bang theory suggests that the universe began from a single point about 13.82 billion years ago. What existed before this event is completely unknown to science, but

### The Big Bang Theory PRESS Chung Wai Man Camus, Wong Lai Yin Rita, Kum Kit Ying Cathy, Yeung Shuet Wah Sarah, Yu Wai Sze Alice

The Big Bang Theory PRESS-2002 Chung Wai Man Camus, Wong Lai Yin Rita, Kum Kit Ying Cathy, Yeung Shuet Wah Sarah, Yu Wai Sze Alice Supervised by: Dr KY Szeto, HKUST Abstract: We did a survey at our current

### Astro-2: History of the Universe

Astro-2: History of the Universe Lecture 13; May 30 2013 Previously on astro-2 Energy and mass are equivalent through Einstein s equation and can be converted into each other (pair production and annihilations)

### Quasars and Gravitational Lensing

Quasars and Gravitational Lensing Our galaxy is not the only one that gives strong evidence for the existence of a supermassive black hole at its center. Some other galaxies might have black holes with

### Introduction to Cosmology

Introduction to Cosmology Subir Sarkar CERN Summer training Programme, 22-28 July 2008 Seeing the edge of the Universe: From speculation to science Constructing the Universe: The history of the Universe:

### ASTR Final Examination Phil Armitage, Bruce Ferguson

ASTR 1120-001 Final Examination Phil Armitage, Bruce Ferguson FINAL EXAM MAY 6 th 2006: Closed books and notes, 1.5 hours. Please PRINT your name and student ID on the places provided on the scan sheet.

### n=0 l (cos θ) (3) C l a lm 2 (4)

Cosmic Concordance What does the power spectrum of the CMB tell us about the universe? For that matter, what is a power spectrum? In this lecture we will examine the current data and show that we now have

### Study Guide Chapter 2

Section: Stars Pages 32-38 Study Guide Chapter 2 Circle the letter of the best answer for each question. 1. What do scientists study to learn about stars? a. gravity c. space b. starlight d. colors COLOR

### Astro-2: History of the Universe

Astro-2: History of the Universe Lecture 6; April 30 2013 Lecture 5 - Summary 1 Mass concentrations between us and a given object in the sky distort the image of that object on the sky, acting like magnifying

### Five pieces of evidence for a Big Bang 1. Expanding Universe

Five pieces of evidence for a Big Bang 1. Expanding Universe More distant galaxies have larger doppler shifts to the red, so moving faster away from us redshift = z = (λ λ 0 )/λ 0 λ 0 = wavelength at rest

### Astro-2: History of the Universe

Astro-2: History of the Universe Lecture 7; May 2 2013 Previously on astro-2 A scientific theory is a logically self-consistent model or framework for describing the behavior of a related set of natural

### Hot Big Bang model: early Universe and history of matter

Hot Big Bang model: early Universe and history of matter nitial soup with elementary particles and radiation in thermal equilibrium. adiation dominated era (recall energy density grows faster than matter

### Figure 19.19: HST photo called Hubble Deep Field.

19.3 Galaxies and the Universe Early civilizations thought that Earth was the center of the universe. In the sixteenth century, we became aware that Earth is a small planet orbiting a medium-sized star.

### Astroparticle physics the History of the Universe

Astroparticle physics the History of the Universe Manfred Jeitler and Wolfgang Waltenberger Institute of High Energy Physics, Vienna TU Vienna, CERN, Geneva Wintersemester 2016 / 2017 1 The History of

### Evidence is Clear. Students consider observations and inferences about the Steady State and Big Bang theories.

The Evidence is Clear! Summary Students consider observations and inferences about the Steady State and Big Bang theories. Objectives Distinguish between data collected from empirical observations and

### Astronomy Hour Exam 2 March 10, 2011 QUESTION 1: The half-life of Ra 226 (radium) is 1600 years. If you started with a sample of 100 Ra 226

Astronomy 101.003 Hour Exam 2 March 10, 2011 QUESTION 1: The half-life of Ra 226 (radium) is 1600 years. If you started with a sample of 100 Ra 226 atoms, approximately how many Ra 226 atoms would be left